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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study is based on work supported by Contract No. DE-FG02-05ER46197 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Energy and Grant No. DMR-0426181 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agencies that provided support for the project.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Inspired by biology : from molecules to materials to machines / Committee on Biomolecular Materials and Processes, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Board on Life Sciences, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references.

ISBN 978-0-309-11704-3 (pbk. book) — ISBN 978-0-309-11705-0 (pdf book) 1. Molecular biology. 2. Biomolecules—Analysis. 3. Materials—Biotechnology. 4. Biomedical materials. 5. Biomedical engineering. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Biomolecular Materials and Processes.

QH506.I4817 2008

570—dc22

2008016751

Copies of this report are available from the

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Cover: Three images are shown on the cover of this book, one each to represent a molecule (middle), a material (bottom), and a machine (top) in biomolecular materials research. (Top) Myosin V (blue-green), a molecular motor that moves cargo around the cell by walking on actin (red). Courtesy of Paul R. Selvin, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; created by precisiongraphics.com. (Middle) Antimicrobial peptoids are designed to mimic the amphipathic structures of antimicrobial peptides; models of the folded structure of a synthetic peptoid are shown in views both parallel and perpendicular to the helical axis. Residues are color coded: cationic, purple; hydrophobic, orange; all others, gray. Published in N.P. Chongsiriwatana, J.A. Patch, A.M. Czyzewski, M.T. Dohm, A. Ivankin, D. Gidalevitz, R.N. Zuckermann, and A.E. Barron, “Peptoids that mimic the structure, function, and mechanism of helical antimicrobial peptides,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105(8):2794-2799 (2008). Copyright 2008 National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. (Bottom) Array of microlenses on the skeletal plate of a brittlestar Ophiocoma wendtii that functions as a sophisticated optical element. The whole structure is composed of an intricately shaped single calcite crystal. The lens size is approximately 50 microns. Courtesy of J. Aizenberg, Harvard University.

Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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