the Deputy President and composed of representatives of six ministries and five experts and managers.
Since the mid-1980s, the country has witnessed the birth and rapid growth of several highly productive research institutes where biologists and especially chemists play key roles. They include the National Research Center for Genetics Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB) and the Institute of Biosciences and Biotechnology, with widespread activities in genetics and molecular biology, medical biotechnology, plant biotechnology, animal and marine biotechnology, and environmental biotechnology. The Iran Nanotechnology Laboratory Network, with 39 main member laboratories, provides researchers and active industries in nanotechnology with laboratory services and covers most of their technical needs. Most of the primary equipment relating to identification and characterization of nanostructural materials and also the equipment relating to nanoresearch in medical and biotechnology fields are available in the network. The Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, the Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, and the Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Center are also among the research centers.
Technology management is a very wide-ranging topic. All countries require three groups of technologies to support national development: technologies for basic needs, technologies for the improvement of quality of life, and technologies for wealth creation. Science and technology strategy must therefore be holistic and comprehensive, addressing the role and needs of the major players in a nation, which are government, industry, the science and technology community, and society at large. The role played by each of them is briefly described:
The government must be generally supportive, provide means for science and technology development, and use technology to improve efficiency.
Industry must be able to use technology for creating wealth, thus enhancing economic growth. It must support science and technology development and be the major developer of technology. It must also support the generation of knowledge.
The scientific community must make an all-out effort toward the generation and uses of scientific knowledge and innovation.
The community at large must support a scientific infrastructure that enriches the scientific culture.
National development perspectives must be prepared very carefully by taking into account the national vision, a long-term perspective and a five-year development plan.