References

Abart, E. 1993. Decision-making strategy for handling biocides. Experience at Yuma Desalting Plant. Desalination 97:437-442.

Abdel-Jawad, M. and M. Al-Tabtabaei. 1999. Impact of current power generation and water desalination activities on Kuwaiti marine environment. Paper presented at the IDA World Congress, San Diego, 1999.

Abitoye, J. O., P. Mukherjee, and K. Jones. 2005. Ion Implantation: Effect on Flux and Rejection Properties of NF Membranes. Environmental Science and Technology 39:6487-6493.

Adler, P. R., S. J. del Grosso, and W. J. Parton. 2007. Life-cycle assessment of net greenhouse-gas flux for bioenergy cropping systems. Ecological Applications 17:675-691.

Ahmed, M., A. Arakel, D. Hoey, M. R. Thumarukudy, M. F. A. Goosen, M. Al-Haddabi, and A. Al-Belushi. 2003. Feasibility of salt production from inland RO desalination plant reject brine: A case study. Desalination 158:109-117.

Al-Ahmad, M. and F. A. Aleem. 1993. Scale formation and fouling problems effect on the performance of MSF and RO desalination plants in Saudi Arabia. Desalination 93:287-310.

Al-Shammiri, M., M. Safar, and M. Al-Dawa. 2000. Evaluation of two different antiscalants in real operation at the Doha research plant. Desalination 128:1-16.

Alcamo, J., P. Döll, F. Kaspar, and S. Siebert. 1997. Global change and global scenarios of water use and availability: An application of Water GAP 1.0. Kassel, Germany: University of Gesamthochsch.

Allam, J., G. K. Pearce, and K. Chida. 2003. Ultrafiltration Pre-treatment to RO: Trials at Kindasa Water Services, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Paper presented at the 2003 IDA Conference in Bahamas.

Almulla, A. 2002. Developments in high recovery brackish water



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 233
References Abart, E. 1993. Decision-making strategy for handling biocides. Experience at Yuma Desalting Plant. Desalination 97:437-442. Abdel-Jawad, M. and M. Al-Tabtabaei. 1999. Impact of current power generation and water desalination activities on Kuwaiti marine environment. Paper presented at the IDA World Congress, San Diego, 1999. Abitoye, J. O., P. Mukherjee, and K. Jones. 2005. Ion Implantation: Effect on Flux and Rejection Properties of NF Membranes. Environmental Science and Technology 39:6487-6493. Adler, P. R., S. J. del Grosso, and W. J. Parton. 2007. Life-cycle assessment of net greenhouse-gas flux for bioenergy cropping systems. Ecological Applications 17:675-691. Ahmed, M., A. Arakel, D. Hoey, M. R. Thumarukudy, M. F. A. Goosen, M. Al-Haddabi, and A. Al-Belushi. 2003. Feasibility of salt production from inland RO desalination plant reject brine: A case study. Desalination 158:109-117. Al-Ahmad, M. and F. A. Aleem. 1993. Scale formation and fouling problems effect on the performance of MSF and RO desalination plants in Saudi Arabia. Desalination 93:287-310. Al-Shammiri, M., M. Safar, and M. Al-Dawa. 2000. Evaluation of two different antiscalants in real operation at the Doha research plant. Desalination 128:1-16. Alcamo, J., P. Döll, F. Kaspar, and S. Siebert. 1997. Global change and global scenarios of water use and availability: An application of Water GAP 1.0. Kassel, Germany: University of Gesamthochsch. Allam, J., G. K. Pearce, and K. Chida. 2003. Ultrafiltration Pre-treatment to RO: Trials at Kindasa Water Services, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Paper presented at the 2003 IDA Conference in Bahamas. Almulla, A. 2002. Developments in high recovery brackish water 233

OCR for page 233
234 Desalination: A National Perspective desalination plants as part of the solution to water quality problems. Desalination 153:237-243. Alonitis, S. A., K. Kouroumbas, and N. Vlachakis. 2003. Energy consumption and membrane replacement cost for seawater RO desalination plants. Desalination 157:151-158. Al-Sofi, M. A. K. 2001. Seawater desalination—SWCC experience and vision. Desalination 135:121-139. Andijani, I., S. Ahmad, and A. Malik. 2000. Corrosion behavior of titanium metal in the presence of inhibited sulfuric acid at 50oC. Desalination 129:45-51. Anne, C. O., D. Trebouet, P. Jaounen, and F. Quemeneur. 2001. Nanofiltration of seawater: Fractionation of mono- and multi- valent cations. Desalination 140:67-77. AWWA (American Water Works Association). 1999. Water Quality and Treatment: A Handbook of Community Water Supplies, 5th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishers. AWWA Membrane Residuals Management Subcommittee. 2004. Committee report: Current perspectives on residuals management for desalting membranes. Journal AWWA 96:73- 89. AWWARF, Lyonnaise des Eaux, Water Research Commission of South Africa. 1996. Water Treatment Membrane Processes. J. Mallevialle, P. E. Odendaal, and M. R., Wiesner, eds. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishers. Baig, M. and A. A. A. Kutbi. 1998. Design features of a 20mgd SWRO desalination plant, Al Jubail, Saudi Arabia. Desalination 118:5- 12. Banat, F. A., and J. Simandl. 1998. Desalination by membrane distillation: A parametric study. Separation Science and Technology 33(2):201-226. Baumol, W. J., and W. E. Oates. 1988. The Theory of Environmental Policy, 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Bay, S., and D. Greenstein. 1993. Toxic Effects of Elevated Salinity and Desalination Waste Brine. Southern California Coastal Water Research Projects Annual Report. Available online at: http://www.scwrp.org/pubs/annrpt/92/93. Accessed April 26, 2007. Beck, R. W. 2002. Alternative Project Delivery: Texas Water Development Board. Available online at: http://www.twdb.state. tx.us/rwpg/rpgm_rpts/2000483347.pdf. Accessed March 28, 2007. Belfer, S., Y. Purinson, R. Fainshtein, Y. Radchenko, and O. Kedem. 1998. Surface modification of commercial composite polyamide

OCR for page 233
References 235 reverse osmosis membranes. Journal of Membrane Science 139:175-181. Bell, R. 2006. Dana Point Ocean Desalination Project. Presentation given at meeting of the NRC Committeee on Advancing Desalination Technology, Irvine, CA. Birkett, J. 2003. Desalination Activities in England during the Late 17th Century. International Water History Association: Alexandria, Egypt. Birkett, J., and R. Truby. 2007. A Figure of Merit for Appreciating Improvements in RO Membrane Performance. International Desalination Association News, Vol. 16. Blake, N. J., C. W. Dye, M. D. Farrell, and M. A. Hammond. 1996. Effect of disposal of seawater desalination discharges on near shore benthic communities. Phase 1 Report. Southwest Florida Water Management District, Electric Power Research Institute, and University of South Florida. Blazkowski, C., and G. S. Moreira. 1986. Combined effects of temperature and salinity on the survival and duration of larval stages of Pagurus criticornis (Cana) (Crustacea, Paguridae). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 103(11):77-86. Blumberg, A. F., and G. L. Mellor. 1987. A description of a three- dimensional coastal ocean circulation model. Pp. 1-16 in Three- Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, N. S. Heaps, ed. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union. Boland, J. J., B. Dziegielewski, D. D. Bauman, and E. M. Opitz. 1984. Influence of Price and Rate Structures on Minimum and Maximum Water Use. Carbondale, IL: Planning Management Consultants, Ltd. Bolhuis, P. G., and D. Chandler. 2000. Transition path sampling of cavitation between molecular scale solvophobic surfaces. Journal of Chemical Physics 113:8154-8160. Bond, R., and V. Veerapaneni. 2007. Zero Liquid Discharge for Inland Desalination. AwwaRF Report No. 3010. Borgina, M., S. Nielsen, A. Engel, and P. Agre. 1999. Cellular and molecular biology of the aquaporin water channels. Annual Review of Biochemistry 68:425-458. Bourounia, K., J. C. Deronzierb, and L. Tadrista. 1999. Experimentation and modelling of an innovative geothermal desalination unit. Desalination 125:147-153. Bousher, A., P. Brimblecombe, and D. Midgley. 1989. Kinetics of reactions in solutions containing monochloramine and bromide. Water Research 23:1049-1058.

OCR for page 233
236 Desalination: A National Perspective Brackish Groundwater Manual for Texas Regional Water Planning Groups. 2003. LBG-Guyton Associates in association with NRS Consulting Engineers, prepared for the Texas Water Development Board, February. Brian, P. L. T. 1966. Mass transport in reverse osmosis. In Desalination by Reverse Osmosis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Brining, D. L., W. C. Lester, W. N. Jessee, D. A. O’Leary, S. Bouregois, and M. S. Salam. 1981. Development of environmental standards for combined desalination/power generating stations in the Arabian Gulf region. Desalination 39:255-260. Brocksen, R. W., and R. E. Cole. 1972. Physiological responses of three species of fishes to various salinities. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29:399-405. Brown, T. C. 1999. Past and future freshwater use in the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Brustlin, V. H. 2007. Annual Monitoring Report for the T. Mabry Carlton, Jr. Memorial Reserve Wellfield Water Year 2006 Final Report. Burashid, K. 1992. Bahrain’s Seawater Intakes and Pretreatment Systems. Desalination and Water Reuse 22:44-49. Buros, O. K. 2000. The ABCs of Desalting, 2nd edition. Topsfield, MA: International Desalination Association. Buros, O. K., R. B. Cox, I. Nusbaum, A. M. El-Nashar, and R. Bakish. 1980. The USAID Desalination Manual. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: IDEA Publications. Burroughs, R. 1999. When stakeholders choose: Process, knowledge, and motivation in water quality decision. Society and Natural Resources 12:797-809. Busch, M., and W. E. Mickols. 2004. Reducing energy consumption in seawater desalination. Desalination 165:299-312. Cadotte, E. 1977. Reverse Osmosis Membrane. U.S. Patent 4,039,440. California Coastal Commission. 2004. Seawater Desalination and the California Coastal Act. Available online at: http://www.coastal.ca.gov/energy/14a-3-2004-desalination.pdf. Accessed December 27, 2007. California Department of Public Health. 2007. Drinking Water Notification Levels and Response Levels: An Overview. Available online at: http://www.cdph.ca.gov/certlic/drinking water/notofocationlevels/notificationlevels.pdf. Accessed January 4, 2008. California Department of Water Resources. 2005. A Framework for Action: The California Water Plan Update. Bulletin 160-05. Available online at: http://www.waterplan.water.ca.gov/docs/

OCR for page 233
References 237 cwpu2005/cwphighlights/highlights.pdf. Accessed March 14, 2008. California Energy Commission. 2005a. California’s Water Energy Relationship. CEC-700-2005-011-SF. Sacramento, CA. California Energy Commission. 2005b. Integrated Energy Policy Report 2005. CEC-100-2005-007-CMF. Sacramento, CA. California Water Desalination Task Force. 2003. Synthesis Paper— Management Practices for Feedwater Intakes and Concentrate Disposal for Seawater Desalination. Available online at: http://www.owue.water.ca.gov/recycle/desal/Docs/Management PracticesIntake_Disposal.doc. Accessed November 16, 2007. Cao, Y., A. W. Bark, and W. P. Williams. 1996. Measuring the responses of macroinvertebrate communities to water pollution: A comparison of multivariate approaches, biotic and diversity indices. Hydrobiologia 341:1-19. Carson, R. T., and R. C. Mitchell. 1987. Economic value of reliable water supplies for residential water users in the State Water Project services area. Prepared for the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. Los Angeles, CA. Celere, M., and C. Gostoli. 2002. The heat and mass transfer phenomena in osmotic membrane distillation. Desalination 147:133-138. CEQ (Council on Environmental Quality). 1991. Environmental Quality: 21st Annual Report. Washington, D.C.: CEQ. Charmentier, G., and M. Charmentier-Daures. 1994. Ontogeny of osmoregulation and salinity tolerance in the isopod crustacean Sphaeroma serratum. Marine Ecology Progress Series 114:93- 102. Chesher, R. H. 1975. Biological impact of a large-scale desalination plant at Key West Florida. Pp. 99-181 in Tropical Marine Pollution, E. J. Ferguson Wood and R. E. Johannes, eds. New York: Elsevier Scientific. Childress, A. E., and M. Elimelech. 2000. Relating nanofiltration membrane performance to membrane charge (electrokinetic) characteristics. Environmental Science and Technology 34:3710- 3716. Civan, F. 2000. Reservoir Formation Damage, Fundamentals, Modeling, Assessment, and Mitigation. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company. Cohen, R., B. Nelson, and G. Wolff. 2004. Energy Down the Drain: The Hidden Costs of California’s Water Supply. New York: National Resources Defense Council and Oakland, CA: Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security. Colby, B. G. 1997. Markets as a response to water scarcity: Policy challenges and economic implications. Pp. 211-232 in Advances

OCR for page 233
238 Desalination: A National Perspective in the Economics of Environmental Resources, D. Hall, ed. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Cooley, H., P. H. Gleick, and G. Wolff. 2006. Desalination, With a Grain of Salt: A California Perspective. Oakland, CA: Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security. Cornes, R., and T. Sandler. 1996. The Theory of Externalities, Public Goods and Club Goods, 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Cotruvo, J. A. 2005. Water desalination processes and associated health and environmental issues. Water Conditioning and Purification, January:13-17. CPUC (California Public Utilities Commission). 2001. California Standard Practice Manual: Economic Analysis of Demand-Side Programs and Projects. Sacramento, CA: CPUC. Davis, T. 2006. Zero Discharge Seawater Desalination: Integrating the Production of Freshwater, Salt, Magnesium, and Bromine. USBR Desalination and Water Purification Research and Development Program Report No. 111. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Available online at http://www.usbr.gov/pmts/water/publications/reportpdfs/report1 11.pdf. Accessed March 14, 2008. De la Cruz, R. V., and C. B. Raleigh. 1972. Absolute stress measurements at the Rangely Anticline, Northwestern Colorado. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science & Geometrics Abstracts 9:625-634. DOI (U.S. Department of the Interior). 2002. Report to Congress on Concepts for National Assessment of Water Availability and Use. U.S. Geological Survey Circular. 1223. Reston, VA: USGS. Douglas, M., D. Gasper, S. Ney, and M. Thompson. 1998. Human needs and wants. Pp. 195-263 in Human Choices and Climate Change, Vol. 1, S. Rayner and E. Malone, eds. Columbus, OH: Battelle Publishing. Dow Chemical Company. 1994. Cleaning Procedures for FILMTEC FT 30 Membranes. Dreizen, Y. 2006. Ashkelon seawater desalination project—off-takers self costs, supplied water costs, total costs and benefits. Desalination 190:104-116. Drioli, E., E. Curcio, A. Criscuoli, and G. DiProfio. 2004. Integrated system for recovery of CaCO3, NaCl and MgSO4-7H2O for nanofiltration retentate. Journal of Membrane Science 219:27- 38. Dudek and Associates. 2005. Environmental impact report for precise development plan and desalination plant. EIR 03-05- SCH#2004041081. Prepared for the City of Carlsbad, CA.

OCR for page 233
References 239 Duirk, S. E., and R. L. Valentine. 2007. Bromide oxidation and formation of dihaloacetic acids in chloraminated water. Environmental Science and Technology 41:7047-7053. DuPont. 1994. PERMASEP Products engineering manual, bulletin 1020, 2010 and 4010. Wilmington, DE: DuPont Company. Dyksen, J., C. Spencer, R. Hoehn, J. Clement, J. Brandt-Edwards, M. Friedman, A. Hanson, R. Spellecacy, M. McGuire, P. Singer, and A. Camper. 2007. Long-Term Effects of Disinfection Changes on Water Quality. AWWARF Report 91169. EBMUD (East Bay Municipal Utility District). 2005. Urban Water Management Plan 2005. Oakland, CA: EBMUD. Ebrahim, S., M. Abdel-Jawad, and M. Safar. 1995. Conventional pretreatment system for the Doha Reverse Osmosis Plant: Technical and economic assessment. Desalination 102:179-187. Edison Electrical Institute. 2005. Industry Statistics. Available online at: http://www.eei.org/industry_issues/industry_overview_and_stati stics/industry_statistics/index.htm#generation. Accessed August 8, 2007. Einav, R., K. Harussi, and D. Perry. 2002. The footprint of desalination processes on the environment. Desalination 152:141-154. El-Bourawi, M. S., Z. Ding, M. Khavet, and R. Ma. 2006. A framework for better understanding membrane distillation separation process. Journal of Membrane Sciences 285:4-29. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1979. National secondary drinking water regulations, final rule. Federal Register 44 (140): 42195-42202. EPA. 1985. Abient Water Quality Criteria for Copper—1984. Office of Water Regulations and Standards. Washington, D.C.: EPA 440/5-84-031. EPA. 1986. Abient Water Quality Criteria for Nickel—1986. Office of Water Regulations and Standards. Washington, D.C.: EPA 440/5-86-004. EPA. 1991. "CORMIX2: An Expert System for Hydrodynamic Mixing Zone Analysis of Conventional and Toxic Submerged Multiport Diffuser Discharges", Technical Report EPA/600/3-91/073, U.S. Environmental Research Laboratory, Athens, Georgia. EPA. 2005. A Regulators’ Guide to the Management of Radioactive Residuals from Drinking Water Treatment Technologies. EPA 816-R-05-004. Available online at: http://www.epa.gov/radiation /docs/tenorm/816-r-05-004.pdf. Accessed December 21, 2007. EPA. 2006. Health Effects Support Document for Boron. Office of Water. Washington, D.C.: EPA-822-R-06-005. EPA. 2007a. Regulatory Support Documents for Selected Contaminants from the Second Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List

OCR for page 233
240 Desalination: A National Perspective (CCL2). EPA Report 815-D-06-007. Washington, D.C.: EPA. Available online at: http://epa.gov/safewater/ccl/pdfs/reg_ determine2/report_ccl2-reg2_supportdocument_ch03_boron.pdf. Accessed February 21, 2008. EPA. 2007b. Underground Injection Control Program. Available online at: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/uic/index.html. Accessed April 8, 2008. EPA. 2007c. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) Allotments. Washington, D.C.: EPA. Available online at: http://.epa.gov/safewater/dwsrf/alloatments/bascic information.html. Accessed February 22, 2008. Evans, D. M. 1966. The Denver area earthquakes and the Rocky Mountain Arsenal disposal well. The Mountain Geologist 3(1):23-26. European Commission. 1998. Desalination Guide Using Renewable Energies. Brussels: European Commission. European Commission. 2007. Global Change and Ecosystems: EU Research for the Environment, Catalogue of FP6 Projects. Available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/research/environment/pdf /global_change_ecosystem.pdf. Accessed December 11, 2007. Farmer, J. C., J. Richardson, D. Fix, S. Thomson, and S. May. 1996. Desalination with Carbon Aerogel Electrodes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Report No. URCL-ID- 125298 Rev 1. Ferraris, J. D., K. Fauchald, and B. Kensley. 1994. Physiological responses to fluctuation in temperature of salinity in invertebrates. Adaptations of Alpheus viridari (Decapoda, Crustacea), Terebellides parva (Polychaeta) and Golfinigia cylindrata (Sipunculida) to the mangrove habitat. Marine Biology 120:397-406. Feth, J. H. 1965. Preliminary map of the conterminous United States showing depth to and quality of shallowest ground water containing more than 1,000 part per million dissolved solids. U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Investigation Atlas HA-199. Reston, VA: USGS. FilmTec. 2000. FILMTEC membranes tech manual excerpts. FilmTec Corporation, The Dow Chemical Company. Available online at: http://www.dow.com/liquidseps. FitchRatings. 2007. Revenue Criteria Report: Water and Sewer Revenue Bond Rating Guidelines. New York: Fitch Inc. Available online at: http://www.fitchratings.com/corporate/login/setSessionVars. cfm?userIdParam=mstoever&SCRIPT_NAME=/corporate/report s/report_frame.cfm&QUERY_STRING=rpt_id=322724§or _flag=&marketsector=3&detail=. Accessed November 16, 2007.

OCR for page 233
References 241 Forster, S .J. 1998. Osmotic stress tolerance and osmoregulation of intertidal and subtidal nematodes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biological Ecology 224:109-125. Freeze, R. A., and J. A. Cherry. 1979. Groundwater. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Frenkel, V. 2004. Desalination Methods, Technology and Economics. Presentation at 2004 Desalination Conference, Santa Barbara, CA. Available online at: http://www.idswater.com/Common/ Paper/Paper_90/Val%20Frenkle%20papaer.pdf. Friedman, E., and H. Moulin. 1999. Three methods to share joint costs or surplus. Journal of Economic Theory 87:275-331. Gacia, E., O. Invers, M. Manzanera, E. Ballesteros, and J. Romero. 2007. Impact of the brine from a desalination plant on a shallow seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) meadow. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 72:579-590. Galloway, D. L., D. R. Jones, and S. E. Ingebritsen. 1999. Land subsidence in the United States. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1182. Reston, VA: USGS. Available online at: http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/circ1182/. Accessed December 11, 2007. Galloway, M., and J. Mahoney. 2004. Ultrafiltration for seawater reverse osmosis pretreatment. Membrane Technology 2004:5-8. García-Rodríguez, L. 2003. Renewable energy applications in desalination: State of the art. Solar Art 75:381-393. Gaston, G. R., and J. C. Young. 1992. Effects of contaminants on macrobenthic communities in the upper Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana. Bulletin of Environmental Contaminants and Toxicology 37:922-928. Geisler, P., W. Krumm, and T. A. Peters. 2001. Reduction of the energy demand for seawater RO with the pressure exchange system PES. Desalination 135:205-210. German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft—und Raumfahrt or DLR). 2007. Concentrating Solar Power for Seawater Desalination. Prepared for the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. Available online at: http://www.dll.de/tt/aqua-csp. Accessed on April 8, 2008. Gilron, J., S. Belfer, P. Väisänen, and M. Nysrtöm. 2001. Effects of surface modification on antifouling and performance properties of reverse osmosis membranes. Desalination 140: 167-179. Glater, J., M. R. Zachariah, S. B. McCray, and J. W. McCutchan. 1983. Reverse osmosis membrane sensitivity to ozone and halogen disinfectants. Desalination 48:1-16.

OCR for page 233
242 Desalination: A National Perspective Gleick, P. H. 1997. Water 2050: Moving Toward A Sustainable Vision for the Earth’s Fresh Water. Oakland, CA: Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security. Gleick, P. H. 2002. Soft water paths. Nature 418:373. Gleick, P. H. 2003a. Global freshwater resources: Soft-path solutions for the 21st century. Science 302:1524-528. Gleick, P. H. 2003b. Water use. Annual Review of Environmental Resources 28:275-314. Gleick, P. H., G. Wolff, E. L. Chalecki, and R. Reyes. 2002. The New Economy of Water: The Risks and Benefits of Globalization and Privatization of Fresh Water. Oakland, CA: Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security. Gleick, P. H., D. Haasz, C. Henges-Jeck, V. Srinivasan, G. Wolff, K. K. Cushing, and A. Mann. 2003. Waste Not, Want Not: The Potential for Urban Water Conservation in California. Oakland, CA: Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security. Grattan, S., C. Grieve, J. Poss, P. Robinson, D. Suarze, and S. Benes. 2004. Evaluation of salt-tolerant forages for sequential water re- use systems. Implications for ruminant mineral nutrition. Agriculture Water Management 70:137-150. Grieve, C., J. Poss, S. Grattan, D. Suarze, S. Benes, and P. Robinson. 2004. Evaluation of salt-tolerant forages for sequential reuse systems. Agriculture Water Management 70:121-135. Griffin, R. C., and J. W. Mjelde. 2000. Valuing water supply reliability. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 82:414-426. GWI (Global Water Intelligence). 2006a. Desalination Markets 2007: A Global Forecast. Oxford, UK: Media Analyics Ltd. GWI. 2006b. 19th IDA Worldwide Desalting Plant Inventory. Oxford, UK: Media Analytics Ltd. GWI. 2007. Desalination Tracker 8:37-48. Oxford, UK: Media Analytics Ltd. Hamed, O. A. 2005. Overview of hybrid desalination systems—current status and future prospects. Desalination 186:207-214. Hamed, O. A., M. Al-Sofi, G. Mustafa, and A. Dalvi. 1999. The performance of different and anti-scalants in multi-stage flash distillers. Desalination 123:185-194. Hamed, O. A., M. Al-Sofi, M. Imam, K. Mardouf, A. Al-Mobayed, and A. Ehsan. 2000. Evaluation of polyphosphonate antiscalant at a low does rate in the Al-Jubail Phase II MSF plant, Saudi Arabia. Desalination 128: 275-280. Hamed, O. A., M. A. K. Al-Sofi, G. M. Mustafa, K. Ba-Mardouf, and H. Al-Washmi. 2002. Power/Water Cogeneration Cycles Analysis -

OCR for page 233
References 243 Part 1, Design Data Theoretical Analysis. Paper presented at IDA World Congress, Saudi Arabia, 2002. Hamieh, B. M., J. R. Beckman, and M. D. Ybarra. 2001. Brackish and seawater desalination using a 20 foot dewvaporation tower. Desalination 140(3):217-226. Hammond, M. A., N. J. Blake, C. W. Dye, P. Hallock-Muller, M. E. Luther, D. A. Tomasko, and G. Vargo. 1998. Effect of Disposal of Seawater Desalination discharges on near shore benthic communities, Phase Two Report. Southwest Florida Water Management District, Electric Power Research Institute, University of South Florida. Hanafi, A. 2002. Cogeneration of Power and Desalinated Water. Paper presented at IDA World Congress, Egypt, 2002. Haneman, W. M. 2006. The economic conception of water. In Water Crisis: Myth or Reality, P. P. Rogers, M. R. Llamas, and L. Martinez Cortina, eds. London: Taylor and Francis. Hannam, K. M., L. W. Oring, and M. P. Herzog. 2003. Impacts of salinity on growth and behavior of American avocet chicks. Waterbirds 26:119-125. Harbaugh, A. W. 2005. MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular ground-water model—the ground-water flow process. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A16. Reston, VA: USGS. Heberer, T., B. Fuhrmann, K. Schmidt-Baumler, D. Tsipi, V. Koutsouba, and A. Hiskia. 2001. Occurrence of pharmaceutical residues in sewage, river, ground and drinking water in Greece and Germany. In Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in the Environment: Scientific and Regulatory Issues, Symposium Series 791, D. B. Daughton and T. Jones-Lepp, eds. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. Hem, J. D. 1986. Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2254. Reston, VA: USGS. Hinds, B. J., N. Chopra, T. Rantell, R. Andrews, V. Gavalas, and L. G. Bachas. 2004. Aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube membranes. Science 303:62-65. Hinkebein, T. E., and M. K. Price. 2005. Progress with the desalination and water purification technologies U.S. roadmap. Desalination 182:19-28. Hoffman, D., H. M. Ohlendorf, and T. W. Aldrich. 1988. Selenium teratogenesis in natural populations of aquatic birds in Central California. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 17:519-525.

OCR for page 233
References 251 OMB (U.S. Office of Management and Budget). 2003. Circular A-11: Preparation, Submission, and Execution of the Budget. Washington, D.C.: Executive Office of the President. Available online at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars/a11/02toc. html. Accessed February 26, 2008. O’Neill, K. M., M. H. Schreider, T. M. Glasby, and A. R. Redden. 2007. Lack of epifaunal response to the application of salt for managing the noxious green alga Caulerpa taxifolia in a coastal lake. Hydrobiologia 580:135-142. Pankratz, T. 2005. Advances in desalination technology. International Journal of Nuclear Desalination 2005 1(4):450-455. Pankratz, T. 2008. ZLD systems are operating challenge. Water Desalination Report 44(7):1. Pankratz, T., and J. Tonner. 2003. Desalination.com. Houston, TX: Lone Oak Publishing. Parkhurst, D. L. 1995. Users guide to PHREEQC: A computer program for speciation, reaction-path, advective transport, and inverse geochemical calculations. U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 95-4227:143. Reston, VA: USGS. Pearce, G. K. 2007. The case for UF/MF pretreatment to RO in seawater applications. Desalination 203:286-295. Peng, P., A. G. Fane, and X. Li. 2005. Desalination by membrane distillation adopting a hydrophyllic membrane. Desalination 173(1):45-54. Perez Talavera, J. L., and J. Quesada Ruiz. 2001. Identification of the mixing processes in brine discharges carried out in Barranco del Toro Beach, south of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Desalination 139:277-286. Peters, T., D. Pinto, and E. Pinto. 2007. Improved seawater intake and pre-treatment system based on Neodren technology. Desalination 203:134-140. Pilar Ruso, Y. D., J. A. Ossa Carretero, F. Giminez Casalduero, and J. L. Sanchez Lizaso. 2007. Spatial and temporal changes in infaunal communities inhabiting soft-bottoms affected by brine discharges. Marine Environmental Research 64:492-503. Pillard, D. A., D. L. DuFresna, J. E. Tietge, and J. M. Evans. 1999. Response of mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegates) and inland silversides minnow (Menidia beryllina) to changes in artificial seawater salinity. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18:430-435. Plummer, L. N., D. L. Parkhurst, G. W. Fleming, and S. A. Dunkle. 1988. A computer program incorporating Pitzer's equations for calculation of geochemical reactions in brines. U.S. Geological

OCR for page 233
252 Desalination: A National Perspective Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4153. Reston, VA: USGS. Posco Steel. 2007. Environmental Performance: Air and Water. Pohang, Korea: Posco Steel. Available online at: http://www.posco.co.kr/homepage/docs/en/sustain/environ/s91d 1010050c.html. Accessed December 4, 2007. Prato, T. E. Schoepke, L. Etchison, T. O’Brien, B. Hernon, K. Perry, and M. Peterson. 2002. Production of high purity water from seawater. Water Quality Products 7:3. Rachid, M., and C. Abdelwahab. 2005. Ecotoxicological marine impacts from seawater desalination plants. Desalination 182:403-410. Raftelis, G. A. 1989. The Arthur Young Guide to Water and Wastewater Finance and Pricing. Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers. Rainey, C. J., L. A. Nyquist, R. E. Christensen, P. L. Strong, B. D. Culver, and J. R. Coughlin. 1999. Daily boron intake from the American diet. Journal of the American Diet Association 99:335–340. Raucher, R., D. Chapman, J. Henderson, M. Hagenstad, J. Rice, J. Goldstein, A. Huber-Lee, B. Hurd, R. Linsky, E. Means, and M. Renwick. 2005. The Value of Water: Concepts, Empirical Evidence, and their Application to Water Management Decisions. Denver, CO: American Water Works Association Research Foundation. Raventos, N., E. Macpherson, and A. Garcia-Rubics. 2006. Effect of brine discharge from a desalination plant on macrobenthic communities in the NW Mediterranean. Marine Environmental Research 62:1-14. Reahl, E. R. 2006. Half Century of Desalination with Electrodialysis. GE Water & Process Technologies, General Electric Company. Redondo, J. and I. Lomax. 1997. Experiences with the pretreatment of raw water with high fouling potential for reverse osmosis plant using FILMTEC membranes. Desalination 110:167-182. Reiss Environmental, Inc. 2003. Disinfection Residual Stability Study. Internal report for Tampa Bay Water. Renwick, M. E., and R. D. Green. 2000. Do residential water demand side management policies measure up: An analysis of eight California water agencies. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 40:37-55. Reynolds, W. W., D. A. Thomson, and M. E. Casterlin. 1976. Temperature and salinity tolerance of larval California grunion, Leuristhes tenuis (Ayres): A comparison with gulf grunion, L. sardinia (Jenkins and Evermann). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 24:73-82.

OCR for page 233
References 253 Ricci, J. and E. Bailey. 2007. Smelt Ruling May Cut Into Water Supply. Printed in the Los Angeles Times, September 1, 2007. Richards, B. S., and A. I. Schäfer. 2003. Photovoltaic-powered desalination system for remote Australian communities. Renewable Energy 28:2013-2022. Richardson, S. D., T. V. Caughran, P. H. Chen, T. W. Collette, T. L. Floyd, and A. D. Thruston. 1999. Identification of new drinking water disinfection byproducts formed in the presence of bromide. Environmental Science and Technology 33:3378-3383. Richardson, S. D., M. J. Plewa, E. D. Wagner, R. Schoeny, and D. M. DeMarini. 2007. Occurrence, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research. Mutation Research- Reviews in Mutation Research 636:178-242. Riley, R. L., R. L. Fox, C. R. Lyons, C. E. Milstead, M. W. Seroy, and M. Tagami. 1976. Spiral-wound polyether amide thin film composite membrane systems. Desalination 19:1113. Rinne, W. W. 1971. Waste brine disposal from coastal desalination plants. Pp. 325-328 in IEEE Engineering in the Ocean Environment Conference. Roberts, N. 2004. Public deliberation in an age of direct citizen participation. American Review of Public Administration 34:315-353. Robinson, M. K. 2007. Communications Lessons from the Frontline of Desalination Plant Development. Presentation given to the NRC Committee on Advancing Desalination Technology, Clearwater, FL. Sallangos, O. L. V. 2004. Operating experience of the Dhekelia seawater desalination plnat using an innovative energy recovery system. Morocco: European Desalination Society. Sallangos, O. L. V., and E. A. Kantilaftis. 2003. Operating Eexperience of the Dhekelia seawater desalination plant using an innovative energy recovery system. Presentation at the European Desalination Society Conference, Morocco, 2003. San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission. 2005. Desalination and San Francisco Bay. San Francisco, CA: San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission. Sarma, S. S., L. Beladjal, S. Nandini, G. Cerón-Martínez, and K. Tavera- Briseño. 2005. Effect of salinity stress on the life history variables of Branchipus schaefferi Fisher, 1834 (Crustacea: Anostraca). Saline Systems 1: 4. Seacord, T. F. 2006a. Affordable Desalination Collaboration 2005. Presentation at AMTA Bi-Annual Conference, Anaheim, CA, July 2006.

OCR for page 233
254 Desalination: A National Perspective Seacord, T. F. 2006b. Developing Post-Treatment Criteria for Seawater Reverse Osmosis. IDA Desalination Yearbook 2006-2007. Seattle Public Utilities. 2007. Seattle Water Supply System Regional 1% Water Conservation Program. Saving Water Partnership 2006 Annual Report. Available online at: http://www.seattle.gov/util/ stellent/groups/public/@spu/@csb/documents/webcontent/spu01 _002837.pdf. Accessed March 14, 2008. Seawater Desalination and the California Coastal Act. 2004. Chapter 5.1.3, p. 83. Sedlak, D. L., and K. E. Pinkston. 2001. Factors Affecting the Concentrations of Pharmaceuticals Released to the Aquatic Environment. Proceedings of the National Groundwater Association, 2nd International Conference on Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Water, Minneapolis, MN, October 9-11. Westerville, OH: National Groundwater Association. Sethi, S., S. Walker, P. Xu, and J. Drewes. 2006a. Existing and emerging concentrate minimization and disposal practices for membrane systems. Florida Water Resources Journal, June:38-48. Sethi, S., S. Walker, P. Xu, and J. Drewes. 2006b. Desalination Product Water Recovery and Concentrate Volume Minimization, Phase I draft final report, AwwaRF Project No. 3030. Carollo Engineers and Colorado School of Mines. Sethi, S., G. Juby, S. Li, A. Zacheis, T. Mulvihill, B. Standard, R. Morquecho, C. Krieger, and D. Scriven. 2007. Inland Brackish Water Desalination: Feasibility Study Evaluates Alternatives and Develops a Zero-Liquid-Discharge Solution. Proceedings of the AWWA Membrane Technology Conference, Tampa, FL, March 2007. Sethi, S., P. Xu, and J. Drewes. 2008. Desalination Product Water Recovery and Concentrate Volume Minimization, Final Draft Report. AWWARF Project No. 3030. Carollo Engineers and Colorado School of Mines. Shams El Din, A., and B. Makkawi. 1998. Operation processes affection corrosion in MSF distillers. Desalination 115:33- 37.Sherwood, T. K., P. L. T. Brian, R. E. Fisher, and L. Dressner. 1964. Industrial Engineering Chemical Fundamentals 3:210. Shih, H., and T. Shih. 2007. Utilization of waste heat in the desalination process. Desalination 204:464-470. Shiklomanov, I. A. 1993. World fresh water resources. Pp. 13-24 in Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World’s Fresh Water Resources, P. Gleick, ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

OCR for page 233
References 255 Simon, P. 1998. Tapped Out: The Coming World Crisis in Water and What We Can Do About It. New York: Welcome Rain Publishers. Singer, P. C. 1999. Formation and Control of Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water. Denver, CO: AWWA. Snyder, E. M, S. A. Snyder, J. P. Giesy, S. A. Blonde, G. K. Hurlburt, C. L. Summer, R. R. Mitchell, and D. M. Bush. 2000. SCRAM: A scoring and ranking system for persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances for the North American Great Lakes—Part II Bioaccumulation potential and persistence. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 7:116-121. Snyder, S. A., S. Adham, A. M. Redding, F. S. Cannon, J. DeCarolis, J. Oppenheimer, E. C. Wert, and Y. Yoon. 2007. Role of membranes and activated carbon in the removal of endocrine discruptors and pharmaceuticals. Desalination 202:156-181. Solley, W. B., R. R. Pierce, and H. A. Perlman. 1998. Estimated Use of Water in the United States. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1200. Reston, VA: USGS. Song, L., J. Y. Hu, S. L. Ong, W. J. Ng, M. Elimelech, and M. Wilf. 2003a. Emergence of thermodynamic restriction and its implications for the full-scale reverse osmosis process. Desalination 155:213-228. Song, L., J. Y. Hu, S. L. Ong, W. J. Ng, M. Elimelech, and M. Wilf. 2003b. Performance limitation in the full-scale reverse osmosis process. Journal of Membrane Science, 214:239-244. Spiegler, K. S., and Y. M. El-Sayed. 1994. A Desalination Primer. L’Aquila, Italy: Balaban Desalination Publications. Srisurichan, S., A. G. Fane, and R. Jiraratananon. 2006. Mass transfer mechanisms and transport resistances in direct contact membrane distillation processes. Journal of Membrane Science 277:186-194. Standard & Poor. 2006. Global Project Finance Yearbook. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. Stoughton, R. W., and M. H. Lietzke. 1965. Calculation of some thermodynamic properties of sea and salt solutions at elevated temperatures from data of NaCl solutions. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data 10:254-260. Stratus Consulting. 2006. Institutional Issues in Desalination and Water Purification Technologies, Final Report. Prepared for Joint Water Reuse and Desalination Task Force, AWWA Research Foundation, Sandia National Laboratory, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, WaterReuse Foundation. Boulder, CO: Stratus Consulting Inc.

OCR for page 233
256 Desalination: A National Perspective Stumm, W., and J. J. Morgan. 1996. Aquatic Chemistry, 3rd edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Summers, R. S., M. A. Benz, H. M. Shukairy, and L. Cummings. 1994. Effects of separation processes on the formation of brominated trihalomethanes. Journal of AWWA 86:88. SWAQ (Subcommittee on Water Availability and Quality). 2007. A Strategy for Federal Science and Technology to Support Water Availability and Quality in the United States. Washington, D.C.: National Science and Technology Council. SWRCB (California State Water Resources Control Board). 1995. Order No. 95-10. Sacramento, CA: SWRCB. Tampa Bay Water. 2006. Tampa Bay Seawater Desalination Facility Hydrobiological Monitoring Summary 2002 through 2005. Tampa Bay, FL: PBS&J. Taniguchi, Y., K. Ohta, T. Okabe, M. Hirai, and T. Goto. 1995. Pretreatment with membranes for sea water reverse osmosis process. Proceedings of the International Desalination Association 2:135-146. Taylor, J..S., J. D. Dietz, S. K. Hong, A. A. Randall, and C. Owen. et al. 2005. The Effects of Blending on Distribution System Water Quality. AWWA Research Foundation. Tergazi, K., and R. B. Peck. 1967. Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, 2nd edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Texas Water Development Board. 2007. Texas water use from 1974- 2004. Austin, TX: Texas Water Development Board. Available online at: http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/wushistorical/Desktop Default.aspx?PageID=1 Accessed November 16, 2007. Thompson, R. G., M. L. Hyatt, J. W. McFarland, and H. P. Young. 1971. Forecasting Water Demands. Special Study No. 3 for the National Water Commission. Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service. Timmer, J. 2001. Properties of nanofiltration membranes; model development and industrial application. Doctoral thesis. Delft, The Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology. Trieb, F., J. Nitsch, S. Kronshage, C. Schillings, L.-A. Brischke, G. Knies, and G. Czisch. 2003. Combined solar power and desalination plants for the Mediterranean region—sustainable energy supply using large-scale solar thermal power plants. Desalination 153:39-46. Trussell, R. S., and R. R. Trussell. 2005. A Critical Review of Alternative Desalination Technologies. Prepared for the Joint Water Reuse & Desalination Task Force. Tseng, T., R. Cheng, D. Vuong, and K. Wattier. 2003. Optimization of Dual-Staged Nanofiltration Membranes for Seawater

OCR for page 233
References 257 Desalination. Proceedings of the AWWA 2003 CA-NV Annual Fall Conference, October 2003. Tzen, E., and R. Morris. 2003. Renewable energy sources for desalination. Solar Energy 75:375-379. United Nations. 1987. Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. General Assembly Resolution 42/187, December 11, 1987. United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Summary for Policy Makers. USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development). 1980. The USAID Desalination Manual. Washington, D.C.: CH2M HILL International for the U.S. Agency for International Development. USBR (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation). 2003. Desalting Handbook for Planners, 3rd Edition. Washington, D.C.: USBR. USBR. 2004. Solar and waste heat desalination by membrane distillation. Desalination and Water Purification Research and Development Program Report No. 81. Denver, CO: USBR. USBR and Sandia National Laboratories. 2003. Desalination and Water Purification Technology Roadmap: A Report of the Executive Committee. Desalination & Water Purification Research & Development Report 95. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Water Treatment and Engineering Group. U.S. Census Bureau. 2001. Historical National Population Estimates: July 1, 1900 to July 1, 1999 (release date: September 27, 2000) and Resident Population Estimates of the United States by Age and Sex, April 1, 1990 to July 1, 1999, with Short-Term Projection to November 1, 2000 (release date: January 2, 2001). Washington, D.C.: Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. U.S. Census Bureau. 2007. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2007. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Available online at: http://www.census.gov/prod/ 2006pubs/07statab/pop.pdf. Accessed November 16, 2007. USDA and USFS (U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Forest Service). 1989. RPA Assessment of the Forest and Rangeland Situation in the United States, 1989. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Forest Service. U.S. Department of Energy. 2006. Energy Demands on Water Resources. Report to Congress on the Interdependency of Energy and Water. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. U.S. Energy Information Administration. 2007a. Annual Energy Review. Available online at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/

OCR for page 233
258 Desalination: A National Perspective sec8_39.pdf. Accessed April 8, 2008. U.S. Energy Information Administration. 2007b. Annual Oil Market Chronology. Available online at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/ cabs/AOMC/Overview.html. Accessed April 8, 2008. USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). 2003. Desalination of Ground Water: Earth Science Perspectives. Office of Ground Water. Reston, VA: USGS. Available online at: http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs075- 03/. Accessed December 5, 2007. USGS. 2006. National Stream Water Quality Network (NASQAN) Data: Colorado Basin 1996-2005. Washington, D.C.: USGS. Available online at: http://water.usgs.gov/nasqan/data/finaldata/nib.html. Accessed December 11, 2007. USGS. 2007a. Saltwater Intrusion. Northborough, MA: USGS. Available online at: http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/gwrp/saltwater/ salt.html. Accessed May 27, 2008. USGS. 2007b. Subsidence and Fault Activation Related to Fluid Energy Production, Gulf Coast Basin Project. Washington, D.C.: USGS. Available online at: http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/gc-subsidence/. Accessed November 16, 2007. U.S. Senate Select Committee on National Water Resources. 1961. Report of the Select Committee. Report No. 29. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Senate Select Committee on National Water Resources. Vengosh, A., E. Weinthal, and W. Kloppman. 2004. Natural boron contamination in Meditteranean groundwater. Geotimes May 2004. Available online at: http://www.agiweb.org/geotimes/ may04/feature_boron.html. Accessed March 14, 2008. Viessman, W. 1980. Assessing the Nation's Water Resources: Issues and Options. Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress: For the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works. Serial No. 96-19, USGPO. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Voss, C. I., and A. M. Provost. 2003. SUTRA: A Model for Saturated- Unsaturated, Variable-Density Ground-Water Flow with Solute or Energy Transport. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4231. Reston, VA: USGS. Available online at: http://water.usgs.gov/nrp/gwsoftware. Accessed December 12, 2007. Voutchkov, N. 2004. Bring down desalination costs by co-location. EDS Newsletter Issue 21, October. Voutchkov, N. 2005. Shared infrastructure benefits desalination economics. Available online at: http://www.waterandwastewater. com/www_services/news_center/publish/article_00693.shtml. Accessed April 26, 2007.

OCR for page 233
References 259 Walz, T., B. L. Smith, M. L. Zeidel, A. Engel, and P. Agre. 1994. Biologically active two-dimensional crystals of aquaporin CHIP. Journal of Biological Chemistry 269(3):1583-1600. Wangnick, K. 2002. 2002 IDA Worldwide Desalting Plants Inventory. Report No. 17. Gnarrenburg, Germany: Wangnick Consulting GMBH. Water Corporation. 2007. The Perth Seawater Desalination Plant: Wind Farm to Provide Power. Available on line at: http://water.com. au/_files/Desalination_windpower.pdf. Accessed November 16, 2007. Weast, R., M. Astle, and W. Beyer. 1985. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 69th edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Weber, W. J. 1972. Physicochemical Processes for Water Quality Control. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Weis, J. S., J. Skurnick, and P. Weis. 2004. Studies of a contaminated brackish marsh in the Hackensack Meadowlands of northeastern New Jersey: Benthic communities and metal contamination. Marine Pollution Bulletin 49:1025-1035. Whitcomb, J. B. 2005. Florida Water Rate Evaluation of Single Family Homes. Brooksville, FL: Southwest Florida Water Management District. Available online at: http://www.swfwmd.state.fl.us/ documents/reports/water_rate_report.pdf. Accessed on April 8, 2008. WHO (World Health Organization). 2003. Total dissolved solids in drinking-water. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Available online at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/tds.p df. Accessed March 14, 2008. WHO. 2004. Guidelines for drinking-water quality, Volume 1 Recommendations, 3rd edition. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Available online at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/ dwq/gdwq3/en/. Accessed June 12, 2008. WHO. 2007. Desalination for Safe Water Supply: Guidance for the Health and Environmental Aspects Applicable to Desalination. Geneva: WHO. Available online at: http://www.who.int /water_sanitation_health/gdwqrevision/desalination.pdf. Accessed January 4, 2008. Williams, M. D., and M. Pirbazzi. 2003. Biological Sulfate Reduction (BSR) for Recovering Reverse Osmosis Brine. Quality Assurance Project Plan for No. 51539. Desalination Research and Innovation Partnership (DRIP). Williams, M. D., R. Evangelista, and Y. Cohen. 2002. Non-thermal Process for Recovering Reverse Osmosis Concentrate: Process Chemistry and Kinetics. Proceedings of the 2002 AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference, Seattle, WA.

OCR for page 233
260 Desalination: A National Perspective Winters, H. 2001. Identification of critical flux and cross flow conditions for the control of bacterial and organic fouling of seawater reverse osmosis membranes. MEDRC Project 97-AS-004b. Winters, H., A.G. Fane, and B. Nicolaisen. 2007. Microbial Membrane Fouling: Microbial Cake Enhanced Osmotic Pressure (CEOP) or Thermodynamic Restriction? Presentation at IDA World Congress, Mas Palomas, Spain, October 2007. Wollman, N., and G. W. Bonem. 1971. Outlook for Water: Quality, Quantity, and National Growth. Baltimore, MD: Resources for the Future, Johns Hopkins University Press. Woodward Clyde Consultants. 1991. Final environmental impact report (FEIR). City of Santa Barbara and Ionics, Incorporated’s Temporary Emergency Desalination Project, SB-106-90, State Clearing House No. 9010859. World Commission on Dams. 2000. Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making. London: Earthscan. WRC (Water Resource Council). 1968. The Nation's Water Resources Part 1, First National Water Assessment. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office (USGPO). WRC. 1978. The Nation's Water Resources 1975-2000. Washington, D.C.: USGPO. Xu, J., G. Ruan, X. Chu, Y. Yao, B. Su, and C. Gao. 2007. A pilot study of UF pretreatment without any chemicals for SWRO desalination in China. Desalination 207:216-226. Xu, T. 2005. Ion exchange membranes: State of their development and perspective. Journal of Membrane Science 263:1-29. Xu, Y., Y. Y. Xu, and B. K. Zhu. 2006. Pilot test of vacuum membrane distillation for seawater desalination on a ship. Desalination 189:165-169. Yallaly, B., T. Seacord, and T. Kalkman. 2007. Meeting Criteria for Water and Wastewater Systems Simultaneously Using Reverse Osmosis and Zero Liquid Discharge Technology. Ridgecrest, CA: Indian Wells Valley Water District. Yermiyahu, U., A. Tal, A. Ben-Gal, A. Bar-Tal, J. Tarchitzky, and O. Lahav. 2007. Rethinking desalinated water quality and agriculture. Science 318:920-921. York, R., and M. Foster. 2005. Issues and environmental impacts associated with once-through cooling at California’s coastal power plants. Sacramento, CA: California Energy Commission. Available online at: http://www.energy.ca.gov/2005publications/ CEC-700-2005-013/CEC-700-2005-013.PDF. Accessed Februa- ry 27, 2008.

OCR for page 233
References 261 Younos, T. 2005. Environmental issues of desalination. University Council on Water Resources Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education 132:11-18. Zhang, J., S. Gao, H. Zeng, F. Zhang, C. Li, Y. Liu, D. Fu, and C. Ye. 2006. Pilot testing of two inside-out UF modules prior to RO for highturbidity seawater desalination. Desalination 196:66-75.