Syvitski, J.P.M., S.D. Peckham, R.D. Hilberman, and T. Mulder, 2003, Predicting the terrestrial flux of sediment to the global ocean: A planetary perspective, Sedimentary Geology, 162, 5–24.

Syvitski, J.P.M., C.J. Vörösmarty, A.J. Kettner, and P. Green, 2005, Impact of humans on the flux of terrestrial sediment to the global coastal ocean, Science, 308, 376–380.

Tarduno, J.A., D.B. Brinkman, P.R. Renne, R.D. Cottrell, H. Scher, and P. Castillo, 1998, Evidence for extreme climatic warmth from late Cretaceous arctic vertebrates, Science, 282, 2241–2243.

Tarduno, J.A., R.D. Cottrell, M.K. Watkeys, and D. Bauch, 2007, Geomagnetic field strength 3.2 billion years ago recorded by single silicate crystals, Nature, 446, 657–660.

Tatsumi, Y., and S. Eggins, 1995, Subduction Zone Magmatism, Blackwell Science, Cambridge, MA, 211 pp.

Thordarson, T., and S. Self, 2003, Atmospheric and environmental effects of the 1783–1784 Laki eruption: A review and reassessment, Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, doi:10.1029/ 2001JD002042.

Tian, F., O.B. Toon, A.A. Pavlov, and H. DeSterck, 2005, A hydrogen-rich early Earth atmosphere, Science, 308, 1014–1017.

Toksöz, M.N., A.F. Shakal, and A.J. Michael, 1979, Space-time migration of earthquakes along the North Anatolian fault zone and seismic gaps, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 117, 1258–1270.

Touma, J., and J. Wisdom, 1998, Resonances in the early evolution of the Earth-Moon system, The Astronomical Journal, 115, 1653–1663.

Trampert, J., and R.D. van der Hilst, 2005, Towards a quantitative interpretation of global seismic tomography, in Earth’s Deep Mantle: Structure, Composition, and Evolution, R.D. van der Hilst, J. Bass, J. Matas, and J. Trampert, eds., Geophysical Monograph Series 160, pp. 47–62.

Triebs, A., 1936, Chlorophyll and hemin derivatives in organic mineral substances, Angewandte Chemie, 49, 682–686.

Tsuchiya, T., R.M. Wentzcovitch, C.R.S. da Silva, and S. de Gironcoli, 2006, Spin transition in magnesiowüstite in Earth’s lower mantle, Physical Review Letters, 96, 198501.

Turcotte, D.L., and E.R. Oxburgh, 1967, Finite amplitude convective cells and continental drift, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 28, 29–42.

Turcotte, D.L., R. Shcherbakov, and J.B. Rundle, 2007, Complexity and earthquakes, in Earthquake Seismology, Treatise on Geophysics, 4, H. Kanamori, ed., Elsevier, New York, pp. 675–700.

Valley, J.W., W.H. Peck, E.M. King, and S.A. Wilde, 2002, A cool early Earth, Geology, 30, 351–354.

van der Hilst, R.D., M.V. de Hoop, P. Wang, S.-H. Shim, P. Ma, and L. Tenorio, 2007, Seismostratigraphy and thermal structure of Earth’s core-mantle boundary region, Science, 315, 1813–1817.

Van Keken, P.E., E.H. Hauri, and C.J. Ballentine, 2002, Mantle mixing: The generation, preservation and destruction of chemical heterogeneity, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 30, 493–525.

Veizer, J., Y. Godderis, and L.M. François, 2000, Evidence for decoupling of atmospheric CO2 and global climate during the Phanerozoic eon, Nature, 408, 698–701.

Voight, B., 1990, The 1985 Nevado del Ruiz volcano catastrophe: Anatomy and retrospection, Journal of Volcanological and Geothermal Research, 44, 349–386.

von Huene, R., and D.W. Scholl, 1991, Observations at convergent margins concerning sediment subduction, subduction erosion, and the growth of continental crust, Reviews of Geophysics, 29, 279–316.

Vörösmarty, C.J., M. Meybeck, B. Fekete, K. Sharma, P. Green, and J.P.M. Syvitski, 2003, Anthropogenic sediment retention: Major global impact from registered river impoundments, Global and Planetary Change, 39, 169–190.

Wächtershäuser, G., 1988, Before enzymes and templates: Theory of surface metabolism, Microbiology Review, 52, 452–484.

Walker, J.C.G., P.B. Hays, and J.F. Kasting, 1981, A negative feedback mechanism for the long-term stabilization of Earth’s surface temperature, Journal of Geophysical Research, 86, 9776–9782.

Watson, E.B., J.B. Thomas, and D.J. Cherniak, 2007, 40Ar retention in the terrestrial planets, Nature, 449, 299–304.

Weidenschilling, S.J., 1997, The origin of comets in the solar nebula: A unified model, Icarus, 127, 290–306.

Weiss, B.P., J.L. Kirschvink, F.J. Baudenbacher, H. Vali, N.T. Peters, F.A. Macdonald, and J.P. Wikswo, 2000, A low temperature transfer of ALH84001 from Mars to Earth, Science, 290, 791–795.

West, M., J.J. Sanchez, and S.R. McNutt, 2005, Periodically triggered seismicity at Mount Wrangell, Alaska, after the Sumatra earthquake, Science, 308, 1144–1146.

Wiegel, J., and M.W.W. Adams, eds., 1998, Thermophiles: The Keys to Molecular Evolution and the Origin of Life, Taylor and Francis, London, 346 pp.

Wignall, P.B., and R.J. Twitchett, 1996, Oceanic anoxia and the end Permian mass extinction, Science, 272, 1155–1158.

Wilde, S.A., J.W. Valley, W.H. Peck, and C.M. Graham, 2001, Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 Gyr ago, Nature, 409, 175–178.

Wilhelms, D.E., 1987, The Geologic History of the Moon, USGS Professional Paper 1348, U.S. Government Printing Office, 302 pp.

Willett, S.D., 1999, Orography and orogeny: The effects of erosion on the structure of mountain belts, Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 28,957–28,981.

Williams, Q., and E.J. Garnero, 1996, Seismic evidence for partial melt at the base of Earth’s mantle, Science, 273, 1528.

Williams, Q., and R.J. Hemley, 2001, Hydrogen in the deep Earth, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 29, 365–418.

Wilson, P.A., and R.D. Norris, 2001, Warm tropical ocean surface and global anoxia during the mid-Cretaceous period, Nature, 412, 425–429.

Woese, C.R., 1977, Endosymbionts and mitochondrial origins, Journal of Molecular Evolution, 10, 93–96.

Wood, B.J., M.J. Walter, and J. Wade, 2006, Accretion of the Earth and segregation of its core, Nature, 441, 825–833.

Zachos, J., M. Pagani, L. Sloan, E. Thomas, and K. Billups, 2001, Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present, Science, 292, 686–693.

Zachos, J.C., U. Rohl, S.A. Schellenberg, A. Sluijs, D.A. Hodell, D.C. Kelly, E. Thomas, M. Nicolo, I. Raffi, L.J. Lourne, H. McCarren, and D. Kroon, 2005, Rapid acidification of the ocean during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum, Science, 308, 1611–1615.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement