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OCR for page 74
Assessment of the Role of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Infants: Letter Report Appendix C Glossary Anopheline—Referring to Anopheles mosquito. Chemoprophylaxis—Use of drugs to prevent infection or progression of infection to illness. Disability-adjusted life-year (DALY)—Health gap measure that extends the concept of potential years of life lost due to premature death (PYLL) to include equivalent years of “healthy” life lost by virtue of being in states of poor health or disability. The DALY combines in one measure the time lived with disability and the time lost due to premature mortality. One DALY can be thought of as one lost year of healthy life and the burden of disease. DPT3—Three doses of a combined vaccine that protects against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, given within the first 12 months of a child’s life. Entomological inoculation rate (EIR)—Measurement of the frequency with which a human is bitten by an infectious mosquito, or the average number of infective bites that a resident of a malarious area receives over a year or other time period. Erythrocytic stage—A stage of the malaria parasite’s life cycle of infecting, developing, or remaining latent in liver cells (hepatocytes). Half-life—Time required for half of the amount of a substance (e.g., a drug or radioactive tracer) in a physiologic or ecologic system to be eliminated or to disintegrate by natural processes. Hematocrit—Ratio of the volume of packed red blood cells to the volume of whole blood as determined by a centrifugation instrument: a measure of possible anemia. Insecticide-treated bed net (ITN)—A fine-mesh net that has been either treated with a long-lasting insecticide or manufactured with insecticide directly incorporated into its fibers, hung over a bed to protect sleepers from insect bites. Molecular markers—Genetic markers, usually proteins or DNA sequences, detected by biochemical methods. Parasitemia—Condition in which parasites are present in the blood with or without clinical symptoms. Pharmacokinetics—Interactions of drugs with people who take them—how the compounds are absorbed, metabolized, distributed, and excreted. Pharmacovigilance—The science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other possible drug-related problems. The aims of pharmacovigilance are to improve patient care and safety in relation to the use of
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Assessment of the Role of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Infants: Letter Report medicines and all medical and paramedical interventions; to improve public health and safety in relation to the use of medicines; and to contribute to the assessment of benefit, harm, effectiveness and risk of medicines, encouraging their safe, rational, and more effective (including cost-effective) use; and to effective communication to the public. Splenomegaly—An enlarged spleen; a common finding in malaria patients that can sometimes be detected by physical examination of the abdomen.