Governance: The quality of government (e.g., rule of law, low corruption, high efficiency, high performance on dimensions deemed valuable for improving human welfare). May include some or all features of democracy.

Partial democracy: A system of government in which leaders are chosen by electoral competition, but such competition is not fully open or fair, and in which many of the political liberties and rights needed to ensure open and fair competition are absent or irregular. Elections are often marked by violence or disorders, elected officials are not fully accountable, and certain groups may be excluded from politics or disadvantaged by state control of media or electoral procedures.

Semiauthoritarian regimes: Governments in which leaders are not chosen by competitive elections but in which some political liberties are allowed. Leaders do stand for elections, but the eligibility and activities of the opposition are so tightly constrained that the outcome is never in doubt. There may be some independent media, some opposition political parties, and some diversity of representation in parliament or local governments. There may be some elements of the judiciary or electoral monitoring that function with autonomy.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement