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Appendix D Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff greg L. zacharias (Cochair) is principal scientist at Charles River Analytics, Inc. He guides research in cognitive systems engineering and computational intelligence to support the development of intelligent agents for a broad range of systems applications, including decision support systems. Before cofounding Charles River, he was a senior scientist at BBN Technologies, a research engineer at C.S. Draper Labs, and an Air Force research attaché for NASA’s space shuttle program at the Johnson Space Center. At the National Research Council, he was a member of the Committee on Human Factors from 1995 to 2007 and served on the Panel on Modeling Human Behavior and Command Decision Making. He has served as a technical reviewer for the Dayton Area Graduate Studies Institute, the Human Fac- tors & Ergonomics Society Ely Award Committee for “annual best paper,” and the Department of Defense’s Human Systems Technology Area Review and Assessment Panel. He serves on the Air Force’s Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) as a technical program reviewer for the Air Force Research Laboratory, in human effectiveness and information systems, and was a member of the Air Combat Command Advisory Group, and chair of the Human System Wing Advisory Group at Brooks Air Force Base. He has also chaired SAB studies in UAV mission management, and human systems integration in USAF Acquisition. He is on the board of the Embry-Riddle Research Advisory Board and the Small Business Technology Coalition. He has a Ph.D. from the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

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 BEHAVIORAL MODELING AND SIMULATION jean MacMillan (Cochair) is chief scientist at Aptima, Inc. Her 25-year research career has spanned a broad range of topics in human-machine interaction and user-centered system design, including adaptive instruc- tional design, team decision making, command center design, and human performance measurement in simulation environments. At Aptima, she has served as the principal investigator for projects focusing on the development of reliable and valid performance measures for teams of F-16 pilots train- ing in a distributed simulation facility, the design of synthetic entities that function as team members for simulation-based training of teamwork skills, the assessment of team performance and development of team performance measures for AWACS weapons director teams, and the development of opti- mized model-based manning reduction strategies that will allow the opera- tion of Navy ships with a reduced number of personnel. She also codesigned a computer-based adaptive tutor for improving the reading comprehension of adult readers. She is a member of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society and one of the founding members of its Cognitive Engineering and Decision-Making Technical Group. She has served on the editorial boards of the Human Factors and Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making journals. She has a B.A. from Antioch College, an M.C.P. from Harvard University, and a Ph.D. in cognitive psychology from Harvard University. Holly Arrow is a member of both the Department of Psychology and the Institute for Cognitive and Decision Sciences at the University of Oregon. She studies the emergence and transformation of structure—including norms, influence hierarchies, and the cognitive networks of members—in small groups. She is coauthor (with Joseph McGrath and Jennifer Berdahl) of Small Groups as Complex Systems: Formation, Coordination, Develop- ment, and Adaptation. She is currently serving a second term as president of the Society for Chaos Theory in Psychology and Life Sciences. Current research projects include a computational model exploring the evolution of war and in-group altruism. She has a Ph.D. from the University of Illinois and did her initial training in complexity theory at the Santa Fe Institute Complex Systems Summer School (1995). Stephen P. Borgatti is the Chellgren endowed chair of management at the Gatton School of Business at the University of Kentucky. During the writing of the report, he was an associate professor of organizational studies in the Carroll School of Management at Boston College. Previously he worked as a management scientist for a Boston-area consulting firm, specializing in modeling adoption of new consumer products. His research interests focus on how social networks constrain and enable the acquisition of individual beliefs, particularly the subset called knowledge. He is the past director of the National Science Foundation’s Summer Institute for Ethnographic

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 APPENDIX D Research Methods and the developer of ANTHROPAC, a computer pro- gram for cultural domain analysis. He is also the principal author of UCINET, a leading software package for social network analysis. He is a past president of the International Network for Social Networks Analysis (INSNA), the professional association for social network researchers, and is currently senior editor of Organization Science, as well as member of the editorial boards of several other journals. He has a B.A. in cultural anthropology (1977) from Cornell University and a Ph.D. in mathematical anthropology (1989) from the University of California, Irvine. Richard M. Burton is professor of business administration in the Fuqua School of Business at Duke University. He is also professor of manage- ment at the European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management in Brussels and honorary professor at the University of Southern Denmark. His research focuses on organizational design, particularly its relationship to strategy for the firm. He has authored numerous articles and books on strategy, organization, and management science. Strategic Organizational Diagnosis and Design: The Dynamics of Fit (coauthored with Borge Obel) is in its third edition. With the associated software, OrgCon, the book provides an integrated theoretical and practical approach to organiza- tional design for strategy implementation. He teaches executive M.B.A. courses in organizational design and international management. In the Ph.D. program, he teaches the theory course in organization theory and an advanced course in computational organization theory applications. He is active on a number of editorial boards and has been department editor for strategy, organizational design, and performance for Management Science. Currently, he is senior editor for Organization Science. He has B.S., M.B.A., and Ph.D. degrees, the latter in business administration, from the University of Illinois. Kathleen M. Carley is professor in the Department of Social and Deci- sion Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University. She specializes in research on organization theory, dynamic network analysis, social networks, multiagent systems, and computational social science. In her work, she examines how cognitive, social, and institutional factors affect individual, team, social, and policy outcomes. She is the author or coauthor of numerous books and articles in the areas of computational social and organizational science and dynamic network analysis. At the National Research Council, she served on the organizing committee for the Workshop on Statistical Analysis of Networks and the Panel on Modeling Human Behavior and Command Decision Making: Representations for Military Simulations. She is a mem- ber of the Academy of Management, Informs, the INSNA, the American Sociological Society, the American Association for the Advancement of

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400 BEHAVIORAL MODELING AND SIMULATION Science, and Sigma XI. In 2001 she received the lifetime achievement award from the sociology and computers section of the American Sociological Association. She is a founding and the current editor of Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory. She has a Ph.D. in sociology from Harvard University. Catherine Dibble is assistant professor in the Department of Geography at the University of Maryland. She uses agent-based computational labora- tories to model such processes as long-run regional development and land use changes, epidemics among highly mobile populations, and the effects of spatial technology networks on the evolution of inequality. She has served on the International Steering Committee for the GeoComputation Confer- ence Series since its inception in 1996 and is an experienced designer of spa- tial evolutionary algorithms and relevance filters. Her academic background includes graduate work in formal microeconomic theory and international trade theory, public finance (which includes theory and practice relating to overuse of shared resources, externalities, and public goods), and game theory (especially axiomatic bargaining theory, a formal structure for evalu- ating fairness in resource allocation problems) in the Department of Eco- nomics at the University of Rochester. Her professional experience includes computer science and many years as a professional software designer and developer (simulations, executive information systems, and national and international software patents). She has an M.A. in economics from the University of Rochester and a Ph.D. in geography from the University of California, Santa Barbara. Eva Hudlicka is a principal scientist and president of Psychometrix Asso- ciates, Inc. Prior to founding Psychometrix Associates in 1995, she was a senior scientist at Bolt, Beranek, and Newman. Her research focuses on cognitive modeling, with emphasis on the development of computational models of individual differences and emotion in cognitive architectures. Key features of these models are the explicit representation of affect appraisal and the effects of emotion and personality on decision making and perfor- mance. Her prior research included user interface design, decision support system design, and knowledge elicitation. She has authored several book chapters, organized a number of workshops focusing on emotion modeling, and served on conference program committees. She was a guest editor for a special issue of the International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, focusing on affective computing. She is a member of the editorial board of PRESENCE. She has a B.S. in biochemistry from Virginia Polytechnic and State University (1977), an M.S. in computer science from the Ohio State University (1979), and a Ph.D. in computer science from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst (1986).

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40 APPENDIX D jeffrey C. johnson is a senior scientist at the Institute for Coastal and Marine Resources and professor in the Department of Sociology and adjunct in the departments of Anthropology, Biology, and Biostatistics at East Carolina University. He has been active in research projects funded by Sea Grant and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for more than two decades. He has conducted an extensive long-term research project sup- ported by the National Science Foundation comparing group dynamics of the overwintering crews at the American South Pole Station with those at the Polish, Russian, Chinese, and Indian Antarctic Stations. In addition, he is interested in network models of complex biological systems and is cur- rently working with several ecologists on the examination of problems asso- ciated with trophic dynamics in food webs. His recent work involves the development and testing of cognitive models of Inupiaq understandings of the Kotzebue Sound ecosystem in the Arctic. He has published extensively in anthropological, sociological, and marine science journals. The founder and former editor-in-chief of the Journal of Quantitative Anthropology and the current coeditor of the journal Human Organization, he is also the author of Selecting Ethnographic Informants. He has a Ph.D. in social science from the University of California, Irvine. Scott E. Page is professor of complex systems, political science, and eco- nomics at the University of Michigan and an external faculty member of the Santa Fe Institute. He is the principal investigator on a study of com- putational modeling in the social sciences. He is the author of numerous papers on the applications of mathematical and computational modeling to questions in the social sciences. His most recent work, which appeared in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, is on the aggre- gative properties of individual-level diversity. He has an undergraduate degree from the University of Michigan, an M.S. in mathematics from the University of Wisconsin, and a Ph.D. in managerial economics and decision sciences from Northwestern University. Andrew P. Sage is founding dean emeritus, university professor, and First American Bank professor in the Department of Systems Engineering and Operations Research at George Mason University. His interests include sys- tems engineering and management efforts in a variety of application areas, including systems integration and architecting, reengineering, engineering economic systems, and sustainable development. He is an elected fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the International Council on Systems Engineering. He is editor of the John Wiley textbook series on systems engineering and management, the INCOSE Wiley journal Sys- tems Engineering, and is coeditor of Information, Knowledge, and Systems

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40 BEHAVIORAL MODELING AND SIMULATION Management. In 1994 he received the Donald G. Fink Prize from the IEEE and a public service award for his service on the CNA Corporation Board of Trustees from the U.S. Secretary of the Navy. In 2000, he received the Simon Ramo Medal from the IEEE in recognition of his contributions to systems engineering and an IEEE third millennium medal. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2004 for contributions to the theory and practice of systems engineering and systems management. He has a B.S.E.E. degree from the Citadel, an S.M.E.E. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a Ph.D. (1960) from Purdue University. Leigh S. Tesfatsion is professor of economics and mathematics in the Department of Economics at Iowa State University. Her current research focuses on agent-based computational economics (ACE), the computational study of economic processes modeled as dynamic systems of interacting agents. Her particular interest is the development of empirically based ACE frameworks for the study of restructured electricity markets. She currently serves as an editorial board member for Edward Elgar’s New Dimensions in Networks book series. She is also an associate editor (or editorial board member) for the Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, the Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination, the Journal of Energy Markets, and Applied Mathematics and Computation. She is active in several IEEE working groups and task forces, the Society for Computational Economics (SCE), the SCE special interest group on ACE. She is a participating faculty member in the Graduate Program on Human-Computer Interaction and an affiliate faculty member of the Center for Computational Intelligence, Learning and Discovery. She has a Ph.D. in economics, with a minor in mathematics, from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (1975). Susan B. van Hemel (Study Director) is a senior program officer in the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education at the National Research Council. She currently manages a study of developmental out- comes and assessments for young children for the Administration for Chil- dren and Families of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Previous projects at the National Research Council include a study of staff- ing standards for aviation safety inspectors at the Federal Aviation Admin- istration, studies of Social Security disability determination for individuals with visual and hearing impairments, and workshops on technology for adaptive aging and on decision making in older adults. She has also done work for a previous employer on vision requirements for commercial drivers and on commercial driver fatigue. For over 25 years she has managed and performed studies on a variety of topics related to human performance and training. She is a member of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

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40 APPENDIX D and its technical groups on perception and performance and aging. She has a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from the Johns Hopkins University. Michael j. zyda is director of the GamePipe Laboratory, a professor of engineering practice in the Department of Computer Science, and a staff member of the Information Sciences Institute at the University of Southern California. He was the founding director of the MOVES Institute, located at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, and a professor in the Department of Computer Science there as well. His research interests include computer graphics, large-scale, networked 3-D virtual environ- ments, agent-based simulation, modeling human and organizational behav- ior, interactive computer-generated stories, computer-generated characters, video production, entertainment/defense collaboration, modeling and simu- lation, and serious and entertainment games. He has a lifetime appointment as a national associate of the National Academies, an appointment made by the Council of the National Academy of Sciences in November 2003, awarded in recognition of “extraordinary service” to the National Acad- emies. He is a member of the Academy of Interactive Arts and Sciences. He served as the principal investigator and development director of the PC game America’s Army, which transformed Army recruiting. He has a B.A. in bioengineering from the University of California, San Diego, an M.S. in computer science from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and a D.Sc. in computer science (1984) from Washington University, St. Louis.

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