research that will lead to new technologies and drugs, particularly in areas of cognition and performance, that will include off-label uses. Off-label drug use can alert intelligence analysts to compounds, methods of administration, or risk factors that may be unknown in civilian or military medicine and can help identify profiles of unanticipated effects.

Key Finding (Finding 5-4). Rapid advances in cognitive neuroscience, as in science and technology in general, represent a major challenge to the IC. The IC does not have the internal capability to warn against scientific developments that could lead to major—even catastrophic—intelligence failures in the years ahead. An effective warning model must depend on continuous input from strong internal science and technology programs, strong interactive networks with outside scientific experts, and government decision makers who engage in the process and take it seriously as a driver of resources. All that remains a work in progress for the IC.


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