TABLE 1 Characteristics of General-Circulation Models Examined (λ, Longitude; , Latitude; T, Temperature)

Model Characteristics

Model Predictions

M1a

M2a

M3a

H1b

H2b

Domain

0°<λ<120°c

0°<λ<120°c

Global

Global

Global

Land-ocean distribution

Ocean for

Ocean for

 

 

 

60°<λ<120°

60°<λ<120°

Realistic

Realistic

Realistic

Ocean

Swamp

Swamp

Mixed layer

Mixed layer

Swamp

Seasonal change

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

Cloud feedbacks

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Snow and ice albedo

When T<−25°C

When T<−10°C

Depends on depth and underlying surface albedo

For snow, depends on snow age, snow depth, underlying surface albedo, etc.

Same as H1

0.7

0.7

 

 

When T>−25°C

When T>−10°C

 

 

0.45 for snow

0.45 for snow

For deep snow, 0.8

 

 

0.35 for ice

0.35 for ice

For thick ice, 0.7

For ice, 0.45

 

Horizontal resolution

About 500 km on a mercator projection

5° in longitude

4.5° in latitude

Spectral model with the maximum zonal wave number 15

10° in longitude

8° in latitude

Same as H1

Vertical resolution

9 layers

9 layers

9 layers

7 layers

7 layers

aModels developed by S.Manabe and colleagues at the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, N.J.

bModels developed by J.Hansen and colleagues at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, N.Y.

cCyclic continuity assumed at boundaries.



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