REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE FreedomCAR AND Fuel Partnership

SECOND REPORT

Committee on Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program, Phase 2

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE FreedomCAR AND Fuel Partnership SECOND REPORT Committee on Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program, Phase 2 Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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The NaTioNal academies Press 500 Fifth st., N.W. Washington, dc 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report and the study on which it is based were supported by Contract No. DE-AT-01- 06EE11206, TO#18, Subtask 2. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11634-3 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11634-1 Available in limited supply from Additional copies are available for sale from Board on Energy and Environmental The National Academies Press Systems 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. National Research Council Lockbox 285 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20055 Keck W934 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington, DC 20001 Washington metropolitan area) 202-334-3344 http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National academy of sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National academy of engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The institute of medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examina- tion of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National research council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Na- tional Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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commiTTee oN reVieW oF The Freedomcar aNd FUel research ProGram, Phase 2 CRAIG MARKS, Chair, NAE,1 Altarum, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan PETER BEARDMORE, NAE, Ford Motor Company (retired), West Bloomfield, Michigan DAVID L. BODDE, Clemson University, South Carolina GLENN A. EISMAN, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York W. ROBERT EPPERLY, Consultant, Mountain View, California DAVID E. FOSTER, University of Wisconsin, Madison JOHN B. HEYWOOD, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge HAROLD H. KUNG, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois JAMES J. MacKENZIE, World Resources Institute (retired), Washington, D.C. CHRISTOPHER L. MAGEE, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ROBERT J. NOWAK, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (retired), Rehoboth Beach, Delaware MICHAEL P. RAMAGE, NAE, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company (retired), Moorestown, New Jersey VERNON P. ROAN, University of Florida (professor emeritus), Gainesville BERNARD ROBERTSON, NAE, DaimlerChrysler Corporation (retired), Bloomfield Hills, Michigan R. RHOADS STEPHENSON, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (retired), Consultant, La Cañada, California KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, NAE, General Motors Corporation (retired), Falmouth, Massachusetts GIRI VENKATARAMANAN, University of Wisconsin, Madison BRIJESH VYAS, Alcatel-Lucent, Murray Hill, New Jersey subgroup on systems analysis and simulation JOHN B. HEYWOOD, Lead PETER BEARDMORE DAVID L. BODDE DAVID E. FOSTER HAROLD H. KUNG CHRISTOPHER L. MAGEE BERNARD ROBERTSON 1National Academy of Engineering. 

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subgroup on advanced combustion engines, emissions control, and hydrocarbon Fuels DAVID E. FOSTER, Lead JOHN B. HEYWOOD HAROLD H. KUNG MICHAEL P. RAMAGE BERNARD ROBERTSON KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR subgroup on electrochemical energy storage BRIJESH VYAS, Lead CHRISTOPHER L. MAGEE ROBERT J. NOWAK GIRI VENKATARAMANAN subgroup on Fuel cells GLENN A. EISMAN, Lead ROBERT J. NOWAK VERNON P. ROAN KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR BRIJESH VYAS subgroup on electric Propulsion, electrical systems, and Power electronics GIRI VENKATARAMANAN, Lead BERNARD ROBERTSON BRIJESH VYAS subgroup on hydrogen Production, delivery, and off-board storage W. ROBERT EPPERLY, Lead DAVID L. BODDE GLENN A. EISMAN HAROLD H. KUNG JAMES J. MacKENZIE MICHAEL P. RAMAGE i

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subgroup on onboard hydrogen storage KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, Lead DAVID L. BODDE CHRISTOPHER L. MAGEE ROBERT J. NOWAK VERNON P. ROAN R. RHOADS STEPHENSON subgroup on safety R. RHOADS STEPHENSON, Lead DAVID L. BODDE W. ROBERT EPPERLY HAROLD H. KUNG CHRISTOPHER L. MAGEE subgroup on materials PETER BEARDMORE, Lead GLENN A. EISMAN CHRISTOPHER L. MAGEE KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR Project Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Director, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems (BEES) PANOLA GOLSON, Program Associate (BEES) (until March 2007) KATHERINE BITTNER, Senior Program Assistant LaNITA JONES, Program Associate ii

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Board oN eNerGY aNd eNViroNmeNTal sYsTems DOUGLAS M. CHAPIN, Chair, NAE,1 MPR Associates, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia ROBERT W. FRI, Vice-Chair, Resources for the Future (senior fellow emeritus), Washington, D.C. RAKESH AGRAWAL, NAE, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana ALLEN J. BARD, NAS,2 University of Texas, Austin ANDREW BROWN, JR., NAE, Delphi Corporation, Troy, Michigan MARILYN BROWN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta PHILIP R. CLARK, NAE, GPU Nuclear Corporation (retired), Boonton, New Jersey (term ended July 31, 2007) MICHAEL L. CORRADINI, NAE, University of Wisconsin, Madison PAUL DeCOTIS, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany E. LINN DRAPER, JR., NAE, American Electric Power, Inc. (emeritus), Austin, Texas CHARLES H. GOODMAN, Southern Company (retired), Birmingham, Alabama DAVID G. HAWKINS, Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, D.C. JAMES MARKOWSKY, NAE, Consultant, North Falmouth, Massachusetts DAVID K. OWENS, Edison Electric Institute, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM F. POWERS, NAE, Ford Motor Company (retired), Ann Arbor, Michigan TONY PROPHET, Carrier Corporation, Farmington, Connecticut (term ended July 31, 2007) MICHAEL P. RAMAGE, NAE, ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Company (retired), Moorestown, New Jersey MAXINE SAVITZ, NAE, Honeywell, Inc. (retired), Los Angeles, California PHILIP R. SHARP, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. (term ended July 31, 2007) SCOTT W. TINKER, University of Texas, Austin Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, Director KATHERINE BITTNER, Senior Program Assistant MATT BOWEN, Senior Program Associate (until November 2007) DUNCAN BROWN, Senior Program Officer JENNIFER BUTLER, Financial Assistant (until December 2007) 1National Academy of Engineering. 2National Academy of Sciences. iii

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DANA CAINES, Financial Associate ALAN CRANE, Senior Program Officer PANOLA GOLSON, Program Associate (until May 2007) JOHN HOLMES, Senior Program Officer LaNITA JONES, Program Associate MARTIN OFFUTT, Senior Program Officer (until April 2007) MADELINE WOODRUFF, Senior Program Officer ix

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Preface As outlined in the Partnership Plan, the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Partnership is a major long-term research effort whose ultimate goal is to enable the full spectrum of light-duty passenger vehicle classes to operate completely free of petroleum and free of harmful emissions while sustaining the driving public’s freedom of mobility and freedom of vehicle choice. This research is directed and supported by a collaboration among the U.S. government, in particular the De- partment of Energy (DOE); the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR), whose members are Chrysler LLC, the Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation; and five key energy companies: BP America, Chevron Corporation, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Hydrogen (U.S.). During the past 4 years, this Partnership has established a roadmap with a detailed set of research goals and milestones and has funded projects to enable progress toward its very ambitious ultimate goal, which is of critical strategic importance to the United States and to each of the companies involved. This report is the result of the second biennial review of the progress of this program by the Committee on Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program, Phase 2, chartered by the National Research Council (NRC). It assesses the structure and management of the program, as well as the nature, adequacy, and progress of the research activities being conducted. Critique and recommenda- tions are provided for each of the areas assessed with the intent of enhancing the progress of this very important program. Craig Marks Chairman xi

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Acknowledgments The committee wishes to thank members of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Part- nership, all of whom contributed a significant amount of their time and effort to this National Research Council (NRC) study by giving presentations at meetings, responding to requests for information, or providing valuable input. Finally, the chair wishes to recognize the committee members and the staff of the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems for their hard work in organizing and plan- ning committee meetings and their individual efforts in gathering information and writing sections of the report. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures ap- proved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: William Agnew, NAE, General Motors Research Laboratories, retired, Andrew Brown, NAE, Delphi Corporation, Tom Cackette, California Air Resources Board, Charles H. Goodman, Southern Company Services, Inc., retired, Julius Harwood, NAE, Ford Motor Company, retired, Fritz R. Kalhammer, Electric Power Research Institute, retired, John Kassakian, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, xiii

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xi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Gene Nemanich, Consultant, and ChevronTexaco Ventures, retired, Dan Sperling, University of California, Davis, Rodney Tabaczynski, NAE, RJ Technologies, LLC, and John J. Wise, NAE, Mobil Research and Development Corporation, retired. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recom- mendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Elisabeth M. Drake, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Appointed by the National Research Council, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 16 Background, 16 Goals and Targets, 18 Organization of the Partnership, 19 Recent Initiatives, 21 Vehicle and Fuel Technologies, 23 Committee Approach and Organization of This Report, 24 References, 25 2 MAJOR CROSSCUTTING ISSUES 27 Strategic Planning and Decision Making, 27 Safety, 36 Technical Validation, 41 Building Partnerships with New Ventures, 43 Environmental Issues, 45 References, 46 3 VEHICLE SUBSYSTEMS 48 Introduction, 48 Advanced Combustion, Emissions Control, and Hydrocarbon Fuels, 51 Fuel Cells, 56 Onboard Hydrogen Storage, 62 Electrochemical Energy Storage, 68 x

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xi CONTENTS Electric Propulsion, Electrical Systems, and Power Electronics, 74 Structural Materials, 77 References, 80 4 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, DELIVERY, AND DISPENSING 81 Program Overview, 81 Hydrogen Fuel Pathways, 82 Hydrogen Production, 84 Hydrogen Delivery, Dispensing, and Transition Supply, 95 References, 101 5 OVERALL ASSESSMENT 102 Major Achievements and Technical Barriers, 102 Adequacy and Balance of the Partnership, 111 Overall Response to Phase 1 Recommendations, 117 References, 120 APPENDIXES A Organization Chart for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office 123 of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy B Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 125 C Presentations and Committee Meetings 134 D Recommendations from National Research Council Review of the 137 FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program, Phase 1 E Acronyms 145

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Tables and Figures TaBles 3-1 USABC Goals for Advanced Batteries for PHEVs, 73 4-1 Funding Levels for Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Dispensing Activities in the Partnership, 82 4-2 Delivery and Dispensing Energy Efficiency, 97 4-3 Cost Targets for Hydrogen Delivery and Dispensing, 98 4-4 Budgets for Hydrogen Delivery Activities, 99 5-1 DOE Funding for Hydrogen Activities, 112 5-2 Funding for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative, 113 5-3 DOE Funding for Vehicle Technologies Portion of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership, 116 FiGUres 1-1 FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership organizational structure, 19 2-1 Models and analysis type matrix, 28 3-1 Distribution of DOE FY06 funding for the advanced combustion and emission control technical team, 53 3-2 Two estimates of 2006 costs for fuel cell systems, 57 3-3 Fuel cell R&D funding, allocated and requested, 59 xii

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xiii TAbLES AND fiGurES 5-1 Estimated budget for the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership for FY07 Continuing Resolution, 111 5-2 Distribution of $268 million total funding by recipient type for the DOE hydrogen program in FY07, 113 5-3 Distribution of $126.7 million total funding by recipient type for vehicle technologies portfolio of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership for FY07, 114