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Index A Absorption, 13, 66 - 67 gases, 22 - 23, 24 - 25 particles, 24 Acquired immune response, 97 - 103 Acrylamide, 38 Adenine nucleotides, 76 Adipose tissue, 36 Adsorption, 22 Aerosols, 18, 21, 51 - 54, 58, 59, 64 - 66, 69 Aflatoxin, 37 Aid; rays, 4 constriction, 15, 47, 50 - 51 gas washout patterns, 50 particles, 18 - 22 reactivity markers, 5, 8, 40, 43, 57 - 61, 79, 134 structure/function markers, 83 - 85 see also Alveolar tissues and processes; Bronchial system; Nasal passages; Trachea Albumin, 34, 70 - 71, 106, 112, 130 Allyating agents, 37 Allergies, 60, 100, 101, 111 - 112, 118, 119 asthma, 3, 40, 41, 46, 57, 58, 59, 60, 102, 107-109, 119 Alveolar tissues and processes, 85, 92, 95, 96, 103 capillary boundary, 87, 91, 106, 127 capillaries, gas transfer to, 6, 7, 15, 44, 45, 55-57, 79 cell response, 85 epithelial barrier, 69 - 70 gas penetration, 23 ravage, 14, 28, 32, 105 - 111, 122 - 123, 126 - 127, 128, 129 - 131, 135 lymphocytes, 121 171 macrophages, 32, 63, 85, 95, 107, 113, 116 - 117, 120 - 126, 129-131 mucus, 94 particle deposition, 22, 24, 27, 65 urea, 107 venting, 38 American Thoracic Society, 39 - 40 Amines, 34, 38, 76, 81 Amino acids, 35 ~Aminobiphenyl, 34, 37 A~iinorex, 87 Angiography, 88 Animal studies airway permeability, 69 bronchoalveolar ravage, 109 - 111 extrapolation to humans, 3 - 4, 9, 14, 18, 21 - 22, 24-26, 38, 61, 62, 133, 135 gas inhalation, 25 - 26, 127 metabolic activity, 26, 39, 77 particle inhalation, 21 - 22, 24 - 25, 27 - 38, 61, 85, 135 pulmonary hypertension, 87 - 89, 90 Antibodies, 6 - 7, 94, 97, 98, 110, 123 DNA adducts, 37 immunoglobin, 3, 96, 112, 118, 120 monoclonal, 9, 36 - 37, 95, 117, 119 Antigens, 6, 15, 71, 94, 95, 98 - 103, 110, 112, 115, 117, 119, 122, 123 Antioxidants, 120 - 121 Arachidonic acid, 9, 94, 96, 114, 121 - 123, 124, 135 Aromatic substances, 37 styrene, 38 Arteries, 86 - 87 blood sampling, 57

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172 microscopic examination of, 88 - 90 Arsenic, 35 Arylamine, 34 Asbestos, 6, 27, 28, 32, 41, 42, 83, 85, 110, 123 Ascorbic acid, 121 Assays, 37, 41, 43, 44 - 57, 68, 69, 79 - 81, 114, 122, 128, 129 see also Biopsies Asthma, 3, 40, 41, 46, 57, 58, 59, 60, 102, 107 - 109, 119, 122 Atherosclerosis, 3 Autopsies, lung tissue, 6, 83, 87 Autoradiography, 9, 135 B Bacteria, 6, 93 Basophils, 97, 112, 116, 122 B cells, 96, 102, 117, 118, 125 Benzene, 26, 35, 38 Benzo~aipyrene, 34, 35, 37 Berylliosis, 103 Biochemistry, 7, 8, 11, 38, 76 chemotactic factors, 6, 9, 24, 95, 96, 116, 118 - 120, 122, 135 chemotherapy, 37 immunocytochemistry, 9 see also Dosimetry; Pharmacokinetics; Toxicokinetics Biologic markers, 1, 12, 133 biochemical, 77, 84, 120 - 132, 135 cellular response, 77, 105 - 120, 135 defined, 2, 11, 12 - 13, 17 lung sounds, 40 - 41 respiratory tract uses, 14 - 15 validation, 13 - 14 see also Markers of effect; Markers of exposure; Markers of susceptibility Biomathematics, see Dosimetry; Mathematical models Biopsies, 9, 28, 87, 106, 134 adipose tissue, 36 DNA samples, 128 skin tests, 99, 100 - 101 Blood, 114 air-blood barrier, 5, 9, 15, 38, 66 - 79 analysis of, 33 - 34, 57 cells, 71 cisplatin and cells, 37 flow rate, 2, 4, 23, 38, 56, 68, 88 gas solubility, 23 hemoglobin, 8, 27, 34, 74, 110, 134 platelets, 122 red cells, 110 see also Arteries; Capillaries; Veins Breathing patterns, 15, 45, 51 - 52 hyperventilation, 58, 59 INDEX lung mechanics, 47 - 50 oral inhalation, 21 see also Exhalation British Medical Research Council, 39 Bronchial system, 6, 84, 101 - 103 cellular processes, 85, 97, 98, 122 chronic bronchitis, 62 - 63, 89 imaging, 54 immune responses, 101 - 102, 120 particle transport, 21, 23, 63 - 67, 69 - 70 reactivity, 58 - 61, 134 Bronchoalveolar ravage (BAL), 4, 6, 7, 9, 14, 28, 32, 97, 105 - 111, 114, 121 - 123, 126-127, 128, 129 - 130, 135 Bronchoscopy, 92, 95, 97, 101, 102, 105, 107, 109, 110, 111, 114 Brownian diffusion, 19 C Capillaries alveolar boundary, 87, 91, 106, 127 alveolar, gas transfer from, 6, 7, 15, 44, 45, 55 - 57, 79 end o t hell al, 72, 77 - 78 permeate lity, 2, 120 volume rice, 74 Carbon monoxide, 55, 57, 74 Carcinogens and carcinogenesis, 2 bronchial tubes, 62 DNA adducts, 36 - 38, 127 - 132 hemoglobin adducts, 34 urine analysis, 35 Cardiovascular system, 88 Catheter techniques, 47, 48, 66, 74, 111 Cell biology, 8, 9, 135 alveolar, 86 blood, 71 dosimetry, 4 endothelial, 71 epithelial, 6, 27, 67, 68, 69, 84 - 85, 91 - 92, 122 markers, 7, 77 membranes, 34 mitochondria, 126 models, 9, 135 parenchyma, 121 plasma proteins, 72, 120, 123 - 124, 127 Cell cultures, 9, 39, 67, 68, 70, 85, 93, 102 - 103, 122, 135 Cell differentiation, 84 - 85, 118 Cell growth, 95, 124 - 125, 135 Cellular immunology, 6 - 7, 9, 93 - 98, 99, 105 - 120 B cells, 96, 102, 117, 118, 125 bronchoalveolar airspace, 97 inflammation and, 15, 86, 94 - 95, 97, 106 interleukin, 7, 94, 102, 113 - 114, 116 - 118, 125 leukocytes, 95, 111

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173 leukotrienes, 122 lung recruitment, 110, 121 mast cells, 58, 109, 112, 114 - 115, 116, 119 - 120, 122 T cells, 94 - 97, 103, 107, 116 - 118, 119, 125 see also Antibodies; Antigens; Macrophages; Neutrophils; Phagocytes and phagocytosis Ceruloplasmin, 121 Chemotactic factors, 6, 9, 24, 95, 96, 116, 118 - 120, 122, 135 Chemotherapy, 37 Children, 5, 39, 41, 89 asthma, 3, 40, 41, 46, 60 Cholesterol, 84 Cholinergics, 58, 60 Chromatography, 33 gas, 33 liquid, 122 Chromosomes, 129 Chronic diseases and effects, 1, 46, 58, 60 allergies, 60, 100, 101, 111 - 112, 118, 119 animal studies, 14 asthma, 3, 40, 41, 46, 57, 58, 59 - 60, 102, 107 - 109, 119, 122 atherosclerosis, 3 bronchitis, 62 - 63, 89 fibrosis, 7, 27, 50, 60, 83, 85, 88, 89, 99, 106, 110, 111 inflammation, 91 - 92, 97 obstructive pulmonary, 8, 45, 52, 62 - 63 pulmonary hypertension, 87 - 89, 90 rhinitis, 60, 101, 111 sarcoidosis, 106, 107, 116, 118 tuberculosis, 99 Cigarettes, see Smoking Cilia, 84, 98 Cisplatin, 37 Clinical techniques, 5, 12, 14, 39 - 40 assays, 37, 41, 43, 44 - 57, 68, 69, 79 - 81, 114, 122, 128, 129 autopsies, lung tissue, 6, 83, 87 biopsies, 9, 28, 36, 87, 99 - 101, 106, 128, 134 catheterization, 47, 48, 66, 74, 111 ozone exposure, 41, 58, 62, 66, 93 questionnaires, 5, 39 - 40 see also Imaging techniques; Noninvas*e procedures Cobalt, 6 Cold air, 58, 59, 60 Collagen, 35, 127 Complement system, 123 - 124 Computer-assisted tomography, 28, 42, 74 Connective tissue, 85, 90 adipose tissue, 36 f~broblasts, 6, 27, 28, 71, 85, 102, 116, 1Z, 123, 124 Convective airflow, 52, 53 Cost factors, 102, 112, 114 INDEX Cryogenics, 33 Cytology, see Cell biology Cytoplasm, 7, 84, 91, 92 D Diesel emissions, 37, 121, 127 4-Dimethylaminostilbene, 37 DNA, 127 - 131 adducts, 4, 7, 8, 18, 32, 34, 35, 36~38, 42, 127 - 131, 134 cDNA, 84 hybridization, 9 Dosimet~y, 2, 4, 7 - 8, 133 - 134 biologic, 26 - 38 defined, 17 - 18 DNA adducts, 129 - 130 dose-response relationship, 3 - 4, 12, 37 - 39, 59, 66, 110 ethylene oxide, smokers, 34 gas toxicity model, 23, 25 - 26 mathematical models, 38 - 39, 42 susceptibility and, 3, 13 validation of biologic markers via, 14, 68 Drinking water, 4 Dust, 32, 109 byssinotic reactions, 123 magnetic measurement, 28 - 31 nasal ravage, 113 x-rays, chest, 42 E Electron microscopy, 9, 68, 135 alveolar tissue, 85 - 86 lung tissue, 6, 64 pulmonary arteries, 89 - 90 Electron transfer, 126 El ect r op bile s , 3 4 Electrostatic precipitation, 19 Emphysema, 3, 7, 53, 89, 111, 117 Endema, 50, 72 - 74, 101, 125 Endothelium, 69, 116 chemically induced injury, 71 - 75 markers of dysfunction, 8, 89 - 90, 134 metabolic activity, 71, 7~78, 79 particles, 24 Environmental Protection Agency, exposure studies, 3, 33, 121 Enzymatic radioimmunoassays, 37, 68 Enzymology, 78, 96, 114 - 115 amine metabolism, 76, 80 bronchoalveolar fluid, 126 - 127 cholesterol, 84 hydrolysis, 7, 77, 80, 91, 92 - 93, 122 liver and kidney disease, 11

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174 lungs, 125 lysosomal, 123, 126 lysozyme, 93 toxicity and, 39, 69 Eosinophils, 6, 95, 97, 108, 111, 112, 115, 119 Epidemiology, 5, 9, 39 dosimetry and, 17 inflammation, 92 - 93 marker development, 14 molecular, 18 nasal ravage, 112, 135 ozone exposure, 41, 93, 121 physiologic markers, 43, 44 - 45, 47, 6061 see also Occupational health and safety, Risk assessment Ep it heliu m, 66 alveolar barrier, 7, 69 - 70 bronchial, 97 cell response, 6, 27, 67, 68, 69, 84 - 85, 91 - 92, 122 ion transport, 67 - 68 mast cells, 119 molecule transport, 68 - 70 nasal, 111 upper respiratory, 23 - 24, 63 Erythrocytes, 110 Esophagous, 47, 48 Ethylene oxide, 34 Etiology, 4, 15, 60, 83 Exercise physiology, 58, 59 alveolar-capillary gas exchange, 15, 43, 44, 55 - 57 Exhalation, 4, 32 - 33, 54, 78 alveolar venting, 38, 56 - 57 gas venting, 23, 44 - 47, 50 pollution detection, 15 spirometry, 44 - 48, 79 Exposures, see Dosimetry, Markers of exposure; Risk assessment F Fats, see Adipose tissue; Lipids Feces, 63 Fiberoptics, 32 bronchoscopy, 92, 95, 97, 101, 102, 105, 107, 109, 110, 111, 114 Fibroblasts, 6, 27, 28, 71, 85, 102, 116, 122, 123, 124 Fibrosis, 7, 27, 50, 60, 83, 85, 88, 89, 99, 106, 110, 111 Fluorescence and fluorometry, 37, 63, 107 Formaldehyde, 35 G Gamma-camera, 43, 54, 63, 65 Gas chromatography, 33 Gases INDEX alveolar-capillary transfer, 6, 7, 15, 44, 45, 55 - 57, 79 gas exchange function, 5, 43, 44 - 57 inhalation/depos*ion, 22 - 23, 25 - 26, 36, 45, 51 - 55 oxidant, 6, 120 see also specific gases Genetics epithelium, 67 population studies, 6061 susceptibility, 3 see also DNA; Molecular genetics; RNA Genotoxicity, 35, 127 - 131 DNA adducts, 4, 7, 8, 18, 32, 34, 35, 36 - 38, 42, 127 - 131 Glutathione, 121 Glycoproteins, 68, 84 ceruloplasmin, 121 transferrin, 120 - 121, 127 Guanines, 129 - 130 H Halogens, 33 H-benzoyl-phe-alapro, 77 Hematology, see Arteries; Blood; Capillaries; Veins Hemoglobin, 8, 34, 74, 110 DNA adducts, 37, 134 Henry's law, 23 Heparin, 120 Hepatic system, 39, 87 Herbicides (paraquat), 26, 77, 120 Histamines, 60, 109, 115, 116, 119 - 120, 123 Histochemistry, 9, 84 eosinophils, 6, 95, 97, 108, 111, 112, 115, 119 Histology, 4, 9, 42, 78, 110 see also Neutrophils Homeostasis, 3 Hormones, 77 Horseradish perox~dase, 68 Humoral immunity, 6, 93, 94 see also Cellular immunology Hydrocarbons, 33, 37 Hydrolysis, 7, 77, 80, 91, 92 - 93, 122 Hydroxylysine, 35 Hydroxyproline, 35 5-Hydroxytryptamine, 77 - 78 Hygroscopicity, 22 Hyperreactivity, airway, 57 - 61, 134 Hypertension, 3, 87 - 89, 90 Hyperventilation, 58, 59 Imaging techniques, 41 - 42 angiography, 88 fluorescence and fluorometry, 37, 63, 107

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175 magnetic, 28 - 31, 42, 66 nuclear magnetic resonance, 75 radiography, 9, 41, 54 - 55, 88, 110, 135 radiolabeling, 25, 28, 54, 63 - 66, 68, 73, 75 tomography, 28, 42, 73, 74 X-rays, 6, 27, 31, 41 - 42, 66 Immunoassays, 37, 68, 69, 122 Immunocytochemistry, 9 Immunoglobin, 3, 96, 112, 118, 120 Immunology, 6 - 8, 15, 58, 93 - 103 acquired immune response, 97 - 103 detection markers, 114 - 115 interferon, 116 see also Antibodies; Antigens; Cellular immunology, Inflammation; Mucosal processes Impaction, 18 - 19 Infection, 15 inflammatory, 92 - 93 molecular markers, 7 Inflammation, 6 - 7, 50, 91 - 93, 97, 100 airway, 51, 58, 68 biologic markers, 113 - 116 bronchial, 101 - 102 cell processes, 15, 86, 94 - 95, 97, 106 granuloma, 99, 102 - 103; see also Sarcoidosis interleukin, 7, 94, 102, 113 - 114, 116 - 118, 125 lung, 9, 41, 96, 98 - 99, 109 - 111, 120 macrophages and, 6, 98 - 99, 113, 116 - 117, 120 - 123 neutrophils, 6, 91, 92, 98 - 99, 100, 117, 120, 123 particle-caused, 27 plasma-protein complement system, 123 - 124 prostaglandin, 122 proteins, 127 see also Allergies Inhalation toxicology, 1 dosimetry, 17, 23, 26 - 38, 133 - 134 gases, 22 - 23, 25 - 26, 36, 45, 51 - 55, 58 markers, 17 - 42 paraquat, 26, 77, 120 particles, 18 - 22, 23 - 26, 27 - 31, 38, 51 - 55, 133 - 134 inflammation, 9, 41, 91 - 92, 96, 98 - 99, 109 - 111, 120 markers of, 5 - 6, 133 Interferon, 116 Interleukin, 7, 94, 102, 113 - 114, 116 - 118, 125 International Commission on Radiological Protection, 38 International Labor Organization, 41 - 42 Ion transport ep it h eli al, 67 - 68 K Keratin, 85 Kidney, see Renal system INDEX L Larnyx, 59 Lavage bronchial, 4, 6, 7, 9, 97 bronchoalveolar (BAL), 14, 28, 32, 105 - 111, 122-123, 126 - 127, 128, 129 - 130, 135 lungs, 95 - 99, 109, 120 - 121 macrophages, 7, 97, 113 nasal, 4, 7, 9, 32, 111 - 113, 114 Leukocytes, 95, 111 monocytes, 24, 98, 113, 115 see also Neutrophils Leukotrienes, 122 Light microscopy, 6, 84, 85, 88 - 89 Lipids, 23, 36, 38, 122 Liquid chromatography, 122 Liver, see Hepatic system Lungs, 47 - 50, 61, 64 - 66 edema, 50, 69, 70, 72 - 74, 77, 101, 125 enzyme damage, 69 gas exchange function, 5, 43, 44 - 57 inflammation, 9, 41, 96, 98 - 99, 109 - 111, 120 ravage, 95 - 99, 109, 120 - 121; see also Bronchoalveolar ravage mechanical properties, 47 - 50, 79 metabolic activity, 76 - 78 mucosal processes, 63 oxidant injury, 6, 95, 120 - 126 roentgenography, 73 - 74 sarcoidosis, 106, 107, 116, 118 structure/function markers, 83, 85 vasculature, 86 - 90 volumetrics, 45, 50, 52, 74, 89 water accumulation, 73 - 74, 75 - 76 x-rays, 41 - 42 see also Inhalation toxicology Lung sounds, 40 - 41 Lymph and lymphatic system, 24, 29, 30, 68 70, 72, 73, 75, 97, 117 Lymphocytes, 6, 7, 32, 94, 95, 97 - 99, 100, 102 - 103. 106, 107, 113, 115 - 119, 121, 125 DNA adducts, 37, 129 - 130 see also B cells; T cells Lymphokines, 94, 98, 102, 120 Lysosomes, 92 - 93, 96, 123, 126 Lysozyme, 93 M Macromolecules adduct formation, 8, 18, 34, 42, 134 markers, 68 see also DNA; Proteins; RNA Macrophages, 6, 32, 85, 91, 94, 96, 97, 115, 118 alveolar, 32, 63, 85, 95, 107, 113, 11~117,

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176 120 - 126, 131 chromosomes, 129 inflammation and, 6, 98 - 99, 113, 115, 116 - 117, 120, 124 ravage, 7, 97, 113, 116 - 117, 120 - 126, 131 monokines, 124 - 125 particle interactions, 24, 25, 27, 29, 65 - 66, 123 - 124 Magnetic measurements, 2031, 42, 66, 75 - 76 Markers of effect biochemical/cellular, 7, 11 - 12, 135 defined, 2 - 3, 12, 13 inflammation/immune response, 6 - 7, 114 - 115 molecular, 127 - 132 physiologic, 5, 14, 134 structural/functional alterations, 5 - 6, 8, 9, 15, 83-90, 135 Markers of exposure, 4 - 5, 17 - 42, 133 defied, 2, 12 - 13, 17 imaging, 41 - 42 lung sounds, 40 - 41 see also Dosimetry Markers of susceptibility, 8 defied, 2, 3, 12, 13 Mass spectroscopy, 33 Mast cells, 58, 109, 112, 114 - 115, 116, 119 - 120, 122 Mathematical models animal studies, extrapolation to humans, 18, 25 exposure markers, 4 - 5, 38 - 39, 42 morphometrics, 6, 9, 85 - 86, 88, 135 nitrogen washout equations, 51 reactive gases, 23, 25 Membranes, 34, 38 cell, 84 see also Alveolar tissues and processes; Epithelium Metabolic activity and metabolites, 4 animals as humans, 26, 39, 77 arachidonic acid, 9, 94, 96, 114, 121 - 123, 124, 135 cell, 95 endothelial, 71, 76~78, 79 exposure markers and, 2, 8 hydrolysis, 7, 76, 77 lung, 76 - 78, 87 noninvasive detection of, 33 - 34 susceptibility markers and, 3, 13 see also Enzymology, Pharmacokinetics; Toxicokinetics Methacoline, 58, 61 Methyl bromide, 25 - 26 Methylene blue, 107 Methylene chloride, 39 4-methyl-N-nitrosamino-1-~3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, 37 Microbial infections, see Infections Michaelis constant, 38 Microscopes and microscopy electron microscopy, 6, 9, 64, 68, 85 - 86, 89 - 90, 135 INDEX light, 6, 84, 85, 88 - 89 x-ray, 6 Mitochondria, 126 Models, 4 physiologic, 8, 35, 38, 134, 135 three-dimensional, 9, 135 see also Mathematical models Molecular biology epidemiology, 18 markers, 3 - 4, 7, 11, 68 - 70, 127 - 132, 135 see also Macromolecules; Proteins Molecular genetics, 9, 127 - 132, 135 adduct measurement, 4, 32 DNA, 4, 7, 8, 9, 18, 32, 34, 35, 36 - 38, 42, 84 RNA, 9, 84, 127, 130 - 131 Monoclonal antibodies, 9, 36 - 37, 95, 117, 119 Monocytes, 24, 98, 113, 115 Monokines, 124 - 125 Morphometrics, 6, 9, 85 - 86, 88, 135 Mucosal processes, 4, 6, 31 - 32, 63 - 64, 68, 96, 120 alveolar, 94 cellular, 84, 98 particle transport, 23 - 24, 25, 62 - 64, 65, 67 see also Lavage Mutation and mutagenic substances, 35, 129 N Nasal passages, 134 adenocarcinoma and mucus, 62 epithelium, 67 exposure markers, 4, 8 immune responses, 101 ravage, 4, 7, 9, 32, 111 - 113, 114, 135 particle transport, 19 - 21, 23 - 24, 62, 63, 64 rhinitis, 60, 101, 111 National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, 39 - 40 National Research Council drinking water study, 4 Neutrophils, 32, 95 - 98, 110, 112, 115 - 117, 120, 122 inflammation and, 6, 91, 92, 98 - 99, 100, 117, 120, 123, 125 ravage, 106, 109, 112, 126 Nickel, 6 Nitrogen dioxide, 35 - 36, 50 - 51, 59, 62 Noninvasive procedures airway reactivity testing, 57 - 61, 134 angiography, 88 exercise tests, 55 - 57 exhaled air, 32 - 33 lungs, 40 - 41, 47 - 50, 64 - 66, 73 - 75 magnetic, 28 - 31, 42, 66, 75 - 76 molecular tracers, 68 - 70 mucus velocity, 63 - 64 nasal ravage, 4, 7, 9, 32, 111 - 113, 114 nuclear magnetic resonance, 75 oscillation, lungs mechanics, 47, 48 - 49, 79

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177 physiologic markers, 43 radiography, 9, 41, 54 - 55, 88, 110, 135 radiolabeling, 25, 28, 54, 63 - 66, 68, 73, 75 respiratory fluids, 32 skin testing, 99, 100101, 102, 114 spiromet~y, 44 - 48, 79 tomography, 28, 42, 73, 74 see also Imaging techniques Norephinephrine, 77 Nose, see Nasal passages Nuclear magnetic resonance, 75 Nutrition, 3 o Occupational health and safety asthma, 59 dosimetry, case studies, 26 - 38 inflammatory response studies, 92-93 nasal ravage, 112 x-rays, chest, 41 - 42 Oral inhalation, particles, 21 Organic compounds detection of, 33 - 36, 38 exposure, 8 Oscillation techniques, 47, 48 - 49 Oxidant injury, 6, 120 - 123 Oxygen, 56, 95, 116, 124, 125 - 126 Ozone, 23, 41, 58, 62, 66, 67, 93, 117, 121, 122, 127 p Paraquat, 26, 77, 120 Parenchymal tissues, 85 - 86, 96, 121 Particles and particulates aerosols, 18, 21, 51 - 54, 58, 59, 64 - 66, 69 asbestos, 6, 27, 28, 32, 41, 42, 83, 85, 110, 123 dosimetry, 8, 133 - 134 inhalation and decomposition, 18 - 22, 23 - 26, 27 - 31, 38, 51 - 55, 133-134 insoluble, 27 - 31 lung tissue autopsy, 6, 83, 87 macrophage interactions, 24, 25, 27, 29, 66, 123 - 124 mucosal transport, 23 - 24, 25, 62 - 64, 65, 67 phagocytosis, 32, 63, 65, 123, 125 - 126 pulmonary clearance markers, 5, 9, 44 - 45, 51 - 55, 61 - 66, 80 silica, 6, 27, 85 Peptides, 77, 121, 122 Perfusion, 44, 77, 78 Phagocytes and phagocytosis, 6, 32, 63, 65, 91 - 96, 98, 110, 117, 123, 125 - 126 see also Macrophages; Neutrophils Pharmacolcinetics, 4 - 5 animal as human studies, 21 INDEX arachidonic acid, 9, 94, 96, 114, 121 - 123, 124, 135 cholinergics, 58, 60 hyperventilation, 58, 59 modeling, 8, 38 particle dissolution, 24 - 25 urine analysis, 35 see also Toxicokinetics Pharynx, 63, 113 Physiology, 134 assays, 37, 41, 43, 44 - 57, 68, 69 79 - 81, 114, 122, 128, 129 exercise, 15, 43, 44, 55 - 59 pharmacokinetic modeling, 8, 35, 38, 134 toxic effect markers, 5, 8 - 9, 14, 43 - 81 Plasma proteins, 72, 120, 123 - 124, 127 Platelets, 122 Plethysmography, 48, 59 Population studies, see Epidemiology Pressure effects and measurements arterial, 88, 89 blood flow, 2, 4, 23, 38, 56, 68, 88, 89 edema, 50, 72 - 74, 101, 125 lungs, 49 - 50, 79 Prostacyclin, 122 Prostaglandin, 122 Protamine, 38 Proteins, 71, 109, 127 adducts, 4, 7, 8, 18, 32, 34, 36 - 37, 42 adhesive, 133 glycoproteins, 68, 84, 120 - 121, 127 interferon, 116 plasma, 72, 120, 123 - 124 Psychogenic factors, 15 Pulmonary vasculature, 86 - 90 Q Questionnaires, 5, 39 - 40 R Radicals hydrofoil, 120, 125 oxygen, 95, 124, 125 - 126 Radiography, 9, 41, 54 - 55, 88, 110, 135 gamma-camera, 43, 54, 65 Radioimmuneassays, 37, 68, 69, 122 Radiolabeling, 25, 28, 54, 73, 75 aerosols, 54, 63 - 66, 69 Red blood cells, 110 hemoglobin, 8, 34, 27, 74, 110, 134 Regulations, 17 see also Standards Renal system, 11 Respiratory system

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178 air-blood barrier, 5, 9, 15, 38, 6078, 79 biologic markers, uses, 14 - 15 cellular and biochemical response 105 - 132 fluids, 31 - 32 function indices and assays, 41, 43, 44 - 57, 61 impedance, 48 - 49 inflammatory and immune response, 91 - 132 intrapulmonary gas and particle distribution, 45, 50-55, 79 lung, 47 - 50, 64 - 66, 1-5 - 132 measures of function, 43 - 81 particle deposition and clearance, 18 - 25, 27 - 31, 61 - 66, 79 reactivity, airway, 5, 8, 40, 43, 57 - 61 structural assessment, 83 - 90 see also Airways; Alveolar tissues and processes; Bronchial system; Inhalation toxicology, Lungs; Nasal passages; Trachea Rhinitis, 60, 101, 111 Risk assessments, 46, 80 animal studies, 3 - 4, 9, 39 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 8 questionnaires, 40 see also Dosimetry, Epidemiology RNA, 84, 127 hybridization, 9 mRNA, 130 - 131 Roentgenography, 73 - 74 S Saliva, 33 Sarcoidosis, 60, 70, 106, 107, 116, 118 S-carboxyethylcysteine, 38 Scintillation, 64, 65 Sedimentation, 19, 21 - 22 Sensitivity, defined, 13 Sickle-cell anemia, 7 Silica, 6, 27, 85 Skin testing, 99, 100 - 101, 102, 114 Smoking, 68 - 69, 70, 116, 125 - 126 bronchial effects, 62 ethylene oxide dosage detection, 34 inflammatory response, 122 ravage and, 95, 96, 97, 112, 113, 117, 121, 127 nitrogen dioxide detection, 36, 50 - 51 questionnaires, 40 urine analysis, 35 - 36 Smooth muscle, 58, 59, 71, 89, 90, 116, 122 Specificity antigen-specif~c immune response, 99 - 103, 110 defied, 13 nonspecific reactivity, 59, 75, 76 respiratory toxicants, 15 Spectroscopy, 27 fluorescence, 37 mass, 33 INDEX Spirometry, ,14 48, 79 Sputum, 32 Standards data acquisition, 5, 39 EPA exposure studies, 3 particle clearance, 61 - 62, 79 respiratory function, 41 Drays, chest, 41 - 42 Statistics dose-response relationship and, 66 nitrogen washout, regression equations, 51 see also Epidemiology, Risk assessment Styrene, 38 Sulfur dioxide, 113 Sulfuric acid, 59, 62 Superconductivity, 29 Susceptibility, see Markers of susceptibility T Task Group on Lung Dynamics, 38 T cells, 94 - 97, 103, 107, 116 - 118, 119, 125 Th al ass emia, 7 Thorax, 39, 48, 65 dust, magnetic measurement, 2~31 x-rays, chest, 41 - 42 Tobacco, see Smoking Tomography, 28, 42, 74, 75 Total Exposure Assessment Methodology, 33 Toxicokinetics, 17, 18 animal as human, 39 gases, 25 - 26 mathematical models, 38, 42 organic compounds, 34 see also Dosimetty Trachea, 9, 68 69, 84, 95, 97, 134 particle transport, 21, 23 - 24, 63 - 64 Transferrin, 120 - 121, 127 Tuberculosis, 99 sarcoidosis, 106, 107, 116, 118 U Urban areas, 92 Urea, 107 Urine, 114 adduct analysis, 37 organic compounds analysis, 34 - 36 V Vascular system, see Arteries; Capillaries Veins, 86 89 Ventilation, see Exhalation Viruses, 92, 93, 96

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179 Vitamins, 121, 123 Volatile organic compounds detection of, 33, 34, 38 Volumetrics, 45, 50, 52, 57 arterial, 89, 90 lung water, 74, 75 W Weight factors, 38 INDEX Wheezing, 40, 46,101 White blood cells, see Leukocytes; Neutrophils Wool fibers, 32 X X-ray microscopy, 6 X-rays imaging, 31, 41 - 42, 66 X-ray spectrometry, 27

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