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Challenges and Requirements for NASA Aeronautics Research

This chapter evaluates how well each of NASA’s 10 aeronautics research projects supports the 51 highest-priority research and technology (R&T) challenges from the Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics (NRC, 2006) and NASA’s own requirements for aeronautics research and the needs of other federal government departments and agencies for non-civil aeronautics research. The chapter also evaluates NASA’s response to the eight overall recommendations that are contained in the Decadal Survey.

The evaluations of the 51 highest-priority R&T challenges are grouped according to the five areas from the Decadal Survey:

  • Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics

  • Propulsion and Power

  • Materials and Structures

  • Dynamics, Navigation, and Control, and Avionics

  • Intelligent and Autonomous Systems, Operations and Decision Making, Human Integrated Systems, and Networking and Communications

Appendixes A through E of the Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics contain lists of milestones for all of the challenges examined in the survey. The assessment of each R&T challenge below includes a list of the milestones established for that challenge. The purpose of this listing is to indicate the nature of the work that the Decadal Survey included within each challenge. However, the list of milestones for each challenge does not in all cases describe the complete scope of the challenge, as detailed in the Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics.

This chapter’s evaluation of how well each of NASA’s 10 aeronautics research projects supports the 51 highest-priority R&T challenges from the Decadal Survey is summarized in Tables 2-1 and 2-2. Each cell of Table 2-1 is color-coded with green, yellow, black, or white, as follows:

  • Green: The project substantially meets relevant aspects of the intent of the R&T challenge and will substantively advance the state of the art, with no significant shortcomings.



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2 Challenges and Requirements for NASA Aeronautics Research This chapter evaluates how well each of NASA’s 10 aeronautics research projects supports the 51 highest-priority research and technology (R&T) challenges from the Decadal Surey of Ciil Aeronau- tics (NRC, 2006) and NASA’s own requirements for aeronautics research and the needs of other federal government departments and agencies for non-civil aeronautics research. The chapter also evaluates NASA’s response to the eight overall recommendations that are contained in the Decadal Surey. The evaluations of the 51 highest-priority R&T challenges are grouped according to the five areas from the Decadal Surey: • Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics • Propulsion and Power • Materials and Structures • Dynamics, Navigation, and Control, and Avionics • Intelligent and Autonomous Systems, Operations and Decision Making, Human Integrated Sys- tems, and Networking and Communications Appendixes A through E of the Decadal Surey of Ciil Aeronautics contain lists of milestones for all of the challenges examined in the survey. The assessment of each R&T challenge below includes a list of the milestones established for that challenge. The purpose of this listing is to indicate the nature of the work that the Decadal Surey included within each challenge. However, the list of milestones for each challenge does not in all cases describe the complete scope of the challenge, as detailed in the Decadal Surey of Ciil Aeronautics. This chapter’s evaluation of how well each of NASA’s 10 aeronautics research projects supports the 51 highest-priority R&T challenges from the Decadal Surey is summarized in Tables 2-1 and 2-2. Each cell of Table 2-1 is color-coded with green, yellow, black, or white, as follows: • Green: The project substantially meets relevant aspects of the intent of the R&T challenge and will substantively advance the state of the art, with no significant shortcomings. 0

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 CHALLENGES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH TABLE 2-1 Summary of How Well NASA’s Aeronautics Research Supports the 51 Highest-Priority Research and Technology (R&T) Challenges from the Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics l tro k t. on ec gm C D Green = no significant shortcomings y M ft ilit ht ra lth lig ab rc Yellow = minor shortcomings ea ce tF g l ur Ai ta g in H pa D in or en nt W e W d irp irs Black = major shortcomings i lie lli g cl an y ar d -A -A hi es te xe Ve ft ot M M In en s s R ra w White = not relevant ck Fi R ic ic AT AT lo rc ed ed ed re n on la ic ic el ARMD --> so Ai S S lG n n at at at lB rs lY so so AT AT er gr gr gr g e ta ta Projects in ta b b p yp te te te G G Su Su Su Ag To To To In In In H N N Titles of R&T Challenges ARMD --> Fundamental Airspace Aviation Grade Summary (Some are abbreviated; see Table 1-1 for full titles.) Programs Aeronautics Program Sys. Prog. Safety Program by Challenge R&T Challenges in the Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics Area A1. Novel propulsion-airframe integration A1 1 1 GG Y B 1 A2. Transition, boundary layer, and separation control A2 2 1 GG B GG Y 1 A3. High performance and/or flexible multi-mission aircraft A3 1 2 GG B B A4a. Reduce aircraft and rotor noise A4a 3 GG GG GG A4b. Prediction of performance of complex 3D configurations A4b 2 GG Y GG Y 2 a A6. Aerodynamics robust to atmospheric disturbances A6 1 Y 1 GG A7a. Leverage advantages of formation flying A7a 1 B A7b. Wake vortex prediction, detection, and mitigation A7b 1 2 B Y GG B 1 A9. V/STOL and ESTOL, including adequate control power A9 1 Y B 1 A10. Reducing/mitigating sonic boom (novel aircraft shaping) A10 Y 1 A11 A11. Robust and efficient multidisciplinary design tools 1 GG Y Y Y 3 R&T Challenges in the Propulsion and Power Area B1a. Quiet propulsion systems B1a 2 GG Y GG 1 B2. Ultraclean gas turbine combustors B1b Y Y 2 B3. Intelligent engines and mechanical power systems B3 2 B Y B Y 2 B4. Improved propulsion system fuel economy B4 1 Y Y B 2 B5. Propulsion systems for short takeoff and vertical lift B5 1 B Y 1 B6a. Variable-cycle engines to expand the operating envelope B6a Y Y 2 B6b. Integrated power and thermal management systems B6b 4 B B B B B8. Propulsion systems for supersonic flight B8 1 B B9. Advanced aircraft electric power systems B9 4 B B B B B10 B10. Combined-cycle hypersonic propulsion systems 1 GG R&T Challenges in the Materials and Structures Area C1. Integrated vehicle health management C1 1 1 B GG Y 1 C2. Adaptive materials and morphing structures C2 2 Y B B 1 C3. Multidisciplinary analysis, design, and optimization C3 2 1 GG Y GG Y B 2 C4. Next-generation polymers and composites C4 1 1 Y B GG Y 2 C5. Noise prediction and suppression C5 1 1 Y GG B 1 C6a. Innovative high-temperature metals and environmental coatings C6a 1 2 B GG Y B Y 2 C6b. Innovative load suppression, and vibration and stability control C6b 2 1 GG GG Y B 1 C8. Structural innovations for high-speed rotorcraft C8 Y 1 C9. High-temperature ceramics and coatings C9 Y Y Y Y Y 5 C10 C10. Multifunctional materials 3 Y B B B Y 2 R&T Challenges in the Dynamics, Navigation, and Control, and Avionics Area D1. Advanced guidance systems D1 2 Y B B Y 2 D2. Distributed decision making and flight path planning D2 1 B GG Y GG 2 1 D3. Aerodynamics and vehicle dynamics via closed-loop flow control D3 2 B B Y 1 D4. Intelligent and adaptive flight control techniques D4 Y GG 1 1 1 D5. Fault tolerant and integrated vehicle health management systems D5 B GG Y GG 2 1 2 D6. Improved onboard weather systems and tools D6 B B Y 1 4 D7. Advanced communication, navigation, and surveillance technology D7 B B B B 1 D8. Human-machine integration D8 B GG GG GG 3 D9. Synthetic and enhanced vision systems D9 GG 1 D10 3 D10. Safe operation of unmanned air vehicles in the national airspace B B B R&T Challenges in the Intelligent and Autonomous Systems, Operations and Decision Making, Human Integrated Systems, Networking and Communications Area E1. Design and evaluate complex interactive systems E1 1 GG Y Y Y 3 E2. Separating, spacing, and sequencing aircraft E2 Y Y 2 E3. Roles of humans and automated systems for separation assurance E3 Y Y 2 2 E4. Sensors, etc. to predict and measure wake turbulence E4 B B E5. Information sharing among human and machine agents E5 1 GG Y 1 1 E6. Vulnerability analysis in the design of the air transportation system E6 B Y 1 E7. Adaptive ATM techniques to minimize the impact of weather E7 Y Y 2 E8a. Transparent and collaborative decision support systems E8a 2 GG GG E8b. Operational and maintenance data to assess safety E8b 1 GG Y 1 E8c 1 E8c. Human operators in effective task and attention management 1 GG B Totals for All 51 R&T Challenges from the Decadal Survey 10 4 6 1 7 2 3 3 2 0 Green 38 a 9 13 9 5 3 7 3 3 1 5 Yellow Work on R&T Challenge A6 related to subsonic fixed wing 58 Black 8 14 9 5 6 7 2 0 1 1 53 aircraft is being done by the NASA Office of Safety.

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 NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH—AN ASSESSMENT TABLE 2-2 Grade Summary for the 51 Highest-Priority R&T Challenges in the Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics, by Area Report Area Green Yellow Black Area A 12 11 8 Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics Area B 3 10 13 Propulsion and Power Area C 8 18 12 Materials and Structures Area D 9 7 16 Dynamics, Navigation, and Control, and Avionics Intelligent and Autonomous Systems, Operations and Decision Making, Area E 6 12 4 Human Integrated Systems, and Networking and Communications Total 38 58 53 • Yellow: The project contains minor shortcomings, which are recoverable within the current overall project concept, such as the following: — Research described in the NASA task, if successful, would satisfy most, but not all, of the relevant aspects of the Decadal Surey R&T challenge (e.g., the task would make only moder- ate advances in the state of the art of relevant technologies, though the results would still be significant). — Research described in the NASA task, if successful, may not make a significant difference in a time frame of interest to users of the research results (e.g., because the level of effort is too low, or a different and more viable research approach should be selected, or some of the task is devoted to research goals inconsistent with the Decadal Surey R&T challenges, the aero- nautics research requirements of NASA, and other federal government department or agency non-civil aeronautics research needs). • Black: The project contains major shortcomings, which would be difficult to recover from within the current overall project concept, such as the following: — Research described in the NASA task, if successful, would make little or no progress in satis- fying the Decadal Surey R&T challenge (e.g., the task would not make a significant advance in the state of the art of relevant technologies or the effort is meager compared to what is needed). — Research described in the NASA task, if successful, would be highly unlikely to make a sig- nificant difference in a time frame of interest to users of the research results (e.g., because the level of effort is too low, or a different and more viable research approach should be selected, or most of the task is devoted to research goals inconsistent with the Decadal Surey R&T challenges, the aeronautics research requirements of NASA, and other federal government department or agency non-civil aeronautics research needs). — The Decadal Surey R&T challenge is relevant to the NASA project, but the project is doing no related research. • White (or blank): The R&T challenge is not relevant to the project. As detailed in the discussion of individual challenges below, in a few cases yellow or black grades indicate that research plans developed by the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) are poorly conceived and that the resulting research will likely be ineffective. In most cases, however, yellow

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 CHALLENGES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH or black grades reflect inconsistencies between NASA project plans and the Decadal Surey. These inconsistencies are generally the result of NASA choosing to do little or no work in a particular task area and/or selecting research goals that fall short of advancing the state of the art far enough and with enough urgency either to make a substantial difference in meeting individual R&T challenges or the larger goal of achieving the strategic objectives of the Decadal Surey of Ciil Aeronautics. However, as noted in Chapter 4, NASA does not have the resources necessary to address all 51 R&T challenges simultaneously in a thorough and comprehensive manner, and so it is inevitable that the project plans, as a whole, do not live up to all of the expectations of the Decadal Surey. The grades in Table 2-1 reflect the committee’s assessment of how well a particular project addresses releant aspects of a particular challenge. Thus, if only a small portion of a particular challenge is within the scope of a particular project but the project plans indicate that the project is or will do an excellent job in addressing that small research area, the cell in Table 2-1 representing the intersection of that project and challenge is green, even if the overall size of the relevant research is quite small. However, if a large portion of a particular challenge is within the scope of a particular project and if the project plans for the relevant research have minor or major shortcomings, the cell in Table 2-1 representing the intersection of that project and challenge is yellow or black, respectively, even if the overall size of the relevant research effort is quite substantial. The difference between a black grade and a white grade is illustrated by R&T challenge A7a, Aerodynamic Configurations to Leverage Advantages of Formation Flying. None of ARMD’s research projects plans to conduct research to support this R&T challenge, but if this challenge were pursued, the research would most appropriately be done by the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Therefore, the SFW Project is graded black for R&T challenge A7a, and the other projects are graded white. As noted previously, NASA declined to provide detailed budget and staffing data for each project. Unless otherwise noted, the grades in Table 2-1 assume that the project research plans described to the com- mittee will be implemented with enough funding and personnel resources to succeed. Thus, the grades primarily indicate the extent to which NASA’s research plans are consistent with the Decadal Surey of Ciil Aeronautics, but they do not necessarily indicate the likelihood that NASA will succeed in implementing those plans. The overall assessment for each R&T challenge is indicated in the columns of Table 2-1 that sum- marize the number of grades assigned to each challenge, by color. As shown, the committee found no significant shortcomings in efforts by relevant ARMD research projects to address four R&T challenges (i.e., the grades assigned to these challenges are all green): • A4a. Aerodynamic designs and flow-control schemes to reduce aircraft and rotor noise • B10. Combined-cycle hypersonic propulsion systems with mode transition • D9. Synthetic and enhanced vision systems • E8a. Transparent and collaborative decision support systems Eight R&T challenges received only yellow grades, indicating that ongoing work suffered from minor shortcomings that could be corrected within the context of existing project plans: • A10. Reducing/mitigating sonic boom (novel aircraft shaping) • B2. Ultraclean gas turbine combustors • B6a. Variable-cycle engines to expand the operating envelope • C8. Structural innovations for high-speed rotorcraft • C9. High-temperature ceramics and coatings

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 NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH—AN ASSESSMENT • E2. Separating, spacing, and sequencing aircraft • E3. Roles of humans and automated systems for separation assurance • E7. Adaptive air traffic management (ATM) techniques to minimize the impact of weather Seven R&T challenges received only black grades, indicating the presence of major shortcomings that would be difficult to recover from within the context of existing project concepts. The committee verified NASA’s own assessment that NASA is not supporting four R&T challenges: • A7a. Aerodynamic configurations to leverage advantages of formation flying • B9. High-reliability, high-performance, and high-power-density aircraft electric power systems • D7. Advanced communication, navigation, and surveillance technology • D10. Safe operation of unmanned air vehicles in the national airspace In addition, the committee has determined that NASA is not substantively addressing three other R&T challenges: • B6b. Integrated power and thermal management systems • B8. Propulsion systems for supersonic flight • E4. Affordable new sensors, system technologies, and procedures to improve the prediction and measurement of wake turbulence For the other 32 R&T challenges, as indicated in Table 2-1, NASA is effectively addressing some areas but not others, and the overall assessment of these challenges is best described as “mixed.” The grades for each row of Table 2-1 are explained in the sections that follow. In some cases, the comments for green grades are rather brief. Rather than prepare detailed assessments of areas where NASA is doing well (and significant corrective action is not required), the committee focused its attention on areas where improvements need to be made (those with black or yellow grades). Also, the commit- tee chose not to justify its decision to assign white grades (that is, the determination that the scope of a given project was not relevant to a given R&T challenge). AERODYNAMICS AND AEROACOUSTICS This section summarizes the committee’s assessment of NASA research related to the top 11 R&T challenges involving aerodynamics and aeroacoustics (Area A) in the Decadal Surey of Ciil Aero- nautics (NRC, 2006). A1 Integrated system performance through novel propulsion-airframe integration SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C Y black This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Validate the predictive capability for three-dimensional (3-D) mean and dynamic distortion at the propulsion-airframe interface. • Validate the predictive capability of the impact of reacting exhaust flows on external aerodynamics.

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 CHALLENGES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH • Validate the predictive capability of acoustic radiation patterns from integrated propulsion-air- frame configurations. • Develop novel propulsion-airframe configurations for supersonic and hypersonic flight. The SFW Project is investigating important innovative concepts related to this R&T challenge. Research goals include development of dynamic models of integrated control systems, development and application of prototype actuators and innovative control methods, and laboratory experiments and piloted simulations to validate closed-loop system performance. Plans include flight-test validation of predictive models for propulsion-airframe integration of unconventional vehicle configurations, such as the blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft, where possible. The Supersonics Project is supporting extensive code development in this area, and NASA plans to rely on yet-to-be-established partnerships with industry to execute key aspects of the above milestones with regard to validation. However, NASA has not established any notional vehicles to help refine its work. This shortcoming could be addressed, perhaps, by using one of the vehicle concepts developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) as part of the Quiet Supersonic Platform (Wlezien and Veitch, 2002), modified as necessary to reflect civil rather than military performance requirements. This R&T challenge is focused on novel configurations for propulsion-airframe integration. Propul- sion-airframe integration is a key component of any air-breathing hypersonic vehicle. In addition, the Vehicle Technology Integration, Propulsion Technology Integration, and Physics Based Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization (MDAO) elements of the Hypersonics Project are focused on the development of predictive tools. However, the Hypersonics Project will not validate the performance of these tools, nor will it exercise the tools to investigate the design of any specific, novel propulsion- airframe configurations. A2 Aerodynamic performance improvement through transition, boundary-layer, and separation control SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C black This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Develop energy-efficient and flexible active flow-control actuators. • Develop improved models for the operation of flow actuators. • Demonstrate techniques to incorporate these models into flow-simulation schemes. • Validate models and simulation schemes through comparison with experiments. The SFW Project is investigating smart material actuators as well as active and passive control concepts. Research plans include validation at the configuration, component, and physics levels. Plans include a key test to demonstrate improved performance via a high-lift wind tunnel model with flow- control actuation integrated into realistic aircraft structure. The SRW Project has no planned research to address the above milestones. The Supersonics Project is working on both foundational research and performance improvement related to this challenge, including actuator development. This work would be facilitated if NASA had a quiet wind tunnel in the Mach number range being investigated (approximately Mach 1.5 up to Mach 2.5) for transition validation. Based on experience with existing quiet wind tunnels at Langley Research Center (which operates at Mach 3.5) and Purdue University (which operates at Mach 6), it would be less

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 NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH—AN ASSESSMENT expensive to build a new quiet facility operating at about Mach 2 than to do the flight tests that would otherwise be required. Plans for the Aerodynamics, Aerothermodynamics, and Plasmadynamics element of the Hyper- sonics Project include fundamental research on turbulence and boundary-layer physics, and one task (HYP.04.04.6) intended to demonstrate boundary flow control using a microwave plasma. However, this activity does not include improved actuators as a goal, and it is unlikely to significantly improve the aerodynamic performance of hypersonic vehicles. A3 Novel aerodynamic configurations that enable high-performance and/or flexible multimission aircraft SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C black black This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Develop a family of aircraft configurations with cruise efficiency twice as high as conventional aircraft. • Demonstrate design approaches to develop novel configurations able to operate from small airfields. • Validate the ability to predict the performance of novel airframe configurations using data from ground and flight tests. The SFW Project has a substantial research effort in developing tools to predict advanced-concept airplane performance. It has defined a trade space that includes aerodynamic efficiency, noise, and emissions as key criteria to evaluate advanced configurations. Both conventional and hybrid wing fami- lies of configurations are being explored, along with powered lift and flow-control concepts to reduce minimum runway length required for takeoff and landing. In the case of the BWB high cruise efficiency configuration, these tools are being validated by flight test. The Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) Project has no focused research to design or develop novel aero- dynamic configurations for rotorcraft. The introduction to the project description mentions the compound slowed rotor concept, but the rest of the document does not describe any foundational or integrated research that would support this challenge by developing the concept. The Supersonics Project is developing tools, but there is little or no effort to apply those tools to develop and predict the performance of notional aircraft configurations. Some external researchers work- ing under NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) may be doing some analyses of their own notional aircraft configurations, but this work would be of much greater value if NASA were to define one or more notional aircraft configurations as a common reference. A4a Aerodynamic designs and flow-control schemes to reduce aircraft and rotor noise SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Improve techniques for prediction and control of the aeroacoustics associated with high-lift devices, protuberances, and cavities for fixed-wing aircraft.

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 CHALLENGES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH • Develop techniques for the prediction and design of quiet drag devices for fixed-wing aircraft. • Improve understanding and modeling of unsteady fluid–structure interactions and resulting noise radiation for rotary- and fixed-wing aircraft. • Demonstrate novel rotor system design tools that can be used to reduce rotor noise with minimum performance sacrifices for rotorcraft. Research plans for the SFW, SRW, and Supersonics Projects support a wide array of research activi- ties that would support the above milestones. For example, research related to noise is a large part of the Propulsion and Power Systems element and the Airframe Systems element of the SFW Project. In addition, NASA’s previous participation in the Quiet Technology Demonstrator, which included partners from manufacturers and the airlines in the flight testing of advanced noise control techniques for SFW aircraft, provided a wealth of modeling, design, and validation experience. This is an important example of collaboration to facilitate technology transition to in-flight use. In addition, aeroacoustics research by the SRW Project includes foundational research to advance the understanding of sources and mechanisms of noise generation and propagation, experimental validation of predictive tools, and the stipulation of explicit metrics against which advancements in this field would be measured. The Supersonics Project is supporting variable-cycle engine research, which would help reduce noise. A4b Accuracy of prediction of aerodynamic performance of complex 3-D configurations, including improved boundary-layer transition and turbulence models and associated design tools SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C Y Y This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Develop improved techniques for the prediction of boundary-layer transition on 3-D configura- tions and validate them against ground- and flight-test data. • Demonstrate computationally efficient techniques to couple aerodynamic and structural analysis tools. • Develop structured techniques for predicting performance in the presence of parameter uncertainties. The SFW Project plans to improve the ability to predict high-lift performance by developing 3-D prediction models that would be validated in wind tunnel tests with active flow-control experiments. The SRW Project is studying structured and unstructured grids in computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based modeling applicable to rotorcraft. The project also includes research that links these numerical models to structural and acoustic analysis capabilities. There are no plans, however, to model the effects of uncertainty in the predictive capabilities of these models or to validate the numerical models using flight tests. The Supersonics Project is developing and validating models that address this challenge, including code development for transition and turbulence modeling of 3-D configurations. These models can and should be validated using existing data. The Aerodynamics, Aerothermodynamics, and Plasmadynamics and Vehicle Technology Integration elements of the Hypersonics Project include many computational and experimental tasks to investigate boundary-layer transition and turbulence. The application and evaluation of the resulting models in complex 3-D configurations, however, seem to have a low priority.

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 NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH—AN ASSESSMENT A6 Aerodynamics robust to atmospheric disturbances and adverse weather conditions, including icing SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C Y This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Develop and validate 3-D icing prediction tools. • Demonstrate systems with improved spatial and temporal measurements of upstream environ- mental conditions. • Develop high-bandwidth techniques to respond to and mitigate the impact of upstream environ- mental conditions. This challenge is relevant to subsonic fixed-wing aircraft. However, it is not necessary for the SFW Project to address this challenge because NASA’s Office of Safety is supporting worthwhile research in this area. Unfortunately, there is no substantial effort related to the specific concerns of rotorcraft. The reference document for the SRW Project describes some research to (1) develop numerical models for predicting the effects of ice accretion on lifting characteristics and (2) simultaneously develop a database of experimental results obtained in wind tunnel tests for validation purposes. However, the SRW Project is not developing models of rotorcraft behavior in wind shear of aircraft flow-field immersion, nor is it developing systems to detect and mitigate the effect of upstream environmental conditions on the safe operation of rotorcraft. Some small-scale wind tunnel tests are underway to look at ice accretion for rotor- craft, but this work is too limited to make substantial progress in addressing the above milestones. A7a Aerodynamic configurations to leverage advantages of formation flying SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C black This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Develop improved methods to accurately predict wake vortex evolution. • Demonstrate design tools for evaluation and optimization of multiple interacting airplanes. • Validate models and tools for formation flying using ground and flight experiments to evaluate real atmospheric effects. The SFW Project has no planned research to address the above milestones. A7b Accuracy of wake vortex prediction, and vortex detection and mitigation techniques SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C black Y black This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Develop numerical techniques to predict accurately wingtip vortex trajectory, strength, and dissipation.

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 CHALLENGES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH • Validate numerical methods with experiments and flight testing. • Demonstrate low-cost techniques for locating and measuring the strength of wake vortices for ground-based and aircraft-based applications. • Integrate local weather prediction techniques into larger-scale weather models. • Investigate aircraft designs that mitigate the strength of wake vortices. The SFW Project is doing no work to investigate aircraft designs that mitigate the strength of wake vortices, which is the only milestone for this challenge that is related to the SFW Project. The SRW reference document describes a focus on enhancing both structured and unstructured grid flow solvers, where one of the emphasis areas is an accurate treatment of wake vortices. Plans include code validation using experimental data. However, research plans do not include investigation of rotary- wing aircraft designs that mitigate the strength of wake vortices. This is a significant shortcoming. A goal of the NGATS Air Traffic Management (ATM)-Airportal Project is to model and to predict wake vortex behavior to enable superdensity operations. A goal of the Coordinated Approach and Depar- ture Operations Management element of the Airspace Project is to improve the modeling and prediction of wake vortex behavior as well as the understanding of wake vortex on airport and terminal-area capac- ity. The scope of this research has been reduced in recent years, in that NASA does not plan to develop new sensors, and it will rely on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to take the lead in research related to the determination and characteriza- tion of weather and hazards such as wake vortices. However, these are not significant shortcomings in terms of the contribution of the NGATS ATM-Airportal Project to overcoming this challenge. 1 The NGATS ATM-Airspace Project is doing no work related to in-flight applications of wake vortex research. A9 Aerodynamic performance for vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) and extremely short takeoff and landing (ESTOL), including adequate control power SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C Y black This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Develop low-drag high-lift systems. • Demonstrate systems to provide pitch trim and control power at low speeds. • Develop new techniques for active twist control of rotors. • Demonstrate low-cost, simple flow-control techniques for prevention of leading-edge separation from vertical and/or short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) wings. • Improve wing design and fuselage shaping to reduce transonic cruise drag. Plans for the SFW Project include development of technologies, such as active flow-control and mor- phing materials, that could enable advanced V/STOL and extremely short takeoff and landing (ESTOL) configurations, but plans do not include research to support other aspects of this challenge. 1Another concurrent National Research Council study is focused exclusively on NASA’s wake vortex research. The results of that study were not available in time to factor them into this report.

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0 NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH—AN ASSESSMENT The rotorcraft portion of this challenge is focused on active twist control of rotors to enhance aero- dynamic performance at low speeds, and the SRW Project is conducting no relevant research. A10 Techniques for reducing/mitigating sonic boom through novel aircraft shaping SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C Y This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Develop guidelines for allowable exposure of the public to sonic booms. • Develop accurate techniques for the prediction of sonic boom propagation through the atmosphere under realistic environmental conditions. • Demonstrate novel aircraft shapes that minimize sonic boom levels. Historically, NASA has been the leader in developing sonic boom prediction techniques. The sonic boom element of the Supersonics Project is focused on modeling sonic booms, and a more vigorous effort is needed to make substantial and timely progress in developing design evaluation tools that could be used to (1) predict the sonic boom characteristics of various aircraft shapes and (2) facilitate the design of new aircraft shapes with lower levels of sonic boom. There is no evident validation process for the computer codes being developed. A11 Robust and efficient multidisciplinary design tools SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C Y Y Y This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Develop and validate physics-based models to predict performance for novel aircraft configurations. • Assess a family of aircraft configurations with major improvement in cruise efficiency, including a quantitative description of the benefits and risks. • Assess novel concepts for flexible multimission aircraft, including a description of potential benefits in performance and cost. • Conceive design approaches to develop novel V/STOL and ESTOL configurations. • Validate design codes to predict the performance of novel airframe configurations by comparing code predictions with ground and flight tests. The SFW Project is applying and validating tools for advanced configurations. A particular strength of this effort is the collaboration of NASA researchers with U.S. Air Force and industry researchers to validate models through flight test. The SRW Project plans to develop a number of modeling and simulation tools, but it is not devel- oping the integrated, multidisciplinary modeling techniques necessary to develop an MDAO capability for rotary-wing applications. The Supersonics Project is developing appropriate tools but has not defined the configurations and tests (ground and/or flight) necessary for validation.

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 NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH—AN ASSESSMENT The Performance Based Services element and the System-Level Design, Analysis, and Simulation Tool element of the NGATS ATM-Airspace Project substantially address most of the above milestones. Research in several other Airspace elements also supports this challenge, although none of the planned work specifically addresses unmanned air vehicles or spacecraft operating in civil airspace. In some cases, resource limitations, including the availability of sufficient in-house expertise, will make it dif- ficult to achieve milestones in a timely fashion. The IRAC and IVHM Projects have plans to address the milestone regarding the testing of nonde- terministic systems. The IRAC Project plans to conduct laboratory and flight tests of nondeterministic systems at Dryden Flight Research Center, although not until late in the current 10-year plan. Related work by the IVHM Project will piggyback on the IRAC flight tests at Dryden. E2 New concepts and methods of separating, spacing, and sequencing aircraft SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C Y Y This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Demonstrate high-efficiency airspace and airway structures that can be effectively managed and understood. • Design and evaluate separation, spacing, and sequencing procedures for UAVs operating in civil- ian airspace and assess their impact on commercial aircraft capacity and safety. • Extend models and simulation tools to enable accurate evaluation of emerging technologies (e.g., the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast system) in all weather conditions and during all phases of flight. • Complete an in-depth examination of the ability of concepts such as runway-independent aircraft and UAV formations or swarms to safely increase capacity and accommodate nontraditional aircraft operations. • Demonstrate advanced, autonomous collision avoidance technologies and protocols. Plans for the Safe and Efficient Surface Operations element of the NGATS ATM-Airportal Project address surface scheduling and taxi routes. Plans for the Coordinated Approach/Departure Operations Management element include research to study vortex avoidance, and runway balancing, assignments, and self-spacing may be addressed in the future. Plans for the Airportal Transition and Integration Man- agement element also foresee including research on metroplex operations (i.e., areas with two or more airports in close proximity) in the future. The Separation Assurance and Super Density Operations elements of the NGATS ATM-Airspace Project address each of the above milestones except for those related to unmanned air vehicles operating in civil airspace. Ongoing work related to this challenge is likely to advance the state of the art, but avail- able resources will make it difficult to achieve milestones in a timely fashion. None of the planned work specifically addresses unmanned air vehicles.

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 CHALLENGES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH E3 Appropriate roles of humans and automated systems for separation assurance, including the feasibility and merits of highly automated separation assurance systems SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C Y Y This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Complete basic research necessary to determine the most appropriate separation assurance roles for humans and automation, for ground-centered and aircraft-centered designs. • Complete the development of the NASA Ames Advanced Airspace Concept, an automated ground-based separation assurance system, for the en route domain. • Determine how humans interact with the Advanced Airspace Concept and other automation designs. • Determine how the Advanced Airspace Concept and other designs respond to air and/or ground automation failures, or when the flight crew fails to respond to automated directives. • Develop an adaptation of the Advanced Airspace Concept or other designs for UAVs, and deter- mine its performance. • Determine through analysis and simulation the safety of the Advanced Airspace Concept and other designs. The Airportal Transition and Integration Management element of the NGATS ATM-Airportal Project includes a substantial, well-conceived effort to address human–system integration as it applies to the complex airportal domain. However, plans for the Coordinated Approach/Departure Operations Man- agement element have pushed the investigation of high-density operations and separation assurance in airport and terminal areas well into the future. The Separation Assurance and Super Density Operations elements of the NGATS ATM-Airspace Project include research on the roles of humans and automated systems, but this is not a key focus of these elements. Ongoing work related to this challenge would advance the state of the art, but available resources will make it difficult to achieve milestones in a timely fashion. None of the planned work specifically addresses unmanned air vehicles. E4 Affordable new sensors, system technologies, and procedures to improve the prediction and measurement of wake turbulence SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C black black This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Demonstrate new sensors, including a scientific, coherent lidar capable of accurate wake velocity strength measurements. • Conduct phenomenological studies of wake behavior supported by field experiments using ground-based sensor(s) that measure wake decay and atmospheric conditions at altitudes up to 8,000 feet above the ground.

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 NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH—AN ASSESSMENT • Determine aircraft upset risks from wake vortices encounters, taking advantage of existing models and enhancing them where needed with field data. • Demonstrate procedures, monitoring equipment, and other systems to safely reduce wake separation. • Demonstrate an airborne means to sense and quantify the intensity of hazardous wakes en route in time for aircraft to evade them. Plans for the Coordinated Approach/Departure Operations Management element of the NGATS ATM- Airportal Project include exploration of “wake aware” procedures. However, the Airportal Project views wake vortex issues as one of many constraints on runway, airport, and terminal area capacity, and the scope of this research has been reduced in recent years. NASA does not plan to develop or demonstrate new sen- sors or sensor technologies. NASA plans to rely on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the FAA to take the lead in research related to the determination and characterization of weather and hazards such as wake vortices.4 The NGATS ATM-Airportal Project is supporting foundational research (e.g., mathematical and statistical characterization) to support some of the above milestones, but these activities are not planning to proceed to the point of achieving the above milestones. The resulting work would be handed off to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the FAA. The NGATS ATM-Airspace Project has no planned research to address the above milestones. E5 Interfaces that ensure effective information sharing and coordination among ground-based and airborne human and machine agents SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C Y This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Document improved understanding of human cognitive control, judgment, and decision making in a variety of contexts and under a variety of stressors. • Document improved understanding of organizational dynamics and business concerns associated with information sharing. Plans for the Safe and Efficient Surface Operations element of the NGATS ATM-Airportal Project include research on multiagent decision making and trajectory conformance for surface operations. Plans for the Coordinated Approach/Departure Operations Management element include the study of 4-D tra- jectory conformance and investigation of separation assurance in super density situations. Plans for the Airportal Transition and Integration Management element also include investigation of human–system integration issues associated with this domain. Plans for the Separation Assurance and Super Density Operations elements of the NGATS ATM- Airspace Project include substantial research on humans-in-the-loop information sharing. However, research by the Airportal and Airspace projects will not address the milestone on organizational dynam- ics and business concerns. 4Another concurrent National Research Council study is focused exclusively on NASA’s wake vortex research. The results of that study were not available in time to factor them into this report.

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 CHALLENGES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH E6 Vulnerability analysis as an integral element in the architecture design and simulations of the air transportation system SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C black Y This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Complete end-to-end vulnerability analysis of system architecture and signal flow. • Demonstrate the ability of a more capable model to simulate critical element disruptions as defined by vulnerability analyses. • Document safety and capacity impacts using modified system simulations. • Develop changes in system architecture and operational procedures and demonstrate that they can mitigate the effects of specific system disruptions. The NGATS ATM-Airportal Project is monitoring relevant work being done by the NGATS ATM- Airspace Project, but it has no planned research to address the above milestones. The NGATS ATM-Airspace Project does not contemplate development of a complete end-to-end vulnerability analysis or changes in system architecture and operational procedures. Plans for the Sepa- ration Assurance and Super Density Operations elements include modeling work that would factor in system disruptions. This research would advance the state of the art, but available resources will make it difficult to achieve milestones in a timely fashion. E7 Adaptive ATM techniques to minimize the impact of weather by taking better advantage of improved probabilistic forecasts SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C Y Y This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Identify potential reductions in weather-induced delays. • Demonstrate use of automated weather forecasts in making traffic flow decisions. • Quantify the benefit of using automated weather forecasts in making traffic flow decisions. • Determine where this capability is cost-beneficial. The NGATS ATM-Airportal Project is very attuned to the need for adaptive ATM techniques. Plans for the Safe and Efficient Surface Operations element include research to develop surface optimiza- tion schemes that would continually adapt to produce the optimal result. Plans for the Coordinated Approach/Departure Operations Management element include research to study the effect of weather on wake vortex behavior and, in the future, to develop better approaches for runway balancing and reconfiguration and for equivalent visual operations (which would allow aircraft to operate regardless of visibility conditions or the ability to make direct visual observations). The Airportal Transition and Integration Management element also foresees including research on metroplex operations in the future. The NGATS ATM-Airportal Project is not performing cost-benefit analyses.

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 NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH—AN ASSESSMENT The Traffic Flow Management element of the NGATS ATM-Airspace Project seeks to develop models to forecast demand and capacity of the National Airspace System that respond effectively to weather uncertainties. Assuming success, these models could help to identify potential reductions in weather-induced delays. It does not appear, however, that the remainder of the challenge milestones are planned to be addressed. E8a Transparent and collaborative decision support systems SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Identify the type of information to be shared between human operators and automated decision- support systems and the most appropriate form of information representation and exchange. • Develop, demonstrate, evaluate, and iteratively refine candidate designs in collaboration with operators. Plans for the Safe and Efficient Surface Operations element of the NGATS ATM-Airportal Project include substantial work to develop concepts for decision-support methodologies and tools applicable to surface operations. Plans for the Traffic Flow Management element of the NGATS ATM-Airspace Project include research to address both of the above milestones. This research would likely advance the state of the art and produce timely results. E8b Using operational and maintenance data to assess leading indicators of safety SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C Y This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Produce a common taxonomy for all safety information acceptable to all stakeholders. • Demonstrate methodologies to discover and analyze anomalous system, components, and human behavior in nominal and off-nominal conditions. • Demonstrate methods to integrate system models into analytical processes. • Demonstrate advanced, affordable methods to analyze anecdotal written reports of safety prob- lems and cross-reference them to operational data from aircraft, ATM, and weather systems. • Demonstrate methods to cross-reference operational data to certification and training simulator data to determine if aircraft are performing as designers intended and if pilots and controllers are performing as trained. The IVHM Project plans to support extensive research in data mining and analysis of aircraft main- tenance records as well as operational data. This information would be fused with sensor data from the vehicle airframe; the IVHM Project is working with the IIFD Project to assess integration of this work into the cockpit.

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 CHALLENGES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH Plans for each of the eight challenge problems being addressed by the Aging Aircraft and Durability Project include research to help create a database that would provide better indicators of safety. However, the challenge problems do not directly discuss maintenance, and it seems unlikely that planned research will have a significant and timely impact without additional resources and the involvement of personnel experienced with airline maintenance and operations. E8c Interfaces and procedures that support human operators in effective task and attention management SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C black This R&T challenge has the following milestones: • Complete basic research to document how operators absorb information, process information, and prioritize tasks. • Demonstrate tools to efficiently evaluate operational data and reports of nominal and off-nominal decision making by operators. • Demonstrate and evaluate candidate designs and procedures in support of preattentive reference, time-sharing among different tasks, and task switching.5 The Airportal Transition and Integration Management element of the NGATS ATM-Airportal Project includes an in-depth and comprehensive research effort to address the role of humans. The NGATS ATM-Airspace Project has no planned research to address the above milestones except as a by-product of the research by the Separation Assurance and Super Density Operations elements. SPACE AND NON-CIVIL AERONAUTICS RESEARCH In addition to the civil aeronautics R&T challenges detailed above, the committee for this study identified two high-priority requirements for NASA aeronautics research based on NASA’s own require- ments for aeronautics research (including robotic and human space exploration) and the needs of other federal government departments and agencies for non-civil aeronautics research. S-1 Entry, descent, and landing on Mars (e.g., high-Mach-number parachutes) and Earth (ablative materials) SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C The Supersonics Project is supporting computational and experimental investigations of aerother- modynamics issues associated with entry, descent, and landing, as well as studies of supersonic aero- dynamic decelerators. 5Preattentive reference is supported by presenting partial information about a potentially interrupting task or event to help the operator decide whether a shift in attention is warranted. The information needs to be presented in such a way that it is quickly noticed and easily processed and understood without requiring an interruption of the ongoing task or line of reasoning (Woods, 1995). Operational systems that provide preattentive reference reduce the risk of task switching errors and improve operator efficiency and performance.

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0 NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH—AN ASSESSMENT The Hypersonics and Supersonics Projects both include research that supports robotic and human space exploration. The study of High Mass Mars Entry Systems constitutes about 25 percent of the Hypersonics Project. This effort is conducting fundamental research on issues related to landing high- mass payloads on Mars. Issues of interest include increased levels of turbulent and radiative heating caused by a larger entry capsule and the need for increased precision in landing accuracy. Relevant research is incorporated in the Aerodynamics, Aerothermodynamics, and Plasmadynamics; Materials and Structures; and Guidance, Navigation and Control elements of the Hypersonics Project, and it includes development of CFD analysis tools, experimental investigations, aerothermodynamics modeling, materi- als for thermal protection, and trajectory analysis. S-2 Core competencies (facilities and staff) for space (e.g., for access to space, entry, descent, and landing, and analysis of space shuttle anomalies) and for DoD (hypersonic vehicles) SFW SRW Supersonics Hypersonics Airportal Airspace IVHM IIFD IRAC Aging A/C NASA’s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, Science Mission Directorate, and Space Opera- tions Mission Directorate all support important space activities. As noted above, in some cases NASA space programs rely on the NASA Aeronautics Program to sponsor research tasks of direct benefit to future space programs. In other cases, research, development, and operational elements of the space program rely on NASA aeronautics to support space research tasks by providing access to aeronautical staff and facilities.6 In addition, elements of the Department of Defense often rely on NASA Aeronautics to provide support, in the terms of key staff expertise and/or facilities, to support DoD research and development tasks. (It is much rarer for the DoD to ask NASA to conduct a research project on behalf of the DoD.) The chief scientist of the Air Force and the DARPA director report that they are satisfied with the coop- erative support that NASA currently provides. Interactions with DARPA have focused on the four projects that make up the Fundamental Aero- nautics Program. Ongoing and recently completed collaborations include the following: • Subsonic Fixed Wing Project — DARPA Morphing Wing • Subsonic Rotary Wing Project — Helicopter Quieting Program — SMART Rotor Program — Heliplane — Acoustic flight tests at Eglin Air Force Base (co-sponsored with the Air Force Army) — Helicopter Brownout (co-sponsored with Air Force) • Supersonics Project — Oblique Flying Wing Program • Hypersonics Project — X-51 (1, 2, 3, 4) (co-sponsored with the Air Force) — Falcon — HyFly (co-sponsored with the Navy) 6See Chapter 3 for a detailed discussion of aeronautical facilities.

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 CHALLENGES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH With many of the above projects, NASA subject-matter experts assist DARPA in the formulation of programs, review of proposals, and periodic program reviews. In addition, NASA subject-matter experts often use NASA test facilities (e.g., wind tunnels, flight-test operations, and propulsion test facilities) to support of DARPA programs. In some cases, NASA research in support of DARPA proj- ects is funded by DARPA, and in other cases NASA contributes its own resources to support research of mutual benefit. ASSESSMENT OF NASA’S RESPONSE TO RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE DECADAL SURVEY OF CIVIL AERONAUTICS The Decadal Surey of Ciil Aeronautics made eight recommendations (NRC, 2006, p. 3). The committee’s assessment of NASA’s response to these recommendations is summarized below. Recommendation 1 from the Decadal Survey NASA should use the 51 Challenges listed in Table ES-1 as the foundation for the future of NASA’s civil aeronautics research program during the next decade.7 Assessment of NASA Response. The content of the Decadal Surey of Ciil Aeronautics seems not to have been a significant factor in the selection of the research portfolio being pursued by many of the ARMD’s research projects. The basic planning documents for most of NASA’s research projects were prepared before the Decadal Surey was published, and the NASA research portfolio, as a whole, does not seem to have changed course in response to the Decadal Surey. In any case, as detailed above, NASA is doing a mixed job in responding to the R&T challenges overall and in each R&T challenge area. As discussed in Chapter 4, addressing all 51 highest-priority R&T challenges from the Decadal Surey in a thorough and comprehensive manner would require a substantial increase in the NASA ARMD funding levels. Absent such an increase in funding and/or a substantial reduction in the constraints that NASA faces in conducting aeronautics research, NASA, in consultation with the aeronautics research com- munity and others as appropriate, should redefine the scope and priorities of the aeronautics research program, even if all 51 of the highest-priority R&T challenges from the Decadal Surey of Ciil Aero- nautics are not addressed simultaneously. Recommendation 2 from the Decadal Survey The U.S. government should place a high priority on establishing a stable aeronautics R&T plan, with the expectation that the plan will receive sustained funding for a decade or more, as necessary, for activities that are demonstrating satisfactory progress. Assessment of NASA Response. NASA leadership issued a new vision for aeronautics research in early 2006, in the context of an agency vision that remains focused on space. For the next 2 years, NASA was consistent in advocating a research program that is stable, year to year, in carrying out the vision. However, changes in direction often occur with a change in leadership, and the associate administrator for ARMD who oversaw the creation and implementation of this vision left NASA in February 2008. It remains to be seen if the appointment of a permanent replacement will result in another change in NASA’s vision and/or priorities for aeronautics research. 7These 51 challenges are listed in Table 1-1 in Chapter 1 of the present report.

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 NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH—AN ASSESSMENT Recommendation 3 from the Decadal Survey NASA should use five Common Themes to make the most efficient use of civil aeronautics R&T resources: • Physics-based analysis tools • Multidisciplinary design tools • Advanced configurations • Intelligent and adaptive systems • Complex interactive systems Assessment of NASA Response. NASA has addressed the recommended common themes with different levels of success. NASA is doing well, in most cases, with physics-based analysis tools and multidisciplinary design tools. NASA is doing good work on advanced configurations for subsonic fixed- wing aircraft and, to a lesser extent, on hypersonic aircraft. It is not doing noteworthy work on advanced configurations for supersonic aircraft or rotorcraft. A stronger focus on systems and systems integration is necessary to strengthen research related to advanced configurations, intelligent and adaptive systems, and complex interactive systems. Recommendation 4 from the Decadal Survey NASA should support fundamental research to create the foundations for practical certification standards for new technologies. Assessment of NASA Response. In many cases, NASA is supporting fundamental research that could ultimately be used to create foundations for practical certification standards for future technolo- gies, but it is not conducting research specifically focused on certification issues. In addition, proce- dures for transferring new technologies are not apparent. However, Section 905 of H.R. 2881, the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2007, would direct the “FAA, in consultation with other agencies as appropri- ate” to “establish a research program on methods to improve both confidence in and the timeliness of certification of new technologies.” The same bill would direct the FAA to prepare a research plan for this activity and to have the plan reviewed by the National Research Council. As of October 19, 2007, the bill had passed the House of Representatives and was awaiting action by the Senate. Recommendation 5 from the Decadal Survey The U.S. government should align organizational responsibilities as well as develop and implement techniques to improve change management for federal agencies and to assure a safe and cost-effective transition to the air transportation system of the future. Assessment of NASA Response. Recommendation 5 is not directed at NASA, and it is beyond the scope of NASA’s authority. This committee is not aware of any action to implement this recommenda- tion (beyond the ongoing work of the NextGen Joint Planning and Development Office).

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 CHALLENGES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH Recommendation 6 from the Decadal Survey NASA should ensure that its civil aeronautics R&T plan features the substantive involvement of universities and industry, including a more balanced allocation of funding between in-house and external organizations than currently exists. Assessment of NASA Response. The Decadal Surey of Ciil Aeronautics reported that ARMD had plans to allocate only 7 percent of its budget for research by outside organizations. NASA is gradually increasing the involvement of universities and industry in ARMD research projects using NRAs. This percentage varies among the projects from 10 percent to more than 40 percent. 8 Recommendation 7 from the Decadal Survey NASA should consult with non-NASA researchers to identify the most effective facilities and tools applicable to key aeronautics R&T projects and should facilitate collaborative research to ensure that each project has access to the most appropriate research capabilities, including test facilities; computational models and facili- ties; and intellectual capital, available from NASA, the FAA, the Department of Defense, and other interested research organizations in government, industry, and academia. Assessment of NASA Response. NASA is collaborating effectively with the Department of Defense in facility management. NASA is also improving collaboration with other research organizations in some areas. Recommendation 8 from the Decadal Survey The U.S. government should conduct a high-level review of organizational options for ensuring U.S. leader- ship in civil aeronautics. Assessment of NASA Response. Recommendation 8 is not directed at NASA, and it is beyond the scope of NASA’s authority. However, Section 604 of S.1300, the Aviation Investment and Modern- ization Act of 2007, would direct the President to establish the Advisory Committee on the Future of Aeronautics. The committee would consist of 7 members selected from a list of 15 candidates proposed by the National Academy of Sciences. The committee would “examine the best governmental and orga- nizational structures for the conduct of civil aeronautics research and development, including options and recommendations for consolidating such research to ensure continued United States leadership in civil aeronautics. The Committee shall consider transferring responsibility for civil aeronautics research and development from NASA to other existing departments or agencies of the Federal government or to a non-governmental organization such as academic consortia or not-for-profit organizations.” As of October 30, 2007, this bill was still under consideration by the Senate. 8In Chapter 3, see the section entitled “Aeronautics Workforce Issues” for more information related to the involvement of external organizations in NASA’s research.

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 NASA AERONAUTICS RESEARCH—AN ASSESSMENT REFERENCES NRC (National Research Council). 2006. Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics: Foundation for the Future. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Available online at . NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). 2006. Aviation Safety Program, Aircraft Aging & Durability Project Technical Plan Summary. Washington, D.C.: NASA Headquarters, Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. Available online at . OAG (OAG Worldwide Limited). 2007. Trends in fleet models and aircraft age. London, England: OAG Worldwide Limited. Available online at . Woods, D.D. 1995. The alarm problem and directed attention in dynamic fault management. Ergonomics 38(11): 2371-2393. Wlezien, R., and L. Veitch. 2002. Quiet Supersonic Platform. AIAA Paper 2002-0143. January 2002. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.