bustion and aftertreatment operation. Research efforts are now being guided through fundamental analyses based on laboratory measurements supplemented with advanced simulation.
The establishment of the working group Crosscut Lean Exhaust Emissions Reduction Simulation (CLEERS), whose membership of industry, academic, and government researchers collaborates to guide research activities.
Demonstrated peak thermal efficiency of laboratory engines operating at speeds and loads corresponding to peak efficiency has increased about 2 percentage points to over 41 percent. This represents an increase of about 10 percentage points compared to current OEM engines.
Experimental demonstration of Bin 5 emissions using a NOx adsorber and a urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system.
The technical barriers for the advanced combustion and emissions control technologies are those of implementation, development, and cost. Specifically,
Implementation and control of advanced combustion approaches into the operating regime of the engine, which includes combustion mode switching and transients.
Developing the aftertreatment systems that will effectively couple with exhaust gas characteristics of advanced combustion approaches and fuel changes.
Reducing the cost of aftertreatment systems.
There is ample evidence of steady progress in most key fuel-cell-related technical areas, providing steady movement toward both performance and cost goals. There have been no breakthrough achievements, with the possible exception of a novel approach to the design and fabrication of the fuel cell membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The design, reported by 3M, eliminates the corrosion-prone carbon support structure and utilizes nanoscale metallic whiskers and a vacuum-deposited, thin film of catalyst. This approach, while not yet proven, offers the potential for simultaneously increasing fuel cell durability and reducing costs. The cost reductions would come from both a reduction in platinum loading and a configuration much more compatible with mass manufacturing. The performance increase would come primarily from better utilization of the catalyst.
Some other notable fuel cell achievements are these:
The development of a reinforced membrane that improves durability with no apparent loss in performance;
A better understanding of catalysts, especially platinum alloys, which