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One of the best approaches is to define benchmarks for the level of science utilization. Then the attainment level could be measured according to those benchmarks in each society and even in each economic sector of a society.

UTILIZATION OF SCIENTIFIC FINDINGS: VISIONS AND CONCEPTS

The interrelationship of science and research on the one hand and growth and development on the other is an established reality. Research denotes the discovery of new facts and their utilization for problem solving. Failing to use scientific findings is equal to wasting human and material resources and to casting negative judgments toward the profitability of investments in science.

The development of information networks at every decision-making institution has resulted in easy access to scientific findings. One can have access to the most complex information in the shortest possible time.

In recent years, research and science production have been the focus of attention at many organizations. Government policies are based on strengthening and developing a productive research atmosphere. Developing countries, however, are at the beginning of this path. Because of a variety of factors, including software and hardware deficiencies, poor context and attitude, and inadequate human resources, the state of science and scientific applications in promoting the development of society is not yet at a desirable level. So far, much has been written about the relationship between decision-making, research, and information. Some reports concentrate on policy makers’ and decision makers’ inadequate attention to scientific findings. Others propose some ways for the enhancement of the impact of research on decision-making.

No studies have addressed the role of science utilization. Although international agencies have set some indicators for science production processes (e.g., development factors related to universities and research institutes), none has set criteria for science utilization.

An important point is the attitude and expectation of managers toward the term utilization of scientific findings. Some findings have closer affinity to the term utilization and are actually application oriented. Some are far from application and provide a basis for subsequent research that may take an applied direction.

Recognition of the reasons for failing to apply scientific findings will certainly play a part in increasing decision makers’ and planners’ attention to the application of such findings. Changing our attitudes toward the concept of utilization of scientific findings will revolutionize the role of research and scientific findings in the process of development. However, if we limit utilization exclusively to research and applied findings, then basic research, aimed at broadening the horizon of knowledge, will be put aside from the domain of knowledge. The existing view on the utilization of science and research limits utilization to a



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