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Birth defects, and other adverse reproductive outcomes, 114115

Bladder cancer, 109110, 199

Blood-brain barrier, 31

BNFL. See British Nuclear Fuels PLC

Bone, a primary reservoir of uranium, 2829

Bone cancer, 108109, 153, 198

Bosnia-Herzegovina war, 14, 16, 153

Bq. See Becquerel

Bradley fighting vehicles, 15, 93, 95, 97

Brain and other central nervous system cancers, 110, 200

Brain lipid oxidation, 35

Brain regions, accumulation in, 28

Breast cancer, 106

British Nuclear Fuels PLC (BNFL), 136137, 204

Bronchial cancer, 123

BVAMC. See Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center

C

Camp Doha fire, 15, 9495

Cancer

biological latency of, 80

causes of, 105

incidence of, 193

Cancer outcomes, 105111, 193203

bladder cancer, 109110, 199

bone cancer, 108109, 153, 198

brain and other central nervous system cancers, 110, 200

in depleted-uranium–exposed animals, 2930

leukemias, 107, 196

lung cancer, 8889, 106107, 123, 126135, 138, 194196

lymphomas, 107108, 197198

male genital cancers, 111, 201202

other cancers, 203

renal cancer, 109, 132, 198199

stomach cancer, 110, 134, 200201

Capstone report, 16, 24, 9396, 98, 208

Carcinogenic effects, 2930

Cardiovascular effects, 39, 126, 212

Case-control studies, 75, 8586

nested, 86, 130, 161, 163

retrospective, 133

Case reports and case series, 87

Categories of strength of association, 9091

inadequate/insufficient evidence to determine whether an association exists, 4, 91, 195202, 207, 209211, 214215

limited/suggestive evidence of an association, 4, 91

limited/suggestive evidence of no association, 4, 91

origin of, 90

sufficient evidence of a causal relationship, 4, 90

sufficient evidence of an association, 4, 91

Causation

defining, 75

true cause-effect association, 80

CEDR. See Comprehensive Epidemiology Data Resource

Cell toxicity, evaluating, 80

Central nervous system cancers, 110, 200

Chemical effects, of exposure to depleted uranium, 1720

Chemical toxicity, 1920

Chest X-ray testing, 114

Chondrosarcoma, 109

Chordoma, 109

Chromosomal aberrations, 3031

Chronic bronchitis, 113

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), 111

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 107

Chronic myeloid leukemia, 107

Chronic nephritis, 132, 203204

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 113114

CKD. See Chronic kidney disease

Cleft lip and palate, 114

Clinical end points of interest, 105116

cancer outcomes, 105111

noncancer outcomes, 111115

Clinical outcomes, adverse, 81

Coexposures, 8384

to other agents, 89

synergism, 8384

Cohort descriptions, 117192

depleted-uranium studies, 143153

environmental-exposure studies, 153163

summary, 163190

uranium-processing cohorts, 118143

Cohort studies, 75, 8485

prospective, 85

retrospective, 83, 85, 135, 140, 151

Colon cancer, 156



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