Ultrafiltration (UF)—Membrane removal of high-weight dissolved organic compounds, bacteria, and some viruses. UF membranes operate via a pressure-driven size-based sieving mechanism through a membrane with pores in the range of 0.002 to 0.1 μm with an molecular weight cut off of 10,000 to 100,000 daltons.
Vapor compression evaporation (VC/VCE)—Thermal desalination processes that utilize heat from compression of water vapor for subsequent evaporation of feedwater, either with a mechanical compressor (mechanical vapor compression, MVC) or a steam ejector (thermal vapor compression, TVC). Vapor compression processes are particularly useful for small to medium installations.
Water reclamation—The restoration of wastewater to a state that will allow its beneficial reuse.
Water reuse—The beneficial use of reclaimed water, such as for irrigation, cooling or washing.
Withdrawal—Water removed from a source and used to meet a human need.
Zero liquid discharge (ZLD)—A concentrate management approach in which no liquid effluent is discharged beyond the facility boundaries.