rainfall, depending on terrain

damage to roads if precipitation changes from snow to rain in winter and spring thaws

Benefits for safety and reduced interruptions if frozen precipitation shifts to rainfall

impacts on long-term viability of some inland navigation routes



Storms: more frequent strong hurricanes (Category 4–5)

More debris on roads and rail lines, interrupting travel and shipping

More frequent and potentially more extensive emergency evacuations

Greater probability of infrastructure failures

Increased threat to stability of bridge decks

Increased damage to signs, lighting fixtures, and supports

Decreased expected lifetime of highways exposed to storm surge

Implications for emergency evacuation planning, facility maintenance, and safety management

Greater challenge to robustness of infrastructure

Damage to harbor infrastructure from waves and storm surges

Damage to cranes and other dock and terminal facilities

More frequent interruptions in air service

Damage to landside facilities (e.g., terminals, navigation aids, fencing around perimeters, signs)

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