The following HTML text is provided to enhance online
readability. Many aspects of typography translate only awkwardly to HTML.
Please use the page image
as the authoritative form to ensure accuracy.
Inspired by Biology: From Molecules to Materials to Machines
chirality: Phenomenon in which an object or molecule cannot be superimposed on its mirror image.
cytoskeleton: Cellular “scaffolding” contained within the cytoplasm that maintains cell shape, enables cellular motion, and plays important roles in both intracellular transport and cellular division.
dendrimer: Repeatedly branched molecules that are characterized by their high symmetry and narrow distribution of molecular mass (low polydispersity).
directed assembly: Application of external fields, such as electric, magnetic, or shear, to align assembling particles into a larger structure.
fluorophore: Functional group in a molecule which will absorb energy of a specific wavelength and re-emit energy at a different (but equally specific) wavelength. The amount and wavelength of the emitted energy depend on both the fluorophore and the chemical environment of the fluorophore.
foldamer: Discrete chain molecule or oligomer that adopts a secondary structure stabilized by noncovalent interactions. It is an artificial molecule that mimics the ability of proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides to fold into well-defined conformations, such as helices and β-sheets.
gene regulation: Cellular control of the amount and timing of changes to the appearance of the functional product of a gene.
histone: Chief protein components of chromatin. It acts as spool around which DNA winds, and it plays a role in gene regulation.
hydrogel: Network of polymer chains that are water-insoluble, sometimes found as a colloidal gel in which water is the dispersion medium. Hydrogels are super-absorbent (they can contain over 99 percent water) natural or synthetic polymers. Hydrogels possess also a degree of flexibility very similar to natural tissue, due to their significant water content.
lithography: Technique used to pattern or construct features on a surface.
macromolecule: Molecule of high relative molecular mass the structure of which usually consists of multiply repeated units that are derived—actually or conceptually—from molecules of low relative molecular mass; particularly a molecule of this kind that is of biological origin.