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ing, one should identify the true nature of the problem, analyze the situation, and conduct quantitative and qualitative research before taking any further steps.

  1. In most cases, the problems are the result of a variety of factors that are beyond the specialization of management or a particular technical field. Therefore, encourage decision makers to gather general information, to have a broad view, and to avoid narrow-mindedness resulting from extreme specialization.

  2. Familiarize decision makers with the methods and skills of scientific research, especially in management and in the handling of probable crises.

  3. To avoid the drawbacks of personal experience, prejudice about that experience, and the use of only easily accessible information, accustom managers to others’ criticism of their manner of thinking or actions. Here, critical thinking refers to realistic recognition of the strengths and shortcomings of any thought.

  4. Decision makers should habitually ask managers’ and experts’ views about the relevant problem, draw decision makers’ attention to the point that they should seek the advice of others while avoiding heavy reliance on group thinking alone, and emphasize the importance of scrutinizing the views of the group and of avoiding extremes resulting from thought or decision polarization.

  5. Encourage the participation of decision makers in conferences in which the findings of scientific research about different problems and opportunities are set forth and critically discussed.

  6. Reward those who apply scientific thinking in the process of decision making to reach the right decisions and those who are endowed with a research ethic, as described in this paper.


Baron, R. A. 1989. Exploring Social Psychology. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, p. 230.

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