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Antarctica

A Keystone in a Changing World

Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences

Santa Barbara, California

August 26 to September 1, 2007

Editors:

Alan K. Cooper, Peter Barrett, Howard Stagg, Bryan Storey, Edmund Stump, Woody Wise, and the 10th ISAES editorial team

*John Anderson

John Barron

Philip Bart

Donald Blankenship

Frederick Davey

Michael Diggles

Carol Finn

Paul Fitzgerald

Fabio Florindo

Jane Francis

Dieter Futterer

John Gamble

John Goodge

William Hammer

Patricia Helton

Erik Ivins

Philip Kyle

Wesley LeMasurier

Paul Mayewski

Timothy Naish

Sandra Passchier

Stephen Pekar

Carol Raymond

Carlo Alberto Ricci

Michael Studinger

David Sugden

Vanessa Thorn

Terry Wilson

This special International Polar Year volume is a joint effort of the Polar Research Board of the National Academies and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Polar Research Board is the U.S. National Committee to the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, which is the official sponsor of the 10th ISAES. Publication of printed papers is by the National Academies Press and publication of electronic media is by the U.S. Geological Survey.

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Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences Santa Barbara, California August 26 to September 1, 2007 Editors: Alan K. Cooper, Peter Barrett, Howard Stagg, Bryan Storey, Edmund Stump, Woody Wise, and the 10th ISAES editorial team *John Anderson Dieter Futterer Timothy Naish John Barron John Gamble Sandra Passchier Philip Bart John Goodge Stephen Pekar Donald Blankenship William Hammer Carol Raymond Frederick Davey Patricia Helton Carlo Alberto Ricci Michael Diggles Erik Ivins Michael Studinger Carol Finn Philip Kyle David Sugden Paul Fitzgerald Wesley LeMasurier Vanessa Thorn Fabio Florindo Paul Mayewski Terry Wilson Jane Francis This special International Polar Year volume is a joint effort of the Polar Research Board of the National Academies and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Polar Research Board is the U.S. National Committee to the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, which is the official sponsor of the 10th ISAES. Publication of printed papers is by the National Academies Press and publication of electronic media is by the U.S. Geological Survey.

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 FIFTH STREET, N.W. WASHINGTON, DC 20001 Note: This publication was overseen by two members of the Polar Research Board (PRB) who served as members of the 10th ISAES local organizing committee: Robin Bell, chair- person of the 10th ISAES Local Organizing Committee and Mahon C. Kennicutt II, U.S. delegate to the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and a vice president of SCAR. Funding support for this collaborative project was provided by the U.S. National Science Foundation’s Office of Polar Programs, the U.S. Geological Survey and SCAR. This book is a companion to the Online Proceedings of the 10th ISAES hosted by the USGS at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11854-5 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11854-9 Additional copies of this book are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Front cover: Depicting change from greenhouse to icehouse times in Antarctica. Upper: Snowstorm on Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Image provided by Jane Francis. Lower: Middle Cretaceous forest on Antarctica; painting by Robert Nicholls, with per- mission for use by the artist and by the British Antarctic Survey who commissioned the painting and have it on display there. Back cover: Upper: Estimates skin-depth temperatures derived from the thermal IR channel of historical AVHRR data. Image is from NASA website: http://svs.gsfc.nasa. gov/vis/a000000/a003100/a003188/index.html. Lower: Predictions of ice-sheet volume changes and the effect of these changes on global sea levels. Models are from the paper by Miller et al. in this book, and are in turn based on work of Deconto and Pollard (Nature 421:245-249, 2003). Suggested citation: Cooper, A. K., P. J. Barrett, H. Stagg, B. Storey, E. Stump, W. Wise, and the 10th ISAES editorial team, eds. (2008). Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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10TH ISAES EDITORIAL TEAM John Anderson, Department of Earth Sciences, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251 USA, johna@rice.edu Peter Barrett, Antarctic Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand, peter.barrett@vuw.ac.nz John Barron, U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd., Menlo Park, California 94025 USA, jbarron@usgs.gov Philip Bart, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 USA, pbart@lsu.edu Donald Blankenship, Institute for Geophysics, The University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Road, Austin, Texas 78758 USA, blank@ig.utexas.edu Alan Cooper, Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 USA, akcooper@pacbell.net AND Emeritus scientist, U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 USA, acooper@usgs.gov Frederick Davey, GNS-Science, 1 Fairway Drive, Lower Hutt, New Zealand, f.davey@gns.cri.nz AND Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Borgo Grotta Gigante 42/c, 34010 Sgonico, Trieste, Italy Michael Diggles, U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 USA, mdiggles@usgs.gov Carol Finn, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225 USA, cfinn@usgs.gov Paul Fitzgerald, Department of Earth Sciences, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 USA, pgfitzge@syr.edu Fabio Florindo, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Via di Vigna Murata 605, 00143-Roma, Italy, florindo@ingv.it Jane Francis, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK, j.francis@see.leeds.ac.uk Dieter Futterer, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), D-27515 Bremerhaven, Germany, Dieter.Fuetterer@awi.de John Gamble, Dept. of Geology, National University of Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland, J.Gamble@ucc.ie John W. Goodge, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Minnesota, Duluth, Minnesota 55812 USA, jgoodge@d.umn.edu William Hammer, Department of Geology, Augustana College, Rock Island, Illinois 61201 USA, WilliamHammer@augustana.edu Patricia Helton, 37899 Los Arboles Drive, Fremont, California 94536 USA, pat@heltonweb.com Erik Ivins, California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, California 91109 USA, Erik.R.Ivins@jpl.nasa.gov Philip Kyle, Department of Earth & Environmental Science, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 USA, kyle@nmt.edu Wesley LeMasurier, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 USA, Wesley.LeMasurier@Colorado.EDU Paul Mayewski, Climate Change Institute, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469 USA, paul.mayewski@gmail.com Timothy Naish, GNS Science and Antarctic Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington, 1 Fairway Drive, Lower Hutt, New Zealand, t.naish@gns.cri.nz Sandra Passchier, Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey 07043 USA, passchiers@mail.montclair.edu Stephen Pekar, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Queens College, 65-30 Kissena Blvd., Flushing, New York 11367 USA, stephen.pekar@qc.cuny.edu Carol Raymond, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 USA, Carol.A.Raymond@jpl.nasa.gov Carlo Alberto Ricci, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita’ di Siena, Via del Laterino 8, 53100 Siena, Italy, riccica@unisi.it Howard Stagg, Geoscience Australia, Canberra ACT 2601 Australia, Howard.Stagg@ga.gov.au, hstagg@apex.net.au Bryan Storey, Gateway Antarctica, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand, bryan.storey@canterbury.ac.nz Michael Studinger, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964 USA, mstuding@ldeo.columbia.edu Edmund Stump, School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 USA, ed.stump@asu.edu David Sugden, School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH8 9XP, David.Sugden@ed.ac.uk Vanessa Thorn, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK, v.thorn@see.leeds.ac.uk Terry Wilson, Department of Geological Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 USA, twilson@mps.ohio-state.edu Woody Wise, Department of Geological Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 USA, wise@gly.fsu.edu v

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Preface Gondwana geologists have a timely metaphor: “Antarctica— Antarctic research results to the science community, the the heart of it all” or from the geologic perspective: 10th ISAES changed to a new format of online and book Antarctica—the center from which all surrounding conti- publication. Presenters, other than keynote speakers, were nental bodies separated millions of years ago. The title of asked to submit either a short research paper for peer review our book “Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World” or an extended abstract without peer review before the sym- reinforces the importance of continual changes in Antarc- posium. Over 950 co-authors from 34 countries submitted tica’s multifaceted history and the impact of these changes 326 manuscripts. Prior to the symposium, 34 co-editors, over on global systems. In 2007, the Scientific Committee on 200 peer reviewers and authors processed manuscripts into Antarctic Research (SCAR) sponsored the 10th International final publication format so that 92 percent were published in Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences (10th ISAES) in the Online Proceedings (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/) Santa Barbara, California, to give researchers from 34 coun- before the symposium commenced and the remaining 8 per- tries an opportunity to share and discuss recent discoveries cent were made available online to meeting participants and in the Antarctic region. Such discoveries help decipher the authors; these were then published in the Online Proceedings prior and current roles of Antarctica in manifesting the global within the month following the symposium. climatic changes, now seemingly accelerating. Ten keynote speakers were invited to contribute over- The 10th ISAES coincides with the International Polar view talks at the symposium and contribute a full-length Year (IPY) that falls on the 50th anniversary of the Inter- paper. The keynote papers are printed in this book along national Geophysical Year (IGY). In recognition of these with a paper that summarizes highlights of the 10th ISAES. events, the symposium format and topics of keynote papers Several reports from meetings and workshops held in con- in the book envelop a broad spectrum with six themes cover- junction with the symposium were also submitted. The DVD ing key topics on evolution and interactions of the geosphere, in the back of the book contains the keynote and summary cryosphere, and biosphere and their cross-linkages with past papers and a complete copy of the 10th ISAES Online Pro- and historic paleoclimates. Emphasis is on deciphering the ceedings (see also http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/), all in climate records in ice cores, geologic cores, rock outcrops, PDF format for access, search, and printing. The DVD can and those inferred from climate models. New technologies be accessed and used on either a MAC or PC. for the coming decades of geoscience data collection are This special IPY volume for the 10th ISAES is a 100- also highlighted. year milestone for Antarctic publications, and a first for The 10th ISAES also marks the 44th year of such sym- any symposium publication. One hundred years ago, Ernest posia, and denotes the first significant change in presentation Shackleton’s expedition members created and printed the first and publication formats. Prior ISAES have a valued his- book ever published in Antarctica “on the ice in cryospace,” tory of impressive printed symposia volumes, with a total with their scientific discoveries and personal vignettes—they of nearly one thousand printed papers (Table 1) that were titled the book Aurora Australis. One hundred years later, the solicited and printed after the symposia. In recognition of 10th ISAES authors and editors created the first Antarctic IPY and the desire to quickly document and disseminate pre-symposium proceedings “online in cyberspace,” with vii

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viii PREFACE TABLE 1 The History of ISAES Symposia and Their Publication Volumes No. Location Year Symposium volume I Cape Town, South Africa 1963 Adie, R. J., ed. (1964), Antarctic Geology—Proceedings of the First (SCAR) International Symposium on Antarctic Geology, North Holland Publishing Co, Amsterdam, 758 pp. II Oslo, Norway 1970 Adie, R. J., ed. (1972), Antarctic Geology and Geophysics—Proceedings of the Second (SCAR) Symposium on Antarctic Geology and Solid Earth Geophysics, International Union of Geological Sciences, B1, Universitetsforlaget, Oslo, 876 pp. III Madison, Wisconsin, USA 1977 Craddock, C., ed. (1982), Antarctic Geoscience—Proceedings of the Third (SCAR) Symposium on Antarctic Geology and Geophysics, International Union of Geological Sciences, B4, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1172 pp. IV Adelaide, Australia 1982 Oliver, R. L., P. R. James and J. B. Jago, eds. (1983), Antarctic Earth Science—Proceedings of the Fourth (SCAR) International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, 697 pp. V Cambridge, UK 1987 Thompson, M. R. A., J. A. Crame and J. W. Thompson, eds. (1991), Geological Evolution of Antarctica—Proceedings of the Fifth (SCAR) International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 722 pp. VI Tokyo, Japan 1991 Yoshida, Y., K. Kaminuma and K. Shiraishi, eds. (1992), Recent Progress in Antarctic Earth Science—Proceedings of the Sixth (SCAR) International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, Terra Scientific Publishing, Tokyo, 796 pp. VII Siena, Italy 1995 Ricci, C. A., ed. (1997), The Antarctic Region: Geological Evolution and Processes—Proceedings of the Seventh (SCAR) International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, Terra Antarctica Publication, Siena, 1206 pp. VIII Wellington, New Zealand 1999 Gamble, J. A., D. N. B. Skinner, and S. Henrys, eds. (2002), Antarctica at the Close of the Millennium—Proceedings of the Eighth (SCAR) International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, The Royal Society of New Zealand Bulletin No. 35, Wellington, Terra Scientific Publishing, Tokyo, 652 pp. IX Potsdam, Germany 2003 Futterer, D. K., D. Damaske, G. Kleinschmidt, H. Miller, and F. Tessensohn, eds. (2006), Antarctica: Contributions to Global Earth Sciences—Proceedings of the Ninth (SCAR) International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 477 pp. X Santa Barbara, California, 2007 Cooper, A. K., P. J. Barrett, H. Stagg, B. Storey, E. Stump, W. Wise, and the Tenth ISAES editorial USA team, eds. (2008), Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World—Proceedings of the 10th (SCAR) International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. 162 pp. with DVD containing website http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1047/. The 10th ISAES Proceedings Volume is the first in the ISAES series to include both book and electronic publication formats. changes in global systems. The volumes illustrate the posi- new research findings and interpretations. The book and tive impact of this research in successfully preserving the online proceedings are yet another way in which Antarctica spirit of collaboration, data-sharing, and use of Antarctica as and its scientists are effecting changes in the dissemination a “continent for science” as intended by the Antarctic Treaty of geoscience and other information globally. that was implemented in 1959 at the close of IGY. The 10th ISAES Proceedings volumes showcase the great breadth of Antarctic geoscience research at the time Alan Cooper of IPY, and the importance of Antarctica in deciphering Lead editor

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Acknowledgments The 10th ISAES was held under the auspices of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and we thank SCAR for their ongoing support of these Antarctic geoscience symposia. Creating the special International Polar Year volumes for the 10th ISAES, with book and DVD (and Online Proceedings) over the last three years has involved over 1200 people, most on a volunteer basis, in more than 34 countries, including over 950 authors, 34 editors and editorial staff, more than 200 peer reviewers, 23 members of the International and Local Organizing authors, 34 editors and editorial staff, more than 200 peer reviewers, 23 members of the International and Local Orga- Committees and their staff, and many managers and staff from the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, The National nizing Committees and their staff, and many managers and staff from the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, The Academies Polar Research Board, Board, U.S. Geological National Science Foundation, The National Academies Press, National Academies Polar ResearchU.S. Geological Survey, Survey, National Science Foundation, The National Academies Conference Exchange, Stanford University, and University of California at Santa Barbara. These people and institutions are Press, Conference Exchange, Stanford University, and University of California Santa Barbara. These people and institutions warmly thanked for for varied contributions to this this successful undertaking. is not is not adequate space list to list all are warmly thanked theirtheir varied contributions tosuccessful undertaking. There There adequate space here to hereall names, but see the DVD (Online Proceedings) for expanded lists of those those who have assisted. names, but see the DVD (Online Proceedings) for expanded lists ofwho have assisted. We especially thank Stephen Mautner, Executive Editor, and Rachel Marcus, Managing Editor, of the National Academies Press, for their dedicated efforts in helping to make this book possible and in producing it on schedule. U.S. Organizing Committee Collaborating agencies Robin Bell, ChairCommittee The National Academies U.S. Organizing Collaborating agencies Robin Bell, Chair Alan Cooper, Publications manager The NationalResearch Board - Polar Academies Alan Cooper, Publications manager - Polar Research Board Ian Dalziel, International coordination U.S. Committee on International Polar Year Ian Dalziel, International coordination U.S. Committee on International Polar Year Carol Finn, Publications co-editor University of California at Santa Barbara Carol Finn, Publications committee Paul Fitzgerald, Programco-editor University of California at Santa Barbara Stanford University Paul Fitzgerald, Program committee Stanford University James Kennett, Symposium co-manager James Kennett, Symposium co-manager Bruce Luyendyk, Symposium manager International Steering Committee Bruce Luyendyk, Symposium Samuel Mukasa, Developmentmanager International Steering Committee Peter Barrett, New Zealand Samuel Mukasa, Development Peter Barrett, New Italy Alessandro Capra, Zealand Ross Powell, Workshops Ross Powell, Workshops Alessandro Capra, Italy Carol Raymond, Publications co-manager Gino Casassa, Chile Carol Raymond, Publications co-manager Gino Davey, New Zealand Fred Casassa, Chile Christine Siddoway, Field excursions Christine Siddoway, Field excursions Fred Davey, New Zealand Terry Wilson, Program Committee chair Ian Fitzsimons, Australia Terry Wilson, Program Committee chair Ian Fitzsimons, Australia Chuck Kennicutt, SCAR ex-officio Jane Francis, United Kingdom Chuck Kennicutt, SCAR ex-officio Jane Francis, United Kingdom Marta Ghidella, Argentina Marta Ghidella, Argentina Funding agencies for 10th ISAES Joachim Jacobs, Germany Funding agencies for 10th ISAES Joachim Jacobs, Germany U.S. National Science Foundation Hubert Miller, Germany U.S. National Science Foundation Hubert Miller, Germany Division of Polar Programs Carlo Alberto Ricci, Italy Carlo Alberto Ricci, Italy Division of Polar Programs Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research Antarctic Research Scientific Committee on - Geosciences Standing Group - Geosciences Standing Group - Antarctic Climate Evolution Program - Antarctic Climate Evolution Program U.S. Geological Survey ix

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Contents Preface vii Acknowledgments ix Summary and Highlights of the 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences 1 T. J. Wilson, R. E. Bell, P. Fitzgerald, S. B. Mukasa, R. D. Powell, and C. Finn Antarctica Earth System Science in the International Polar Year 2007-2008 7 R. E. Bell 100 Million Years of Antarctic Climate Evolution: Evidence from Fossil Plants 19 J. E. Francis, A. Ashworth, D. J. Cantrill, J. A. Crame, J. Howe, R. Stephens, A.-M. Tosolini, and V. Thorn Antarctica’s Continent-Ocean Transitions: Consequences for Tectonic Reconstructions 29 K. Gohl Landscape Evolution of Antarctica 39 S. S. R. Jamieson and D. E. Sugden A View of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Evolution from Sea-Level and Deep-Sea Isotope Changes During the Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic 55 K. G. Miller, J. D. Wright, M. E. Katz, J. V. Browning, B. S. Cramer, B. S. Wade, and S. F. Mizintseva Late Cenozoic Climate History of the Ross Embayment from the AND-1B Drill Hole: Culmination of Three Decades of Antarctic Margin Drilling 71 T. R. Naish, R. D. Powell, P. J. Barrett, R. H. Levy, S. Henrys, G. S. Wilson, L. A. Krissek, F. Niessen, M. Pompilio, J. Ross, R. Scherer, F. Talarico, A. Pyne, and the ANDRILL-MIS Science team A Pan-Precambrian Link Between Deglaciation and Environmental Oxidation 83 T. D. Raub and J. L. Kirschvink Tectonics of the West Antarctic Rift System: New Light on the History and Dynamics of Distributed Intracontinental Extension 91 C. S. Siddoway The Significance of Antarctica for Studies of Global Geodynamics 115 R. Sutherland Antarctica and Global Paleogeography: From Rodinia, Through Gondwanaland and Pangea, to the Birth of the Southern Ocean and the Opening of Gateways 125 T. H. Torsvik, C. Gaina, and T. F. Redfield DVD Contents 141 xi

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