Appendix B
References

Anglaret, X., G. Chene, A. Attia, S. Toure, S. Lafont, P. Combe, K. Manlan, T. N’Dri-Yoman, and R. Salamon. 1999. Early chemoprophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole for HIV-1-infected adults in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire: A randomised trial. Cotrimo-ci study group. Lancet 353(9163):1463-1468.

Archibald, H. M., and L. J. Bruce-Chwatt. 1956. Suppression of malaria with pyrimethamine in Nigerian schoolchildren. Bull World Health Organ 15(3-5):775-784.

Arevshatian, L., C. Clements, S. Lwanga, A. Misore, P. Ndumbe, J. Seward, and P. Taylor. 2007. An evaluation of infant immunization in Africa: Is a transformation in progress? Bull World Health Organ 85(6):449-457.

Auquier-Dunant, A., M. Mockenhaupt, L. Naldi, O. Correia, W. Schroder, and J. C. Roujeau. 2002. Correlations between clinical patterns and causes of erythema multiforme majus, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis: Results of an international prospective study. Arch Dermatol 138(8):1019-1024.

Aylward, B., M. Birmingham, J. Lloyd, and B. Melgaard. 2004. Reaching every child—Achieving equity in global immunization. In New generation vaccines. 4th Edition, edited by M. M. Levine, J. B. Kaper, R. Rappuoli, M. A. Liu, and M. F. Good. New York: Marcel Dekker. Pp. 89-100.

Barnes, K. I., F. Little, P. J. Smith, A. Evans, W. M. Watkins, and N. J. White. 2006. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine pharmacokinetics in malaria: Pediatric dosing implications. Clin Pharmacol Ther 80(6):582-596.

Berlin, J. A., J. Santanna, C. H. Schmid, L. A. Szczech, and H. I. Feldman. 2002. Individual patient- versus group-level data meta-regressions for the investigation of treatment effect modifiers: Ecological bias rears its ugly head. Stat Med 21(3):371-387.

Bradley-Moore, A. M., B. M. Greenwood, A. K. Bradley, A. Bartlett, D. E. Bidwell, A. Voller, B. R. Kirkwood, and H. M. Gilles. 1985. Malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine in young Nigerian children. I. Its effect on mortality, morbidity and the prevalence of malaria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 79(6):549-562.

Brenzel, L., L. J. Wolfson, J. Fox-Rushby, M. Miller, and N. A. Halsey. 2006. Vaccine preventable diseases. In Disease control priorities in developing countries. 2nd Edition. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 389-412.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2007. Progress in global measles control and mortality reduction, 2000-2006. MMWR 56(47):1237-1241.



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Appendix B References Anglaret, X., G. Chene, A. Attia, S. Toure, S. Lafont, P. Combe, K. Manlan, T. N’Dri-Yoman, and R. Salamon. 1999. Early chemoprophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole for HIV- 1-infected adults in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire: A randomised trial. Cotrimo-ci study group. Lancet 353(9163):1463-1468. Archibald, H. M., and L. J. Bruce-Chwatt. 1956. Suppression of malaria with pyrimethamine in Nigerian schoolchildren. Bull World Health Organ 15(3-5):775-784. Arevshatian, L., C. Clements, S. Lwanga, A. Misore, P. Ndumbe, J. Seward, and P. Taylor. 2007. An evaluation of infant immunization in Africa: Is a transformation in progress? Bull World Health Organ 85(6):449-457. Auquier-Dunant, A., M. Mockenhaupt, L. Naldi, O. Correia, W. Schroder, and J. C. Roujeau. 2002. Correlations between clinical patterns and causes of erythema multiforme majus, Stevens- Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis: Results of an international prospective study. Arch Dermatol 138(8):1019-1024. Aylward, B., M. Birmingham, J. Lloyd, and B. Melgaard. 2004. Reaching every child— Achieving equity in global immunization. In New generation vaccines. 4th Edition, edited by M. M. Levine, J. B. Kaper, R. Rappuoli, M. A. Liu, and M. F. Good. New York: Marcel Dekker. Pp. 89-100. Barnes, K. I., F. Little, P. J. Smith, A. Evans, W. M. Watkins, and N. J. White. 2006. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine pharmacokinetics in malaria: Pediatric dosing implications. Clin Pharmacol Ther 80(6):582-596. Berlin, J. A., J. Santanna, C. H. Schmid, L. A. Szczech, and H. I. Feldman. 2002. Individual patient- versus group-level data meta-regressions for the investigation of treatment effect modifiers: Ecological bias rears its ugly head. Stat Med 21(3):371-387. Bradley-Moore, A. M., B. M. Greenwood, A. K. Bradley, A. Bartlett, D. E. Bidwell, A. Voller, B. R. Kirkwood, and H. M. Gilles. 1985. Malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine in young Nigerian children. I. Its effect on mortality, morbidity and the prevalence of malaria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 79(6):549-562. Brenzel, L., L. J. Wolfson, J. Fox-Rushby, M. Miller, and N. A. Halsey. 2006. Vaccine preventable diseases. In Disease control priorities in developing countries. 2nd Edition. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 389-412. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2007. Progress in global measles control and mortality reduction, 2000-2006. MMWR 56(47):1237-1241. 66

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APPENDIX B 67 Chandramohan, D., J. Webster, L. Smith, T. Awine, S. Owusu-Agyei, and I. Carneiro. 2007. Is the Expanded Programme on Immunization the most appropriate delivery system for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in West Africa? Trop Med Int Health 12(6):743-750. Cisse, B., C. Sokhna, D. Boulanger, J. Milet, H. Ba el, K. Richardson, R. Hallett, C. Sutherland, K. Simondon, F. Simondon, N. Alexander, O. Gaye, G. Targett, J. Lines, B. Greenwood, and J. F. Trape. 2006. Seasonal intermittent preventive treatment with artesunate and sulfadoxine- pyrimethamine for prevention of malaria in Senegalese children: A randomised, placebo- controlled, double-blind trial. Lancet 367(9511):659-667. Clyde, D. F., and G. T. Shute. 1957. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in Tanganyika to pyrimethamine administered at weekly intervals. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 51(6):505-513. Coulibaly, D., D. A. Diallo, M. A. Thera, A. Dicko, A. B. Guindo, A. K. Kone, Y. Cissoko, S. Coulibaly, A. Djimde, K. Lyke, O. K. Doumbo, and C. V. Plowe. 2002. Impact of preseason treatment on incidence of falciparum malaria and parasite density at a site for testing malaria vaccines in Bandiagara, Mali. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67(6):604-610. Dalmiya, N., A. Palmer, and I. Darnton-Hill. 2006. Sustaining vitamin A supplementation requires a new vision. Lancet 368(9541):1052-1054. Dicko, A., S. Sagara, M. S. Sissoko, O. Guindo, A. B. I. Diallo, M. Kone, M. A. Thera, M. Sacko, and O.K. Doumbo. 2004. Impact of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine pyrimethamine targetting the transmission season on the incidence of clinical malaria in children of 6 months to 10 years in Kambila, Mali. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71(4 Supplement):6. Diourte, Y., A. Djimde, O. K. Doumbo, I. Sagara, Y. Coulibaly, A. Dicko, M. Diallo, M. Diakite, J. F. Cortese, and C. V. Plowe. 1999. Pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine efficacy and selection for mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase in Mali. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60(3):475-478. Doumbo, O. K., K. Kayentao, A. Djimde, J. F. Cortese, Y. Diourte, A. Konare, J. G. Kublin, and C. V. Plowe. 2000. Rapid selection of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase mutants by pyrimethamine prophylaxis. J Infect Dis 182(3):993-996. Emberger, M., A. M. Lechner, and B. Zelger. 2003. Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with malarone antimalarial prophylaxis. Clin Infect Dis 37(1):e5-7. García-Doval, I., L. LeCleach, H. Bocquet, X. L. Otero, and J. C. Roujeau. 2000. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome: Does early withdrawal of causative drugs decrease the risk of death? Arch Dermatol 136(3):323-327. Geerligs, P. D., B. J. Brabin, and T. A. Eggelte. 2003. Analysis of the effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis in children on haematological responses, morbidity and mortality. Bull World Health Organ 81(3):205-216.

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68 INTERMITTENT PREVENTIVE TREATMENT FOR MALARIA IN INFANTS Gimnig, J. E., J. R. MacArthur, M. M’Bang’ombe, M. H. Kramer, N. Chizani, R. S. Stern, C. Mkandala, R. D. Newman, R. W. Steketee, and C. H. Campbell. 2006. Severe cutaneous reactions to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in Blantyre district, Malawi. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74(5):738-743. Global Partnership to Roll Back Malaria, and UNICEF. 2005. World malaria report: 2005. Geneva: World Health Organization. Goodman, C. A., P. G. Coleman, and A. J. Mills. 1999. Cost-effectiveness of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet 354(9176):378-385. Grabowsky, M., T. Nobiya, M. Ahun, R. Donna, M. Lengor, D. Zimmerman, H. Ladd, E. Hoekstra, A. Bello, A. Baffoe-Wilmot, and G. Amofah. 2005. Distributing insecticide-treated bednets during measles vaccination: A low-cost means of achieving high and equitable coverage. Bull World Health Organ 83(3):195-201. Grabowsky, M., T. Nobiya, and J. Selanikio. 2007. Sustained high coverage of insecticide- treated bednets through combined catch-up and keep-up strategies. Trop Med Int Health 12(7):815-822. Greenwood, B. 2006. Review: Intermittent preventive treatment—A new approach to the prevention of malaria in children in areas with seasonal malaria transmission. Trop Med Int Health 11(7):983-991. Greenwood, B. M., A. M. Greenwood, A. K. Bradley, R. W. Snow, P. Byass, R. J. Hayes, and A. B. N’Jie. 1988. Comparison of two strategies for control of malaria within a primary health care programme in The Gambia. Lancet 1(8595):1121-1127. Greenwood, B. M., P. H. David, L. N. Otoo-Forbes, S. J. Allen, P. L. Alonso, J. R. Armstrong Schellenberg, P. Byass, M. Hurwitz, A. Menon, and R. W. Snow. 1995. Mortality and morbidity from malaria after stopping malaria chemoprophylaxis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89(6):629- 633. Grobusch, M. P., B. Lell, N. G. Schwarz, J. Gabor, J. Dornemann, M. Potschke, S. Oyakhirome, G. C. Kiessling, M. Necek, M. U. Langin, P. K. Klouwenberg, A. Klopfer, B. Naumann, H. Altun, S. T. Agnandji, J. Goesch, M. Decker, C. L. Salazar, C. Supan, D. U. Kombila, L. Borchert, K. B. Koster, P. Pongratz, A. A. Adegnika, I. Glasenapp, S. Issifou, and P. G. Kremsner. 2007a. Intermittent preventive treatment against malaria in infants in Gabon—A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Infect Dis 196(11):1595-1602. Grobusch, M. P., A. Egan, R. D. Gosling, and R. D. Newman. 2007b. Intermittent preventive therapy for malaria: Progress and future directions. Curr Opin Infect Dis 20(6):613-620. Halsey, N., and A. Galazka. 1985. The efficacy of DPT and oral poliomyelitis immunization schedules initiated from birth to 12 weeks of age. Bull World Health Organ 63(6):1151-1169.

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APPENDIX B 69 Henderson, R. H., J. Keja, G. Hayden, A. Galazka, J. Clements, and C. Chan. 1988. Immunizing the children of the world: Progress and prospects. Bull World Health Organ 66(5):535-543. Higgins J. P. T., S. G. Thompson, J. J. Deeks, and D. G. Altman. 2003. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analysis. BMJ 327(7414): 557-560. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2004. Saving lives, buying time: Economics of malaria drugs in an age of resistance. Edited by K. J. Arrow, C. B. Panosian, and H. Gelband. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IPTi Consortium. 2007a. Fact sheet on IPTi and the Consortium. Barcelona, Spain. IPTi Consortium. 2007b (unpublished). Pooled analysis of the IPTi trials with SP by the statistical working group of the IPTi consortium. December 21. Barcelona, Spain. IPTi Consortium. 2008a (unpublished). Intermittent preventive treatment of infants (IPTi) with amodiaquine/artesunate, SP/artesunate or chlorproguanil-dapsone in western Kenya: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Barcelona, Spain. IPTi Consortium. 2008b (unpublished). Consortium safety panel (CSP): Drug safety report for the SP trials. Barcelona, Spain. IPTi Consortium. 2008c (unpublished). Extra safety data information for TEG 2007: Causality classification. Barcelona, Spain. IPTi Consortium. 2008d (unpublished). The acceptability of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) delivered through the expanded programme of immunization in southern Tanzania. Barcelona, Spain. IPTi Consortium. 2008e (unpublished). UNICEF—operational research on intermittent preventive treatment of infants (IPTi): Preliminary results on implementation barriers to IPTi. Barcelona, Spain. IPTi Consortium. 2008f (unpublished). Pooled analysis of the IPTi trials with SP by the Statistical Working Group of the IPTi Consortium. May 8. Barcelona, Spain. Kobbe, R., C. Kreuzberg, S. Adjei, B. Thompson, I. Langefeld, P. A. Thompson, H. H. Abruquah, B. Kreuels, M. Ayim, W. Busch, F. Marks, K. Amoah, E. Opoku, C. G. Meyer, O. Adjei, and J. May. 2007. A randomized controlled trial of extended intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment in infants. Clin Infect Dis 45(1):16-25. Kublin, J. G., F. K. Dzinjalamala, D. D. Kamwendo, E. M. Malkin, J. F. Cortese, L. M. Martino, R. A. Mukadam, S. J. Rogerson, A. G. Lescano, M. E. Molyneux, P. A. Winstanley, P. Chimpeni, T. E. Taylor, and C. V. Plowe. 2002. Molecular markers for failure of sulfadoxine- pyrimethamine and chlorproguanil-dapsone treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. J Infect Dis 185(3):380-388.

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70 INTERMITTENT PREVENTIVE TREATMENT FOR MALARIA IN INFANTS Lengeler, C. Insecticide-treated bed nets and curtains for preventing malaria. 2004. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, Issue 2. Menendez, C., E. Kahigwa, R. Hirt, P. Vounatsou, J. J. Aponte, F. Font, C. J. Acosta, D. M. Schellenberg, C. M. Galindo, J. Kimario, H. Urassa, B. Brabin, T. A. Smith, A. Y. Kitua, M. Tanner, and P. L. Alonso. 1997. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis for prevention of severe anaemia and malaria in Tanzanian infants. Lancet 350(9081):844-850. Meremikwu, M. M., A. A. Omari, and P. Garner. 2005. Chemoprophylaxis and intermittent treatment for preventing malaria in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev(4):CD003756. Meremikwu, M. M., S. Donegan, and E. Esu. 2008. Chemoprophylaxis and intermittent treatment for preventing malaria in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev(2): CD003756. Mermin, J., J. Lule, J. P. Ekwaru, S. Malamba, R. Downing, R. Ransom, F. Kaharuza, D. Culver, F. Kizito, R. Bunnell, A. Kigozi, D. Nakanjako, W. Wafula, and R. Quick. 2004. Effect of co- trimoxazole prophylaxis on morbidity, mortality, CD4-cell count, and viral load in HIV infection in rural Uganda. Lancet 364(9443):1428-1434. Miller, K. D., H. O. Lobel, R. F. Satriale, J. N. Kuritsky, R. Stern, and C. C. Campbell. 1986. Severe cutaneous reactions among American travelers using pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (Fansidar) for malaria prophylaxis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35(3):451-458. Mockenhaupt, F. P., K. Reither, P. Zanger, F. Roepcke, I. Danquah, E. Saad, P. Ziniel, S. Y. Dzisi, M. Frempong, P. Agana-Nsiire, F. Amoo-Sakyi, R. Otchwemah, J. P. Cramer, S. D. Anemana, E. Dietz, and U. Bienzle. 2007. Intermittent preventive treatment in infants as a means of malaria control: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in northern Ghana. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51(9):3273-3281. Mugittu, K., M. Ndejembi, A. Malisa, M. Lemnge, Z. Premji, A. Mwita, W. Nkya, J. Kataraihya, S. Abdulla, H. P. Beck, and H. Mshinda. 2004. Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine- pyrimethamine and prevalence of resistance markers in Tanzania prior to revision of malaria treatment policy: Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase mutations in monitoring in vivo resistance. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71(6):696-702. Morel, C. M., J. A. Lauer, and D. B. Evans. 2005. Cost effectiveness analysis of strategies to combat malaria in developing countries. BMJ 331(7528):1299. Nzila, A., E. Ochong, E. Nduati, K. Gilbert, P. Winstanley, S. Ward, and K. Marsh. 2005. Why has the dihydrofolate reductase 164 mutation not consistently been found in Africa yet? Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 99(5):341-346. O’Meara, W. P., J. G. Breman, and F. E. McKenzie. 2005. The promise and potential challenges of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants (IPTi). Malar J 4:33.

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APPENDIX B 71 O’Meara, W. P., D. L. Smith, and F. E. McKenzie. 2006. Potential impact of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) on spread of drug-resistant malaria. PLoS Med 3(5):e141. Otoo, L. N., R. W. Snow, A. Menon, P. Byass, and B. M. Greenwood. 1988. Immunity to malaria in young Gambian children after a two-year period of chemoprophylaxis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 82(1):59-65. Oyediran, A. B., E. Topley, B. O. Osunkoya, A. Bamgboye, A. I. Williams, E. O. Ogunba, and M. C. Asuzu. 1993. Severe morbidity among children in a trial malaria chemoprophylaxis with pyrimethamine or chloroquine in Ibarapa, Nigeria. Afr J Med med Sci 22(1):55-63. Peterson, D. S., W. K. Milhous, and T. E. Wellems. 1990. Molecular basis of differential resistance to cycloguanil and pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87(8):3018-3022. Plowe, C. V., J. F. Cortese, A. Djimde, O. C. Nwanyanwu, W. M. Watkins, P. A. Winstanley, J. G. Estrada-Franco, R. E. Mollinedo, J. C. Avila, J. L. Cespedes, D. Carter, and O. K. Doumbo. 1997. Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase and epidemiologic patterns of pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine use and resistance. J Infect Dis 176(6):1590-1596. Plowe, C. V., J. G. Kublin, F. K. Dzinjalamala, D. S. Kamwendo, R. A. Mukadam, P. Chimpeni, M. E. Molyneux, and T. E. Taylor. 2004. Sustained clinical efficacy of sulfadoxine- pyrimethamine for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malawi after 10 years as first line treatment: Five year prospective study. BMJ 328(7439):545. Pool, R., K. Munguambe, E. Macete, P. Aide, G. Juma, P. Alonso, and C. Menendez. 2006. Community response to intermittent preventive treatment delivered to infants (IPTi) through the EPI system in Manhiça, Mozambique. Trop Med Int Health 11(11):1670-1678. Raman, J., B. Sharp, I. Kleinschmidt, C. Roper, E. Streat, V. Kelly, and K. I. Barnes. 2008. Differential effect of regional drug pressure on dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase mutations in southern Mozambique. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78(2):256-261. Reyburn, H., R. Mbatia, C. Drakeley, J. Bruce, I. Carneiro, R. Olomi, J. Cox, W. M. Nkya, M. Lemnge, B. M. Greenwood, and E. M. Riley. 2005. Association of transmission intensity and age with clinical manifestations and case fatality of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. JAMA 293(12):1461-1470. Riley, E. M., G. E. Wagner, B. D. Akanmori, and K. A. Koram. 2001. Do maternally acquired antibodies protect infants from malaria infection? Parasite Immunol 23(2):51-59. Rowe, A. K., S. Y. Rowe, R. W. Snow, E. L. Korenromp, J. R. Schellenberg, C. Stein, B. L. Nahlen, J. Bryce, R. E. Black, and R. W. Steketee. 2006. The burden of malaria mortality among African children in the year 2000. Int J Epidemiol 35(3):691-704.

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72 INTERMITTENT PREVENTIVE TREATMENT FOR MALARIA IN INFANTS Schellenberg, D., C. Menendez, E. Kahigwa, J. Aponte, J. Vidal, M. Tanner, H. Mshinda, and P. Alonso. 2001. Intermittent treatment for malaria and anaemia control at time of routine vaccinations in Tanzanian infants: A randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 357(9267):1471-1477. Schellenberg, D., C. Menendez, J. J. Aponte, E. Kahigwa, M. Tanner, H. Mshinda, and P. Alonso. 2005. Intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment for Tanzanian infants: Follow-up to age 2 years of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 365(9469):1481-1483. Schreiber, N., R. Kobbe, S. Adjei, O. Adjei, M. Q. Klinkert, and J. May. 2007. Immune responses after single-dose sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine indicate underestimation of protective efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment in infants. Trop Med Int Health 12(10):1157-1163. Schünemann, H. J., A. D. Oxman, J. P. T. Higgins, G. E. Vist, P. Glasziou, and G. H. Guyatt. 2008. Chapter 11: Presenting results and ‘Summary of findings tables’. In Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 5.0.0, edited by J. P. T. Higgins and S. Green. The Cochrane Collaboration. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org. (updated February 2008). Segal, A. R., K. M. Doherty, J. Leggott, and B. Zlotoff. 2007. Cutaneous reactions to drugs in children. Pediatrics 120(4):e1082-1096. Staedke, S. G., H. Sendagire, S. Lamola, M. R. Kamya, G. Dorsey, and P. J. Rosenthal. 2004. Relationship between age, molecular markers, and response to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment in Kampala, Uganda. Trop Med Int Health 9(5):624-629. Stata/Data analysis and Statistical Software Ver. 9.2. StatCorp, L.P., College Station, TX. ter Kuile, F. O., A. M. van Eijk, and S. J. Filler. 2007. Effect of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance on the efficacy of intermittent preventive therapy for malaria control during pregnancy: A systematic review. JAMA 297(23):2603-2616. Thera, M. A., P. S. Sehdev, D. Coulibaly, K. Traore, M. N. Garba, Y. Cissoko, A. Kone, A. Guindo, A. Dicko, A. H. Beavogui, A. A. Djimde, K. E. Lyke, D. A. Diallo, O. K. Doumbo, and C. V. Plowe. 2005. Impact of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis on falciparum malaria infection and disease. J Infect Dis 192(10):1823-1829. United Nations. 2008. The UN millennium development goals. http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/goals.html (accessed February 6, 2008). Watkins, W. M., and M. Mosobo. 1993. Treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine: Selective pressure for resistance is a function of long elimination half-life. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87(1):75-78. White, N. J. 2005. Intermittent presumptive treatment for malaria. PLoS Med 2(1):e3.

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APPENDIX B 73 WHO (World Health Organization). 1996. Investing in health research and development, Report of the ad hoc committee on health research relating to future intervention options. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. WHO. 2003. Position of WHO’s Roll Back Malaria Department on malaria treatment policy. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. WHO. 2004a. A strategic framework for malaria prevention and control during pregnancy in the Africa region. Brazzaville: WHO Regional Office for Africa. WHO. 2004b. Hepatitis b vaccines. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 79(28):255-263. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. WHO. 2006. WHO advisory committee on serological responses to expanded programme on immunization vaccines in infants receiving Intermittent Preventive Treatment for malaria (IPTi). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. WHO. 2008a. WHO vaccine preventable diseases monitoring system.http://www.who.int/vaccines/globalsummary/immunization/scheduleselect.cfm (accessed 2008). WHO. 2008b. Report of the Technical Expert Group (TEG) meeting on intermittent preventive therapy in infancy (IPTi), Geneva, 8-10 October 2007. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. WHO/CHD (World Health Organization/Division of Child Health and Development). 1998. Randomised trial to assess benefits and safety of vitamin A supplementation linked to immunisation in early infancy. Lancet 352(9136):1257-1263. Zou, G. 2004. A modified Poisson regression approach to prospective studies with binary data. Am J Epidemiol 159(7): 702-706.