Water Quality Issues in Desalinated Product Waters,

 

138

   

 Greenhouse Gas Emissions,

 

141

   

 Conclusions and Recommendations,

 

144

6

 

THE COSTS AND BENEFITS OF DESALINATION

 

147

   

 General Considerations,

 

147

   

 The Structure of Desalination Costs,

 

150

   

 The Structure of Benefits,

 

176

   

 Conclusions and Recommendations,

 

178

7

 

IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES

 

182

   

 Environmental Regulatory Issues,

 

182

   

 Public Perception,

 

186

   

 Siting Considerations of Co-location,

 

190

   

 Planning and Design with New Technologies,

 

193

   

 Finished Water Quality Changes and Effects of Existing Infrastructure,

 

195

   

 Capital and Operating Costs,

 

196

   

 Project Delivery Methods,

 

198

   

 Project Financing,

 

206

   

 Conclusions and Recommendations,

 

210

8

 

A STRATEGIC RESEARCH AGENDA FOR DESALINATION

 

212

   

 Long-Term Research Goals,

 

213

   

 Strategic Desalination Research Agenda,

 

214

   

 Implementing the Research Agenda,

 

226

   

 Conclusions and Recommendations,

 

231

 

 

REFERENCES

 

233

 

 

GLOSSARY

 

262

 

 

APPENDIXES

 

 

A

 

Desalination Federal Funding Survey

 

269

B

 

Mass and Energy Balance on Reverse Osmosis System

 

275

C

 

Desalination Economics Summary Data

 

279

D

 

Estimating Unit Costs of Water Supply Options

 

286

E

 

Water Science and Technology Board

 

291

F

 

Biographical Sketches for Committee on Advancing Desalination Technology

 

293



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