B.E. degree in electronics and communication engineering from IIT-Roorkee, as well as a 2-year postgraduate diploma in industrial engineering from the National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Bombay.


R. Michael Alvarez is a professor of political science at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech). His research interests have been in the areas of elections and electoral behavior, survey methodology, statistics and political methodology, and more recently, election administration. Professor Alvarez is currently the co-director of the Caltech/MIT Voting Technology Project and recently coauthored a book published by the Brookings Institution Press, Point, Click and Vote: The Future of Internet Voting. Professor Alvarez received his Ph.D. and M.A. degrees in political science from Duke University and his B.A., magna cum laude, in political science from Carleton College.


Charlotte Cleary, retired, was general registrar of Arlington for 19 years. As such, she was responsible for planning, organizing, and directing voter registration and elections. After she retired, she continued working in the election field on a temporary basis. She has served as a member of the writing and research team for the Poll Worker Institute grant on poll worker recruitment, training, and retention, for the Election Assistance Commission. In 2004 she served on the Virginia State Board of elections evaluation committee to review requests for proposals for the new statewide election system. She was a certified professional general registrar in Virginia under the Weldon Cooper Center from 1994 through 2000. She has been a member of the Federal Election Commission Advisory Panel from 1998 through 2003, the Election Center from 1990 through 2003, and the Constitution Project Forum on Election Reform from 2001 to 2003. She received a B.A. in English from American University, in Washington, D.C.


Gary W. Cox, NAS, is a professor of political science at the University of California, San Diego. In addition to numerous articles in the areas of legislative and electoral politics, Professor Cox is author of The Efficient Secret (winner of the Samuel H. Beer dissertation prize in 1983 and of the 2003 George H. Hallett Award), coauthor of Legislative Leviathan (winner of the Richard F. Fenno Prize in 1993), author of Making Votes Count (winner of the Woodrow Wilson Foundation Award, the Luebbert Prize, and the Best Book in Political Economy Award in 1998); and coauthor of Elbridge Gerry’s Salamander: The Electoral Consequences of the Reapportionment Revolution. His latest book, Setting the Agenda, was published in 2005. A former Guggenheim Fellow, Professor Cox was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1996 and to the National Academy of Sciences in 2005. He received a Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology in 1983.


Paula Hawthorn, retired, serves as a consultant and continues her involvement with the University of California, Berkeley. She received her Ph.D. in electrical engineering and computer science from the University of California in 1979. Her thesis topic was on the performance of database systems. She has spent much of her career as a manager of database development, including vice-president of Software Development for start-ups such as Britton Lee and Illustra, and both management and individual contributor positions at Hewlett-Packard (working on database performance issues) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.


Sarah Ball Johnson currently serves as the executive director of the Commonwealth of Kentucky’s State Board of Elections. She has 12 years of experience in election administration on the state level. She has a bachelor of arts degree in business administration from Transylvania University and a master of public administration degree, specializing in state and local government, from the University of Kentucky. She participated in four international election observation trips, to Slovakia, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Nigeria. A member of the National Association of State Election Directors, she serves as the southern region representative on the board of the association and also serves on the Election Assistance Commission



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement