Rowley, D.B., 2002, Rate of plate creation and destruction: 180 Ma to present, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 114, 927–933.
Royer, J.-Y., and R.G. Gordon, 1997, The motion and boundary between the Capricorn and Australian plates, Science, 277, 1268–1274.
Royer, D.L., R.A. Berner, and D.J. Beerling, 2001, Phanerozoic atmospheric CO2 change: Evaluating geochemical and paleobiological approaches, Earth-Science Review, 54, 349–392.
Rumble, D., J.G. Liou, and B.-M. Jahn, 2003, Continental crust subduction and UHP metamorphism, in The Crust, Treatise on Geochemistry, 3, R.L. Rudnick. ed., Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 293–319.
Sakellariou, A., T.J. Sawkins, T.J. Senden, and A. Limaye, 2004, X-ray tomography for mesoscale physics applications, Physica A, 339, 152–158.
Salters, V., and A. Stracke, 2004, Composition of the depleted mantle, Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 5, Q05004.
Satake, K., 2007, Tsunamis, in Treatise on Geophysics, 4, H. Kanamori, ed., Elsevier, New York, pp. 483–511.
Scarth, A., 2002, La Catastrophe: The Eruption of Mount Pelee, the Worst Volcanic Disaster of the 20th Century, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 256 pp.
Scherstén, A., T. Elliott, C. Hawkesworth, and M. Norman, 2004, Tungsten isotope evidence that mantle plumes contain no contribution from the Earth’s core, Nature, 427, 234–237.
Scholz, C.H., 1990, The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting, Cambridge University Press, New York, 439 pp.
Schoonen, M., A. Smirnov, and C. Cohn, 2004, A perspective on the role of minerals in prebiotic synthesis, Ambio, 33, 539–551.
Schopf, J.W., 2006, Fossil evidence of Archaean life, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, B361, 869–885.
Schopf, J.W., A.B. Kudryavtsev, D.G. Agresti, T.J. Wdowiak, and A.D. Czaja, 2002, Laser-Raman imagery of Earth’s earliest fossils, Nature, 416, 73–76.
Sepkoski, J.J., 1984, A kinetic model of Phanerozoic taxonomic diversity. 3. Post-Paleozoic families and mass extinctions, Paleobiology, 10, 246–267.
Shen, G.Y., V.B. Prakapenka, M.L. Rivers, and S.R. Sutton, 2004, Structure of liquid iron at pressures up to 58 GPa, Physical Review Letters, 92, 185701.
Sigurdsson, H., and S. Carey, 1989, Plinian and co-ignibrite tephra fall from the 1815 eruption of Tambora volcano, Bulletin of Volcanology, 51, 243–270.
Sillitoe, R.H., and J.W. Hedenquist, 2003, Linkages between volcanotectonic settings, ore-fluid compositions, and epithermal precious metal deposits, in Volcanic, Geothermal, and Ore-Forming Fluids: Rulers and Witnesses of Processes Within the Earth, S.F. Simmons, and I. Graham, eds., Society of Economic Geologists, Special Publication 10, pp. 315–343.
Simkin, T., and R.S. Fiske, 1983, Krakatau 1883—The Volcanic Eruption and Its Effects, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 470 pp.
Sims, K.W., S.J. Goldstein, J. Blichert-Toft, M.R. Perfit, P. Kelemen, D.J. Fornari, P. Michael, M.T. Murrell, S.R. Hart, D.J. DePaolo, G. Layne, L. Ball, M. Jull, and J. Bender, 2002, Chemical and isotopic constraints on the generation and transport of magma beneath the East Pacific Rise, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 66, 3481–3504.
Sleep, N.H., 2002, Self-organization of crustal faulting and tectonics, International Geology Review, 44, 83–96.
Sleep, N.H., 2005, Evolution of the continental lithosphere, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 33, 369–393.
Sleep, N.H., and D.K. Bird, 2007, Niches of the pre-photosynthetic biosphere and geologic preservation of Earth’s earliest ecology, Geobiology, 5, 101–117.
Sleep, N.H., K.J. Zahnle, J.F. Kasting, and H.J. Morowitz, 1989, Annihilation of ecosystems by large asteroid impacts on the early Earth, Nature, 342, 139–142.
Sonnenthal, E., N. Spycher, and C. Haukwa, 2001, Thermal-hydrologic-chemical effects on seepage and potential seepage chemistry, in Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses, Volume 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses, REV 00, available at <http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/784533-H4LgEw/webviewable/784533.PDF>.
Spiegelman, M., and P.B. Kelemen, 2003, Extreme chemical variability as a consequence of channelized melt transport, Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 4, 1055.
Spiegelman, M., P.B. Kelemen, and E. Aharonov, 2001, Causes and consequences of flow organization during melt transport: The reaction infiltration instability in compactible media, Journal of Geophysical Research—Solid Earth, 106, 2061–2077.
Squyres, S.W., J.P. Grotzinger, R.E. Arvidson, J.F. Bell, W. Calvin, P.R. Christensen, B.C. Clark, J.A. Crisp, W.H. Farrand, K.E. Herkenhoff, J.R. Johnson, G. Klingelhofer, A.H. Knoll, S.M. McLennan, H.Y. McSween, R.V. Morris, J.W. Rice, R. Rieder, and L.A. Soderblom, 2004, In situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars, Science, 306, 1709–1714.
Stanley, S.M., 2007, An Analysis of the History of Marine Animal Diversity, Paleobiology Memoir 4, 55 pp.
Steefel, C.I., D.J. DePaolo, and P.C. Lichtner, 2005, Reactive transport modeling: An essential tool and a new research approach for the Earth sciences, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 240, 539–558.
Stevens, S.H., V.K. Kuuskraa, and J. Gale, 2000, Sequestration of CO2 in depleted oil and gas fields: Global capacity and barriers to overcome, in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT5), Cairns, Australia, August, 13-16, 2000.
Stevenson, D.J., 1987, Origin of the moon—The collision hypothesis, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 15, 271–315.
Stixrude, L., and J.M. Brown, 1998, The Earth’s core, Reviews in Mineralogy, 37, 261–283.
Stixrude, L., and B. Karki, 2005, Structure and freezing of MgSiO3 liquid in Earth’s lower mantle, Science, 310, 297–299.
Stoll, H.M., 2006, The Arctic tells its story, Nature, 441, 579–581.
Stothers, R.B., 1984, The great Tambora eruption of 1815 and its aftermath, Science, 224, 1191–1198.
Su, Y.-J., 2002, Mid-ocean Ridge Basalt Trace Element Systematics: Constraints from Database Management, ICPMS Analysis, Global Data Compilation, and Petrologic Modeling, Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 569 pp.
Su, W.J., R.L. Woodward, and A.M. Dziewonski, 1994, Degree-12 shear velocity model of mantle heterogeneity, Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 6945–6980.