The value chain and education must advance in parallel, as is also happening in India. The Indian Institutes of Technology trained students who came to the United States and other countries and were very successful. Many have now returned to India and are working in major company research and development efforts in software and other aspects of electronics.
In Japan, after World War II, universities focused on engineering. Domestic markets were kept closed, and products were imported until they could be manufactured in Japan. Until the United States worked out a way of cooperating with Japanese companies, progress was slow. Committees were created to determine how products could be manufactured for export to the United States. Trade complications remain, however, because Japan is still interested in protecting its market.
Korea forged relationships involving companies, brought engineers back to Korea, and put the engineers on production lines to develop Korean capabilities. The engineers on processing lines soon understood how to tweak the process.
In China, science and technology policy played a significant part in opening relations with the West. Henry Kissinger hoped to give China the prospect of something more than just a political relationship. He wanted to embrace scientific cooperation. A number of initiatives were presented to China, and several of them came to pass. There was an early visit to the United States by a Chinese scientific delegation. During the Carter administration, Frank Press (Science Advisor to the President of the United States from 1977 to 1980) developed a science agreement with China. During the next 25 years, more than 50,000 students from China were in the United States almost every year. Most were enrolled in science and technology fields. China is now on an explosive path of scientific and technological development, much like India.
International organizations (such as the World Health Organization, the World Meteorological Organization, and the United Nations Education, Science, and Cultural Organization) are also an important element for economic development. The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Vienna was created in 1972 to enhance peaceful relations with Russia. Now its focus is shifting toward working with developing countries on global problems.
There is a great deal of exchange between Americans and Iranians, including scientific cooperation.
One participant asked for two or three reasons why development based on science and technology has not occurred in the Middle East outside Israel—for example, in Egypt. Reasons include lack of political stability, weak infrastructure, and inadequate education, all of which hamper the development of the labor force. Iran and Turkey are advancing reasonably well. Of course, Iran has had episodes of instability, such as the revolution in the 1970s and the coup in the 1950s.
The Republic of Ireland had a problem with mass out-migration, and the agriculture system was primitive, particularly in the west of Ireland due to inheri-