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1 γ辐射监测和能谱分析 gamma radiation monitoring and energy spectrum analysis 【γ fúshè jiāncè hé néngpǔ fēnxī】 INFCIRC/153 safeguards INFCIRC/153 型 保 障 监 督 协 定 agreement (IAEA) (IAEA) 【INFCIRC 153 xíng bǎozhàng jiāndū xiédìng】 INFCIRC/66 safeguards INFCIRC/66 型 保 障 监 督 协 定 汉 agreement (IAEA) (IAEA) 【INFCIRC 66 xíng bǎozhàng 英 jiāndū xiédìng】 mechanical damage induced by X 射线辐照引起的力学损伤 X-ray irradiation 【X shèxiàn fúzhào yǐnqǐ de lìxué sǔnshāng】 G-8 Global Partnership Against 八国集团“防止大规模杀伤性武器 the Spread of Weapons and 和材料扩散的全球伙伴计划” Materials of Mass Destruction 【bāguó jítuán fángzhǐ dàguīmó shāshāngxìng wǔqì hé cáiliào kuòsàn Launched in 2002 by the G-8 (Russian, de quánqiú huǒbàn jìhuà】 the U.S., Britian, France, Japan, 该计划是八国集团(俄罗斯、美国、 Germany, Canada and Italy), this effort 英国、法国、日本、德国、加拿大 aims to prevent the proliferation of 和意大利)于 2002 年提出的,旨在 weapons of mass destruction to terror- 通过与裁军、不扩散、反恐和核安 ists or those who support them through projects pertaining to disarmament, 全有关的项目,防止大规模杀伤性 nonproliferation, counterterrorism and 武器扩散到恐怖主义者或其支持者 nuclear safety. Originally targeted at 手中。最初目标是在俄罗斯开展为 carrying out $20 billion of projects in 期 10 年耗资 200 亿美元的项目,现 Russia over 10 years, the G-8 Global 八国集团全球伙伴关系已经扩展到 Partnership has expanded to include 八国以外的国家。(改自:参考文献 additional countries. (Modified from: [42-43]) References [42-43]) hegemonism 霸权主义【bàquánzhǔyì】 half-life 半衰期【bànshuāiqī】 physical barrier for protected 保护区实体屏障 sections 【bǎohùqū shítǐ píngzhàng】 integrity of protection system 保护系统完整性 【bǎohù xìtǒng wánzhěngxìng】

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2 safeguards criteria 保障监督标准 【bǎozhàng jiāndū biāozhǔn】 safeguards quality assurance 保障监督的质量保证 【bǎozhàng jiāndū de In the context of IAEA safeguards, a zhìliàng bǎozhèng】 management tool for ensuring a 在国际原子能机构保障监督体系 systematic approach to all of the 下,确保对所有会影响保障监督实 activities affecting the quality of the 汉 施质量的活动进行系统化监控的一 safeguards implementation. (From: 英 种管理手段。 Reference [4], 3.36) 参考文献[4], (源自: 3.36) safeguards conclusion 保障监督结论 【bǎozhàng jiāndū jiélùn】 Safeguards Agreement 保障监督协定 【bǎozhàng jiāndū xiédìng】 ground zero 爆心投影点【bàoxīn tóuyǐngdiǎn】 memorandum 备忘录【bèiwànglù】 spare warhead 备用弹头【bèiyòng dàntóu】 备用性核武库【bèiyòngxìng héwǔkù】 hedge warheads stockpile One part of the U.S. active stockpile of 美国现役核武库的一部分,作为响 warheads, retained as part of the 应力量的一部分予以保留,用来加 responsive force, to be used to aug- 强作战部署的力量以应对潜在的意 ment the operationally deployed force in 外事故、突发的事件或显现的威胁。 order to meet potential contingencies, (改自:参考文献[66] p4,[67-68]) unanticipated events or emerging thre- ats. (Modified from: Reference [66], p4; [67-68]) equivalent 比等效百万吨数 megatonnage-to-weight ratio 【bǐděngxiào bǎiwàndūnshù】 scaled height of burst 比例爆高【bǐlì bàogāo】 scaled depth of burst 比例爆深【bǐlì bàoshēn】 yield-to-weight ratio 比威力【bǐwēilì】 closed nuclear fuel cycle 闭式核燃料循环 【bìshì héránliào xúnhuán】 There are two common types of nuclear 核燃料循环通常有两种类型。一种 fuel cycle. One is the “open” fuel cycle,

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3 in which the spent fuel is not reprocess- 是“开式”燃料循环,即乏燃料不 ed but kept in storage pending eventual 经过后处理,在最终处置前以废料 disposal as waste. The other is the 形式储存。另一种是“闭式”燃料 “closed” fuel cycle, where the spent fuel 循环,即乏燃料经过后处理从裂变 is reprocessed and the uranium and 产物中分离出铀和钚。铀和钚都可 plutonium separated from the fission 作为新的燃料元件循环使用。(源自: products. Both the uranium and the 汉 参考文献[14],p1-2) plutonium can be recycled into new fuel 英 elements. (From: Reference [14], p1-2) target-changing capability 变换打击目标能力 【biànhuàn dǎjī mùbiāo nénglì】 tag 标签【biāoqiān】 A unique identifier set up for facilitating 在军备控制条约的限制对象上,为 verification of items restricted by arms 便于核查而设置的某种独特标志。 control treaties. A tag must have 标签必须具有固有的特征,不能复 intrinsic characteristic which make it 制、转移、篡改或探测,同时要稳 difficult to be duplicated, transferred, 定、可靠、便宜。(源自:参考文献[1], tampered or detected. A tag should also be stable, credible and inexpensive. p496) (From: Reference [1], p496) Note: An active tag requires electrical 注:有源标签工作时需要电源,但 power, while a passive tag works 无源标签不需要电源。 without a power supply. identity (identification) data 标识数据【biāoshí shùjù】 standard event screening 标准事件筛选判据 criteria 【biāozhǔn shìjiàn shāixuǎn pànjù】 glass solidification 玻璃固化【bōli gùhuà】 nonaligned movement 不结盟运动【bùjiéméng yùndòng】 non-proliferation 不扩散【bùkuòsàn】 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation 不扩散核武器条约 of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) 【bùkuòsàn héwǔqì tiáoyuē】 NPT Review Conferences 《不扩散核武器条约》审议会 【bùkuòsàn héwǔqì tiáoyuē shěnyìhuì】

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4 material unaccounted for (MUF) 不明材料量【bùmíng cáiliàoliàng】 non-application of IAEA 不实施国际原子能机构的保障监督 safeguards 【bùshíshī guójì yuánzǐnéng jīgòu de bǎozhàng jiāndū】 no-first-use of nuclear weapons 不首先使用核武器 【bù shǒuxiān shǐyòng héwǔqì】 on-load refuelled power reactor 不停堆换料动力堆 汉 【bùtíngduī huànliào dònglìduī】 英 unannounced inspection 不通知视察【bùtōngzhī shìchá】 non-compliance 不遵约【bùzūnyuē】 plutonium 钚【bù】 Guidelines for the Management 钚管理指导原则 of Plutonium 【bù guǎnlǐ zhǐdǎo yuánzé】 The Guidelines adopted by nine states 该指导原则由五个核武器国家和德 (the five nuclear weapon states and 国、日本、比利时、瑞士等九国于 Germany, Japan, Belgium and Switzer- 1997 年通过,它着眼于按照国际约 land) in 1997, with a view to ensuring 定(包括它们在 NPT 下的义务,欧 that holdings of plutonium are managed safely and effectively in accordance 共体成员国还有欧洲原子能联营条 with international commitments, includ- 约下的义务)和 IAEA 的保障监督协 ing their obligations under the NPT 定确保对持有的钚进行安全有效的 (and, for states that are members of the 管理。该指导原则描述了在接受该 European Community, also under the 指导原则下适用于钚的核材料衡算 Euratom Treaty), and with their safe- guards agreements with the IAEA. The 体制、实体保护措施和国际运输手 Guidelines describe, inter alia, the 续。它还进一步指定了参与国要发 nuclear material accountancy system, 布的有关钚管理的信息,包括他们 physical protection measures and 所持有的民用未辐照钚和民用反应 international transfer procedures applic- 堆乏燃料中含有的钚估量的年度申 able to the plutonium subject to the 报。 参考文献[1], Guidelines. They further specify the (源自: p409;[4],1.30) information to be published by the participating States in respect of plutonium management, including

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5 annual statements of their holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and of their estimates of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel. (From: Reference [1], p409;[4], 1.30) plutonium alloy 钚合金【bùhéjīn】 汉 plutonium decontamination 钚净化循环【bù jìnghuà xúnhuán】 cycle 英 plutonium recycling 钚再循环【bù zàixúnhuán】 A process of reusing in nuclear reactors 将从乏燃料中回收得到的钚在反应 the plutonium extracted from spent fuel. 堆内再使用的过程。(源自:参考文献 (From: Reference [2], p22) [2],p22) Note: In the DUPIC process, spent 注:在 DUPIC 过程中,轻水堆的乏 LWR fuel rods are directly used as fuel 燃料棒只需机械处理而不需化学后 for CANDU-type heavy-water power 处理即可直接作为 CANDU 型重水 动力堆的燃料。(源自:参考文献[32], reactors, with only mechanical modifi- cations and not chemical reprocessing. p25-40) (From: Reference [32], p25-40) examine and repair deployed 部署弹头的检修 warhead 【bùshǔ dàntóu de jiǎnxiū】 swipe sampling 擦拭取样【cāshì qǔyàng】 The collection of environmental sam- 一种环境样品的收集方法,它通过 ples by swiping a surface with a piece of 用一块超洁净介质(例如布)擦拭物 ultraclean medium (such as cloth) to 体表面以获取物体表面残留的材料 remove from the surface traces of the 痕迹。(源自:参考文献[4],9.4) materials present. (From: Reference [4], 9.4) material category 材料类别【cáiliào lèibié】 material type 材料类型【cáiliào lèixíng】 book inventory of a material 材料平衡区的账面存量 balance area 【cáiliào pínghéngqū de zhàngmiàn cúnliàng】

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6 material balance period (MBP) 材料平衡周期 【cáiliào pínghéng zhōuqī】 material description 材料说明【cáiliào shuōmíng】 material form 材料形态【cáiliào xíngtài】 disarmament 裁军【cáijūn】 Conference on Disarmament 裁军谈判会议 汉 (CD) 【cáijūn tánpàn huìyì】 英 裁军谈判会议特设委员会【cáijūn Ad Hoc Committee of Conference on Disarmament tánpàn huìyì tèshè wěiyuánhuì】 Committee on Disarmament 裁军谈判委员会 【cáijūn tánpàn wěiyuánhuì】 Conference of the Committee 裁军委员会会议 on Disarmament (CCD) 【cáijūn wěiyuánhuì huìyì】 acquisition strategy/acquisition 采办策略/采办途径 path 【cǎibàn cèlüè cǎibàn tújìng】 A (hypothetical) scheme which a State 某国谋取用于制造核爆炸装置的核 could consider to acquire nuclear mate- 材料的一种(设想)策略。(源自:参考 rial usable for manufacturing a nuclear 文献[4],3.8) explosive device. (From: Reference [4], 3.8) reference material 参考物质【cānkǎo wùzhì】 tritium production reactor 产氚堆【chǎn chuān duī】 methods of tritium production 产氚方法【chǎnchuān fāngfǎ】 supercritical gas centrifuge 超临界气体离心机 【chāolínjiè qìtǐ líxīnjī】 strategy of going beyond 超越遏制战略 containment 【chāoyuè èzhì zhànlüè】 imaging reconnaissance 成像侦察卫星 satellite 【chéngxiàng zhēnchá wèixīng】 shock wave weapon 冲击波弹【chōngjībō dàn】 damaging and injuring effects 冲击波毁伤效应 of shock wave 【chōngjībō huǐshāng xiàoyìng】 shock wave load 冲击载荷【chōngjī zàihè】

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7 revisit period 重访周期 【chóngfǎng zhōuqī】 retargeting capability 重新瞄准能力 【chóngxīn miáozhǔn nénglì】 entrance and exit control 出入口控制 【chūrùkǒu kòngzhì】 initial inspection 初始视察【chūshǐ shìchá】 汉 trigger list 触发清单【chùfā qīngdān】 英 The NSG prescribes that items on the 核供应国集团规定,向无核武器国 list exported to non-nuclear-weapon 家出口“清单”上的项目,要“触 states should trigger the IAEA safe- 发”国际原子能机构的保障监督。 guards. (From: Reference [1], p407) (源自:参考文献[1],p407) tritium 氚【chuān】 subcritical safety simulation 次临界安全模拟实验系统 experiment system 【cìlínjiè ānquán mónǐ shíyàn xìtǒng】 subcriticality 次临界度【cìlínjiè dù】 subcritical experiment 次临界实验【cìlínjiè shíyàn】 Hydrodynamic detonation experiment in 实验中裂变系统处于次临界状态的 which the fission system remains 爆轰流体动力学实验,裂变材料的 subcritical, the material used would not exceed the amount that may produce a 用量以不会发生自持链式裂变核反 self-sustaining chain reaction. (Modified 应为限。 (改自:参考文献[1],p214) from: Reference [1], p214) subcritical assembly 次临界装置【cìlínjiè zhuāngzhì】 infrasound monitoring 次声监测【cìshēng jiāncè】 inventory 存量【cúnliàng】 inventory change 存量变化【cúnliàng biànhuà】 retained waste 存留废物【cúnliú fèiwù】 Global Initiative to Combat 打击核恐怖主义全球行动倡议 Nuclear Terrorism 【dǎjī hékǒngbùzhǔyì quánqiú xíngdòng chàngyì】 Launched in 2006 by the United States and Russia, the initiative aims to 2006 年由美国和俄国发起,旨在防 prevent terrorist access to nuclear 止恐怖主义分子获取核材料的倡

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8 materials by improving accounting and 议,具体措施包括:改善核及放射 security of radioactive and nuclear 性材料的衡算与安全,加强对民用 materials, enhancing security at civilian 核设施的保护,提高对核及放射性 nuclear facilities, and improving detection of nuclear and radioactive 物质探测能力以防止非法走私。(源 materials to prevent illicit trafficking. 自:参考文献[44]) (From: Reference [44]) 汉 counterforce strike 打击军事力量【dǎjī jūnshì lìliàng】 英 The employment of strategic air and 在任何可引发冲突的情况下,使用 missile forces in an effort to destroy, or 战略空军和导弹力量摧毁或使选定 render impotent, selected military capa- bilities of an enemy force under any of 的敌方军事力量失效。(源自:参考文 the circumstances by which hostilities 献[9],p128) may be initiated. (From: Reference [9], p128) countervalue strike 打击社会财富【dǎjī shèhuì cáifù】 Striking non-military assets of value to 打击敌方有价值的非军事目标,如 the enemy, such as population and 人口和工业设施。 industry centers. (Modified from: Reference 参考文献[27]) (改自: [27]) strategy of massive retaliation 大规模报复战略 【dàguīmó bàofù zhànlüè】 concert of powers 大国协调【dàguó xiétiáo】 continental shelf 大陆架【dàlùjià】 sampling technology of 大气层核爆炸取样技术 atmospheric nuclear explosion 【dàqìcéng hébàozhà qǔyàng jìshù】 atmospheric nuclear test 大气层核试验【dàqìcéng héshìyàn】 safety problems of atmospheric 大气层核试验的安全问题 【dàqìcéng héshìyàn de ānquán wèntí】 nuclear test representative sample 代表性样品【dàibiǎoxìng yàngpǐn】 energy consumption of unit 单位分离功能耗 separative work 【dānwèi fēnlígōng nénghào】 single-cycle process 单循环流程【dānxúnhuán liúchéng】 ballistic-missile submarine 弹道导弹潜艇 【dàndàodǎodàn qiántǐng】

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9 ballistic-missile early warning 弹道导弹预警系统 system 【dàndàodǎodàn yùjǐng xìtǒng】 pit 弹芯【dànxīn】 The sphere or shell of nuclear explosive 安置在内爆装置中心、通常有铍或 material at the center of an implosion 其他金属包层的核炸药材料球体或 device, usually clad with beryllium or 壳体。(改自:参考文献[11],p90) another metal. (Modified from: Reference [11], 汉 p90) 英 equivalent dose 当量剂量【dāngliàng jìliàng】 deuterium 氘【dāo】 lithium deutero-tritide 氘氚化锂【dāochuānhuàlǐ】 lithium deuteride 氘化锂【dāohuàlǐ】 Missile Technology Control 导弹技术控制制度 Regime (MTCR) 【dǎodàn jìshù kòngzhì zhìdù】 The MTCR was originally established in 美国等西方国家 1987 年制定的,旨 1987 by western countries. It is a 在防止用于运载大规模杀伤性武器 regime that aims to restrict the proliferation of systems (except manned 的投掷系统(有人驾驶飞机除外)及 air vehicles), equipments and 有关设备和技术扩散的控制制度。 technologies intended for the delivery of 该制度由“准则”和“设备与技术 weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The MTCR includes the Guidelines and 附件“两个文件组成,把限制项目 the Equipment and Technology Annex, (导弹、分系统、部件,生产设施和 and it divides controlled items (missiles 有关技术)分成两大类。第一类项目 along with their subsystems and 为“最敏感项目”,一般不得转让。 components, production equipments and related technologies) into two 第二类项目为军民两用项目,出口 category. Category I items are the most 时要以许可证方式逐件审批,保证 sensitive items, commonly the transfer of them will not be authorized. Category 不用于包含第一类项目的系统。 II items are dual-use items, which 1993 年成员国对“准则”进行了修 should be examined and approved 改,把原版中控制“核武器运载系 case-by-case subject to export license, and be guaranteed not to be used in 统”的转让改成控制“大规模杀伤 projects including Category I items. In 性武器(即核、生、化武器)运载系 1993, member states modified the 统”的转让。截至 2007 年底,该制 Guidelines. “Control the transfer of

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10 nuclear weapons delivery systems”, in 度有 34 个成员国。 参考文献[1], (改自: the original version was modified to p410) “control the transfer of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, biological, chemical weapon) delivery systems”. Up to the end of 2007, the Regime has 34 member states. (Modified from: Reference 汉 [1], p410) 英 missile accuracy 导弹精度【dǎodàn jīngdù】 【dǎodàn yáocè xìnhào】 telemetry signal for missiles 导弹遥测信号 equivalent megatonnage 等效百万吨数 【děngxiào báiwàndūnshù】 The 2/3 power of the yield of a nuclear 以百万吨 TNT 当量为单位计量核 warhead measured by megaton TNT equivalent. The formula is EMT= 弹威力的数值的三分之二次方。用 (Y/Y0)2/3, where Y is the yield of a 2/3 公式可表示为 EMT=(Y/Y0) 。式中 nuclear warhead and Y0 is one megaton Y 为核弹威力,Y0 为一百万吨 TNT TNT equivalent. (Modified from: Reference 当量。(改自:参考文献[3],p115-116) [3], p115-116) low level radioactive waste 低放废物【dīfàng fèiwù】 low-enriched uranium (LEU) 低浓铀【dī'nóngyóu】 theory of low intensity conflict 低强度冲突理论 【dīqiángdù chōngtū lǐlùn】 ground resolution/spatial 地面分辨率/空间分辨率 resolution 【dìmiàn fēnbiànlǜ kōngjiān fēnbiànlǜ】 damaging and injuring effects 地面或地下核爆炸毁伤效应 of surface or underground 【dìmiàn huò dìxià hébàozhà huǐshāng nuclear explosion xiàoyìng】 regional system of accounting 地区核材料衡算和控制系统 for and control of nuclear 【dìqū hécáiliào héngsuàn hé kòngzhì material (RSAC) xìtǒng】 nuclear land (water) surface 地(水)面核爆炸 burst 【dìshuǐmiàn hébàozhà】 nuclear underground (or 地(水)下核爆炸 underwater) burst 【dìshuǐxià hébàozhà】

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11 silo 地下发射井【dìxià fāshèjǐng】 sampling technology of 地下核爆炸取样技术 underground nuclear explosion 【dìxià hébàozhà qǔyàng jìshù】 underground nuclear test 地下核试验【dìxià héshìyàn】 safety problems of 地下核试验的安全问题 underground nuclear test 【dìxià héshìyàn de ānquán wèntí】 汉 silo cold launch 地下井冷发射【dìxiàjǐng lěngfāshè】 英 silo hot launch 地下井热发射【dìxiàjǐng rèfāshè】 seismic monitoring 地震监测【dìzhèn jiāncè】 地震监测系统【dìzhèn jiāncè xìtǒng】 seismic monitoring system geological repository 地质处置库【dìzhì chǔzhìkù】 nuclear second strike 第二次核打击【dì’èrcì hédǎjī】 Retaliatory nuclear attack following an 对敌方第一次核袭击的报复性核打 enemy’s first nuclear attack. (Modified 击。(改自:参考文献[2],p62) from: Reference [2], p62) second-generation nuclear 第二代核武器【dì’èrdài héwǔqì】 weapon third-generation nuclear 第三代核武器【dìsāndài héwǔqì】 weapon nuclear first strike 第一次核打击【dìyīcì hédǎjī】 1 The launching of an initial nuclear 1 在对手能够使用任何战略武器之 attack before one’s opponent is able to 前率先发动核攻击。首次打击是给 use any strategic weapon. First strike is 对手造成极大的破坏致使其失去发 a nuclear attack carried out at such a devastatingly high level of destruction 起有效反击能力的核进攻。(源自: as to nullify an enemy’s capability to 参考文献[6],p72) launch a major counterstrike. (From: Reference [6], p72) 2 An initial attack on an opponent's 2 对敌方战略核力量的首次打击。 strategic nuclear forces. Such an attack 这种打击可用于试图摧毁敌方的报 may be undertaken in an attempt to destroy an enemy's retaliatory 复(第二次打击)能力。(源自:参考文 (second-strike) capability. (From: Reference 献[8]) [8])

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75 revised supplementary 有关保障监督的修订补充协定 agreement relevant to 【yǒuguān bǎozhàng jiāndū de xiūdìng safeguards bǔchōng xiédìng】 electromagnetic-pulse 有界波型电磁脉冲模拟器 boundary-wave type simulator 【yǒujiè bōxíng diàncí màichōng mónǐqì】 limited deterrence 有限威慑【yǒuxiàn wēishè】 汉 A term used by some scholars to 某些学者用于描述某种威慑形式所 describe a form of deterrence. 英 用的术语,但目前尚无定论。 However, there is no consensus on the definition. Note 1:In some descriptions limited 注 1:在有些描述中,有限威慑要 deterrence requires a limited warfight- 求有一定的核战能力,能够在核战 ing capability to inflict costly damage on 争中的各升级阶梯上给对手造成损 the adversary at every rung on the 失,从而挫败对手使之不能取胜。 escalation ladder, thus denying the adversary victory in a nuclear war. (改自:参考文献[46]) (Modified from: Reference [46]) Note 2: In some descriptions it refers to 注 2:在有些描述中是指法国的核 [70], France’s nuclear deterrent. (Modified from: 威慑。 参考文献[18], (改自: p360; Reference [18], p360; [70], p195-196) p195-196) 注 3:“威慑”亦适应于非核情况。 Note 3: “deterrence” can also apply in non-nuclear circumstances. limited war 有限战争【yǒuxiàn zhànzhēng】 payload 有效载荷【yǒuxiào zàihè】 active tag 有源标签【yǒuyuán biāoqiān】 Refer to “tag” 参见“标签” active seal 有源封记【yǒuyuán fēngjì】 Refer to “seal” 参见“封记” active neutron detection 有源中子探测 【yǒuyuán zhōngzǐ tàncè】 A method of determining the existence of fissionable material through detecting 利用外源诱发裂变材料裂变,通过 the neutrons emitted from the fission 探测裂变发出的中子而证实裂变材 that is induced by an external source. 料存在的方法。(源自:参考文献[1], (From: Reference [1], p495) p495)

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76 aftershock detection 余震监测【yúzhèn jiāncè】 launch-on-warning (LOW) 预警即发射【yùjǐng jì fāshè】 early-warning satellite 预警卫星【yùjǐng wèixīng】 launch-under-attack (LUA) 遇袭即发射【yùxí jì fāshè】 source data 原始数据【yuánshǐ shùjù】 汉 atomic bomb 原子弹【yuánzǐdàn】 英 core of atomic bomb 原子弹弹芯【yuánzǐdàn dànxīn】 Refer to “pit” 参见“弹芯” reflector (tamper) layer 原子弹反射层(惰层) in atomic bomb 【yuánzǐdàn fǎnshècéng duòcéng】 atomic nucleus 原子核【yuánzǐhé】 atomic mass 原子量【yuánzǐliàng】 Atomic Energy Commission 原子能委员会 【yuánzǐnéng wěiyuánhuì】 atomic number 原子序数【yuánzǐ xùshù】 atomic-vapor laser isotope 原子蒸气激光同位素分离法 separation 【yuánzǐ zhēngqì jīguāng tóngwèisù fēnlífǎ】 circular error probable (CEP) 圆概率偏差【yuán gàilǜ piānchā】 For repeated trials, the radius of a circle 对于射弹、导弹或炸弹而言,其圆 enclosing half of the impacts of a pro- 概率偏差是指,在反复试验中,包 jectile, missile, or bomb. (Modified from: 含其半数弹着点的圆形区域的半 Reference [9]) 径。(改自:参考文献[9]) source material 源材料【yuáncáiliào】 Uranium containing the mixture of 含有天然形成的同位素混合体的 isotopes occurring in nature; uranium 铀;铀-235 被贫化的铀;钍;金属、 depleted in the isotope 235; thorium; any of the foregoing in the form of 合金、化合物或浓缩物状态的上述 metal, alloy, chemical compound, or 任何材料;任何含有一种或多种上 concentrate; any other material 述的物质并达到 IAEA 理事会随时 containing one or more of the foregoing in such concentration as the IAEA 确定的浓度的材料;以及理事会可 Board of Governors shall from time to

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77 time determine; and such other material 随时确定的此类其他材料。根据 as the Board of Governors shall from [INFIRCIR/153]保障协定的 112 段: time to time determine. According to “源材料这一名词不适用于矿石或 paragraph 112 of [IAEA INFCIRC/153], “the term source material shall not be 矿渣。”(源自:参考文献[4],4.4) interpreted as applying to ore or ore residue.” (From: Reference [4], 4.4) 汉 operating records 运行记录【yùnxíng jìlù】 英 reentry phase 再入段【zàirùduàn】 moratorium on nuclear testing 暂停核试验【zàntíng héshìyàn】 suspension protocol 暂停实施议定书 【zàntíng shíshī yìdìngshū】 dirty bomb 脏弹【zāngdàn】 Refer to “radiological dispersal 参见“放射性物质散布装置” device (RDD)” enhanced X-ray weapon 增强 X 射线弹 【zēngqiáng X shèxiàndàn】 strategic missile 战略导弹【zhànlüè dǎodàn】 strategic defense 战略防御【zhànlüè fángyù】 1 The defense against an offensive 1 战争全局上对进攻之敌的防御。 enemy in the overall situation of war. It 它是战争中战略行动的基本类型之 is one of the basic types of strategic 往往成为战争进程的一个阶段。 operations and usually becomes a 一, stage in the course of war. The aim of 战略防御的目的是阻止和挫败敌人 strategic defense is to prevent and 的战略进攻,保存和积蓄自己的力 frustrate the enemy’s strategic offense, preserve and save one’s own strength, 量,消耗和消灭敌人,改变战场形 wear down and wipe out the enemy, 势和力量对比,为转入战略进攻创 change the battle situation and relative 造条件。 (源自:参考文献[18],p219) strength, and create conditions for shifting to strategic offense. (From: Reference [18], p219) 2 The capability to defeat an enemy’s 2 挫伤敌人使用战略军事设施(主 use of its strategic military assets, 要是远程核运载系统)的能力。(改 primarily long-range nuclear delivery 自:参考文献[71] ) systems. (Modified from: Reference [71])

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78 strategic defense initiative (SDI) 战略防御倡议 【zhànlüè fángyù chàngyì】 The plan for a space-based ballistic missile defense system announced by 罗纳德·里根总统在 1983 年 3 月 23 U.S. president Ronald Reagan on 日声明的《战略防御倡议》指为拦 March 23, 1983, aimed at defending 截苏联射向美国的大规模战略导弹 against a mass attack of strategic 力量而建立的天基弹道导弹防御系 nuclear missiles from the Soviet Union. 汉 统研制计划,俗称“星球大战”计 It is also commonly called “Star Wars”. 英 划。(改自:参考文献[1],p274;[17]) (Modified from: Reference [1], p274;[17]) strategic nuclear weapon 战略核武器【zhànlüè héwǔqì】 1 Nuclear weapons that are used to 用于打击战略目标,执行战略任 1 strike strategic targets for strategic 务的核武器。 参考文献[3],p1105) (改自: missions. (Modified from: Reference [3], p1105) 2 Strategic nuclear weapons are 战略核武器是指能打击远距离 2 designed to engage objects in 地域的战略目标(超过 5 500 公里) geographically remote strategic regions 完成战略任务的武器。特殊情况下 (over 5 500 km) to accomplish strategic missions. In exceptional situations, 战略核武器可用于完成战役任务。 strategic nuclear weapons may be used 战略核武器服役于战略核部队。(源 to accomplish campaign missions. Strategic nuclear weapons are in 自:参考文献[5],p24) service with the strategic nuclear forces. (From: Reference [5], p24) Note: Strategic refers to missions 注:战略担负对敌方及其军事力量 designed to have a long-term rather 产生长期的而非短期影响的使命。 than immediate effect on the enemy and its military forces. (Modified from: (改自:参考文献[9],p516-517) Reference [9], p516-517) 参见“战术核武器” Refer to “tactical nuclear weapon” strategic stability 战略稳定性【zhànlüè wěndìngxìng】 strategic point 战略要点【zhànlüè yàodiǎn】 theater nuclear weapon 战区核武器【zhànqū héwǔqì】 tactical missile 战术导弹【zhànshù dǎodàn】 tactical nuclear weapon 战术核武器【zhànshù héwǔqì】 1 Nuclear weapons used to attack 1 用于打击战役、 战术纵深内重要 in-depth key targets at the campaign

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79 目标的核武器。(改自:参考文献[3], and tactical level. (Modified from: Reference [3], p1107) p1107) 2 Nuclear weapons, such as artillery 用于战场作战的核武器,诸如核 2 shells, bombs, and short-range 炮弹、核炸弹和短程核导弹等。(改 missiles, for use in battlefield operations. (Modified from: Reference [8]) 自:参考文献[8]) 3 Tactical nuclear weapons are 战术核武器是指能打击敌方部 3 汉 designed to engage objects in the 署的战术纵深目标(最远 300 公里) tactical depth of enemy deployment (up 英 完成战术任务的武器。在某些情况 to 300 km) to accomplish a tactical mission. Under certain conditions, 下,战术核武器可用于作战和战略 tactical nuclear weapons may be 任务,战略核炸弹也可用于战术目 involved in operational and strategic 的。(改自:参考文献[5],p24) missions. A strategic bomb can be used for tactical purposes. (Modified from: Reference [5], p24) Note 1: Activities at a tactical level focus 注 1:战术层面的活动是为完成战 on the ordered arrangement and 斗目的而关注涉及己方和敌方的作 maneuver of combat elements in 战要素的部署和调遣。(改自:参考文 relation to each other and to the enemy to achieve combat objectives. (Modified 献[9],p532) from: Reference [9], p532) Note 2: A campaign is a series of 注 2:战役是指军团为达成战争的 combat operations carried out by 局部目的或全局性目的,在统一指 corps-level military forces under 挥下进行的由一系列战斗组成的作 uniformed command to achieve partial or overall objectives. (From: Reference [33], 战行动。(源自:参考文献[33],p9) p9) 参见“战略核武器” Refer to “strategic nuclear weapon” account balance 账面平衡【zhàngmiàn pínghéng】 exposure 照射【zhàoshè】 tailored deterrence 针对性威慑【zhēnduìxìng wēishè】 Flexible deterrence capabilities and 根据目标国具体的心理、政治、意 operational doctrines specifically de- 识形态,及经济状况而特别制订的 signed according to the specific (源自: psychological, political, ideological, and 灵活的威摄能力与实战原则。 economic characteristics of the targeted 参考文献[21],p49-51) actor. (From: Reference[21], p49-51)

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80 authentication 真实性验证 【zhēnshíxìng yànzhèng】 直接使用材料【zhíjiē shǐyòng cáiliào】 direct-use material Nuclear material that can be used for 未经嬗变或进一步浓缩就可用于制 the manufacture of nuclear explosive 造核爆炸装置的核材料。(源自:参 devices without transmutation or further 考文献[4],4.25) enrichment. (From: Reference [4], 4.25) 汉 command, control,communi- 指挥、控制、通信、计算和 英 cations, computing and 情报系统(C4I 系统) intelligence (C4I) 【zhǐhuī kòngzhì tōngxìn jìsuàn hé qíngbào xìtǒng C4I xìtǒng】 command, control,communi- 指挥、控制、通信和情报 cation and intelligence system 系统(C3I 系统) (C3I) 【zhǐhuī kòngzhì tōngxìn hé qíngbào xìtǒng C3I xìtǒng】 proton 质子【zhìzǐ】 hold-up 滞留量【zhìliúliàng】 intermediate-level radioactive 中放废物【zhōngfàng fèiwù】 waste China’s nonproliferation export 中国防扩散出口管制体系 control system 【zhōngguó fángkuòsàn chūkǒu guǎnzhì tǐxì】 China’s comprehensive export control 中国关于核、生物、化学和导弹等 system regarding various nuclear, bio- 各类敏感物项和技术及所有军品的 logical, chemical and missile-related 全面的出口控制体制。(源自:参考文 sensitive items, technology and all military goods. (From: Reference [38]) 献[38]) Three Principles on Nuclear 中国核出口三项原则 Export Control of China 【zhōngguó héchūkǒu sānxiàng yuánzé】 China's three principles of nuclear ex- 中国核出口三项原则:第一,只用 ports: guarantee for peaceful purposes 于和平目的;第二,接受国际原子 only; acceptance of IAEA safeguards; 能机构的保障和监督;第三,未经 and no retransfer to any third party without prior approval of the Chinese 中国同意,接受国不得转让给第三 side. (From: Reference [1], p414) 国。(源自:参考文献[1],p414) Regulations of the People's 中华人民共和国核出口管制条例 Republic of China on Nuclear 【zhōnghuá rénmín gònghéguó

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81 Export Control hé chūkǒu guǎnzhì tiáolì】 中国政府于 1997 年 9 月 10 日公布 The chinese government promulgated the Regulations of the People's 《中华人民共和国核出口管制条 Republic of China on Nuclear Export 例》,并宣布立即生效。条例共 22 Control of on Sep.10, 1997, and declared that it took effect immediately. 条。(源自:参考文献[1],p414) It has 22 articles. (From: Reference [1], p414) 注:该条例在 2006 年被修订了 。 Note: this set of regulations was revised [74] 汉 in 2006[74]. 英 Regulations of the People's Re- 中华人民共和国核两用品及相关技 public of China on Export Con- 术出口管制条例 trol of Dual-Use Nuclear Goods 【zhōnghuá rénmín gònghéguó hé and the Related Technologies liǎngyòngpǐn jí xiāngguān jìshù chūkǒu guǎnzhì tiáolì】 The chinese government promulgated 中国政府于 1998 年 6 月 10 日公布 the Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Export Control of 《中华人民共和国核两用品及相关 Dual-use Nuclear Goods and the 技术出口管制条例》,条例从公布 Related Technologies on June 10, 条例由 23 条正文和附 1998. The Regulations took effect as of 之日起生效。 the date of promulgation. They consist 件《核两用品及相关技术管制清单》 of 23 articles and the Annex named the 组成。(源自:参考文献[1],p415) Nuclear Dual-Use Items and Related Technologies Export Control List. (From: Reference [1], p415) 。 Note: this set of regulations was revised [73] 注:该条例在 2007 年被修订了 [73] in 2007 . Joint Statement by the 中华人民共和国主席和俄罗斯联邦 President of the People's 总统关于互不首先使用核武器和互 Republic of China and the 不将战略核武器瞄准对方的联合声 President of the Russian 明 Federation on No-First-Use of 【zhōnghuá rénmín gònghéguó zhǔxí Nuclear Weapons and hé éluósī liánbāng zǒngtǒng guānyú Detargeting of Strategic hùbù shǒuxiān shǐyòng héwǔqì hé Nuclear Weapons Against Each hùbù jiāng zhànlüèhéwǔqì miáozhǔn Other duìfāng de liánhé shēngmíng】 intermediate product 中间产品【zhōngjiān chǎnpǐn】 neutrons 中子【zhōngzǐ】 neutron bomb/enhanced 中子弹/增强辐射武器 radiation weapon 【zhōngzǐdàn zēngqiáng fúshèwǔqì】

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82 A low-yield hydrogen bomb with a 以高能中子为主要毁伤因素,相对 special design utilizing high-energy 减弱冲击波和光辐射效应的一种特 neutrons as its main destructive element and relatively reducing its 殊设计的低威力氢弹。其较确切的 shock wave and thermal radiation 名称是增强辐射武器。(改自:参考文 effects. In a more accurate sense, it is 献[1],p152) called an “enhanced radiation weapon”. (Modified from: Reference [1], p152) 汉 gravimetric analysis 重量分析【zhòngliàng fēnxī】 英 heavy water 重水【zhòngshuǐ】 heavy water reactor (HWR) 重水堆【zhòngshuǐduī】 重水生产厂 heavy water production plant 【zhòngshuǐ shēngchǎnchǎng】 principal nuclear facility 重要核设施【zhòngyào héshèshī】 significant quantity (SQ) 重要量【zhòngyàoliàng】 The approximate amount of nuclear 不能排除制造一枚核爆炸装置可能 material for which the possibility of 性的核材料的大致数量。(源自:参 manufacturing a nuclear explosive 考文献[4],3.14) device cannot be excluded. (From: Reference [4], 3.14) essential equipment list (EEL) 重要设备清单 【zhòngyào shèbèi qīngdān】 ammonium diuranate 重铀酸铵【zhòngyóusuān’ān】 theory of escalation 逐步升级论【zhúbù shēngjílùn】 powered phase 主动段【zhǔdòngduàn】 boosted atomic bomb 助爆型原子弹 【zhùbàoxíng yuánzǐdàn】 storage facility 贮存设施【zhùcún shèshī】 special inspection 专门视察【zhuānmén shìchá】 An inspection is deemed to be special: 一种在以下情况下进行的、被认为 when it either is additional to the routine 是很特殊的视察:在 INFIRCIR/153 inspection effort provided for in paragraphs 78–82 of [IAEA 协议中第 78-82 段规定的常规视察 INFCIRC/153], or involves access to 要求之外进行的视察;或者是想通 information or locations in addition to

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83 the access specified in paragraph 76 过获取或进入除 INFIRCIR/153 协 of [IAEA INFCIRC/153] for ad hoc and 议中第 76 段特别指明的可以进入 routine inspections, or both. (From: 的信息或场地之外的信息或场地进 Reference [4], 11.13; [15]) 行的特别的和常规的视察;或者以 上两种情况都包括的视察。(源自: 参考文献[4] 11.13;[15]) 汉 conversion plant 转化厂【zhuǎnhuàchǎng】 英 conversion time 转化时间【zhuǎnhuà shíjiān】 The time required to convert different 将不同形式的核材料转化成核爆炸 forms of nuclear material to the metallic 装置金属部件所需要的时间。 (源自: components of a nuclear explosive 参考文献[4],3.13) device. (From: Reference [4], 3.13) conversion inspection 转化视察【zhuǎnhuà shìchá】 transfer guideline 转让准则【zhuǎnràng zhǔnzé】 diversion strategy/diversion 转用策略/转用途径 path 【zhuǎnyòng cèlüè zhuǎnyòng tújìng】 A (hypothetical) scheme which a State 一种(假定的)策略,即某国可能考 could consider to divert nuclear material 虑转用国际原子能机构保障监督的 or to misuse items subject to IAEA 核材料或不正当使用国际原子能机 safeguards. Diversion strategies would include: the undeclared removal of 构保障监督的物项。转用策略可能 nuclear material from a safeguarded 包括:从一个受保障监督的设施内 facility or the use of a safeguarded 擅自转移核材料或利用一个受保障 facility for the introduction, production or 监督的核设施引进、生产或处理未 processing of undeclared nuclear material. (From: Reference [4], 3.7) 申报的核材料。(源自:参考文献[4], 3.7) self-sustaining thermonuclear 自持热核燃烧【zìchí rèhé ránshāo】 burn spontaneous fission 自发裂变【zìfā lièbiàn】 self-defensive nuclear strategy 自卫防御核战略 Term used officially by China to 【zìwèi fángyù hézhànlüè】 describe its nuclear strategy. The 中国官方描述其核战略所用的术 strategy takes as its fundamental goal 语。该战略的根本目标是遏制他国 deterring other countries from using or

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84 threatening to use nuclear weapons 对中国使用或威胁使用核武器。该 against China. It includes an official 战略正式承诺在任何时候、任何情 commitment to a policy of no first use of 况下都不首先使用核武器的政策, nuclear weapons at any time and under any circumstances. It unconditionally 无条件地承诺不对无核国家和无核 undertakes not to use or threaten to use 地区使用或威胁使用核武器,主张 nuclear weapons against non-nuclear- weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free 全面禁止和彻底销毁核武器。该战 汉 zones, and stands for the comprehen- 略坚持自卫反击和有限发展的原 英 sive prohibition and complete elimina- 则,着眼于建设一支满足国家安全 tion of nuclear weapons. The strategy upholds the principles of counterattack 需要的精干有效的核力量,确保核 in self-defense and limited development 武器的安全性、可靠性,保持核力 of nuclear weapons, and aims at build- 量的战略威慑作用。(改自:参考文献 ing a lean and effective nuclear force capable of meeting national security [34]) needs. It endeavors to ensure the security and reliability of its nuclear weapons and maintains a credible nuclear deterrent force. (Modified from: Reference [34]) self-defensive nuclear 自卫核反击【zìwèi héfǎnjī】 counterattack 在遭受第一次核打击后进行核反 Nuclear counterattack launched after 击。(改自:参考文献[34]) absorbing an opponent’s first nuclear attack. (Modified from: Reference [34]) 自愿提交协定【zìyuàn tíjiāo xiédìng】 voluntary offer agreement comprehensive national power 综合国力【zōnghé guólì】 drilling to obtain radioactive 钻探取样【zuāntàn qǔyàng】 samples maximum deterrence 最大核威慑【zuìdà héwēishè】 A term used in the past by some 部分中国军事学者以前描述一种核 Chinese military scholars to describe a 威慑形式所使用的术语,即用强大 form of deterrence whereby with strong nuclear superiority as support, the 的核优势为后盾,以大规模使用核 threat of a massive nuclear strike is 武器作威胁来威慑对手。(改自:参 used to deter the adversary. (Modified 考文献[18],p359) from: Reference [18], p359) Refer to “deterrence” 参见“威慑”

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85 minimum deterrence 最低核威慑【zuìdī héwēishè】 Threatening the lowest level of damage 通过威胁使用最少数量的核武器, necessary to prevent attack, with the 产生能够慑止对方攻击所需的最低 fewest number of nuclear weapons 限度的破坏。(源自:参考文献[24],p2) possible. (From: Reference [24], p2) 汉 英