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1 absorbed dose 吸收剂量【xīshōu jìliàng】 absorption 吸收【xīshōu】 Accelerated Strategic 加速战略计算倡议 Computing Initiative (ASCI) 【jiāsù zhànlüè jìsuàn chàngyì】 Note: The program has been changed 注:现已改为“先进模拟与计算计 to Advanced Simulation and Computing 划”。(源自:参考文献[37]) E Program (ASC). (From: Reference [37]) C account balance 账面平衡【zhàngmiàn pínghéng】 accounting records 衡算记录【héngsuàn jìlù】 acquisition strategy/acquisition 采办策略/采办途径 path 【cǎibàn cèlüè cǎibàn tújìng】 A (hypothetical) scheme which a State 某国谋取用于制造核爆炸装置的核 could consider to acquire nuclear mate- 材料的一种(设想)策略。(源自:参考 rial usable for manufacturing a nuclear 文献[4],3.8) explosive device. (From: Reference [4], 3.8) active defense 积极防御【jījí fángyù】 Note 1: A term used to describe China’s 注 1:用以描述中国军事战略的术 military strategy. It includes the follow- 语。它主要包括以下三方面的内容: ing main elements: firstly, taking a firm 一是坚持自卫立场和实行后发制 stand of self-defense and gaining mastery by striking only after the enemy 人;二是以积极主动的军事准备和 has struck; secondly, using active 政治斗争防止战争;三是一旦战争 military preparations and political 爆发,以积极的反击和进攻作战达 struggle to prevent war; thirdly, should war break out, using active counter- 成战略防御目的。(改自:参考文献 attack and offensive operations to [31],p124-125) achieve strategic defensive objectives. (Modified from: Reference [31], p124-125) 注 2:在美国,“积极防御”指采 Note 2: In the U.S., “active defense” is the employment of limited offensive 取有限的攻击及反击以防止敌方占 action and counterattacks to deny a 领竞争中的区域或地点。(源自:参 contested area or position to the enemy. 考文献[9],p4) (From: Reference [9], p4) 注 3:在导弹防御领域,“积极防 Note 3: In the context of missile defense, “active defense” means the 御”指拦截并摧毁导弹或其弹头;

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2 interception and destruction of missiles “消极防御”指主要通过使用爆炸 or their warheads; “passive defense” is 掩体和食物存储等来抵御弹头的效 protection against the effects of the 用。(改自:参考文献[62]) warheads primarily by the use of blast shelters, stockpiling of food, etc. (Modified from: Reference [62]) active neutron detection 有源中子探测 E 【yǒuyuán zhōngzǐ tàncè】 A method of determining the existence C 利用外源诱发裂变材料裂变,通过 of fissionable material through detecting 探测裂变发出的中子而证实裂变材 the neutrons emitted from the fission 料存在的方法。(源自:参考文献[1], that is induced by an external source. (From: Reference [1], p495) p495) active nuclear stockpile 现役核武库【xiànyì héwǔkù】 active seal 有源封记【yǒuyuán fēngjì】 Refer to “seal” 参见“封记” active tag 有源标签【yǒuyuán biāoqiān】 Refer to “tag” 参见“标签” active warhead 现役弹头【xiànyì dàntóu】 裁军谈判会议特设委员会【cáijūn Ad Hoc Committee of Conference on Disarmament tánpàn huìyì tèshè wěiyuánhuì】 ad hoc inspection 特别视察【tèbié shìchá】 Additional Protocol 附加议定书【fùjiā yìdìngshū】 aftershock detection 余震监测【yúzhèn jiāncè】 Agreed Framework Between 美朝框架协议 the United States of American 【měi cháo kuàngjià xiéyì】 and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea agreement 协定/协议【xiédìng xiéyì】 Agreement Between the United 美苏关于建立减少核危险中心 States of America and the 的协定 Union of Soviet Socialist 【měi sū guānyú jiànlì jiǎnshǎo Republics on the Establishment héwēixiǎn zhōngxīn de xiédìng】 of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers

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3 Agreement Between the United 美苏关于防止核战争协定 States of America and the 【měi sū guānyú fángzhǐ hézhànzhēng Union of Soviet Socialist xiédìng】 Republics on the Prevention of Nuclear War Agreement on Measures to 美苏关于减少爆发核战争危险的措 Reduce the Risk of Outbreak of 施的协定 Nuclear War Between the 【měi sū guānyú jiǎnshǎo bàofā E United States of America and hézhànzhēng wēixiǎn de cuòshī de C the Union of Soviet Socialist xiédìng】 Republics Agreement on the Privileges 国际原子能机构特权和豁免协定 and Immunities of the IAEA 【guójì yuánzǐnéng jīgòu tèquán hé huòmiǎn xiédìng】 alarm system for physical 实体(实物)保护报警系统 protection 【shítǐ shíwù bǎohù bàojǐng xìtǒng】 alert rate of nuclear missiles 核导弹的戒备率 【hédǎodàn de jièbèilǜ】 The percentage of those missiles that 处于各种戒备状态并能在规定发射 are on various stages of alert and can launch in stipulated preparatory times in 准备时间内实施作战发射的导弹数 relation to the entire arsenal of deploy- 占部署导弹总数的百分比。(改自: ed missiles. (Modified from: Reference [2], p49) 参考文献[2],p49) ammonium diuranate 重铀酸铵【zhòngyóusuān’ān】 announcement 公告【gōnggào】 annual dose 年(辐照)剂量【nián fúzhào jìliàng】 annual throughput 年通过量【nián tōngguòliàng】 anti-ballistic-missile missile 反弹道导弹的导弹 【fǎndàndàodǎodàn de dǎodàn】 anti-coercion alarm 反胁迫报警【fǎnxiépò bàojǐng】 Also called anti-hijack alarm. The con- 又称反劫持报警。给值班、巡逻人 cealed warning device provided for 员配备的隐蔽报警装置。(改自:参 guards on duty or on patrol. (Modified 考文献[2],p91) from: Reference [2], p91) aquafluor process 水氟化流程【shuǐfúhuà liúchéng】

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4 aqueous reprocessing 水法后处理【shuǐfǎ hòuchǔlǐ】 area target 面目标【miàn mùbiāo】 arming nuclear weapon 核武器解保【héwǔqì jiěbǎo】 arms control 军备控制【jūnbèi kòngzhì】 arms race stability 军备竞赛稳定性 【jūnbèi jìngsài wěndìngxìng】 E artificial radionuclide C 人工放射性核素 【réngōng fàngshèxìng hésù】 ASEAN (Association of 东盟地区论坛 Southeast Asian Nations) 【dōngméng dìqū lùntán】 Regional Forum assassin's mace 杀手锏【shāshǒujiǎn】 A type of metal weapon. Chinese 锏是一种由金属制成的冷兵器。在 classical novels describe the means of 中国古典小说中指与敌厮杀时出其 throwing the mace at the adversary 不意地用锏投掷敌手、以求取胜的 unexpectedly in order to win during 招数。喻指在关键时刻使出的最拿 fighting. It is a metaphor for an adept 手的本领或称绝招。(改自:参考文献 ability or unique skill used at a critical [36]) moment. (Modified from: Reference [36]) asymmetric warfare 非对称战争【fēiduìchèn zhànzhēng】 A war in which either side employs a 任何一方使用了不同的武器、战术 different weapon, tactic or strategy. “All 或战略的战争。“所有战略都基于 strategy works on asymmetries, so 非对称性原则进行谋划和实施,因 asymmetric warfare is representative of 此理性运筹的战争都具有非对称性 all rationally executed warfare.” (From: 特征。 (源自: ” 参考文献[55],p102-108) Reference [55], p102-108) atmospheric nuclear test 大气层核试验【dàqìcéng héshìyàn】 atmospheric-pressure fuze of 核武器气压引信【héwǔqì qìyā yǐnxìn】 nuclear weapon atomic bomb 原子弹【yuánzǐdàn】 Atomic Energy Commission 原子能委员会 【yuánzǐnéng wěiyuánhuì】

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5 atomic mass 原子量【yuánzǐliàng】 atomic nucleus 原子核【yuánzǐhé】 atomic number 原子序数【yuánzǐ xùshù】 atomic-vapor laser isotope 原子蒸气激光同位素分离法 separation 【yuánzǐ zhēngqì jīguāng tóngwèisù fēnlífǎ】 E attribute approach 属性法【shǔxìngfǎ】 C Identifies treaty-limited objects by 通过测量物项的某些特征来识别条 measuring certain characteristics of an 约限定物项的方法。这些特征为某 object that should be displayed by all 特定类型的所有物项所具备。(改自: items of a given general type. (Modified 参考文献[11],p104) from: Reference [11], p104) attributes test 属性检验【shǔxìng jiǎnyàn】 A statistical test of a characteristic (or 判断一个物项的某项特征(或属性) attribute) of an item to which the 为“是”或“否”的统计试验。(源 response is either “yes” or “no”. (From: 自:参考文献[4],10.30) Reference [4], 10.30) authentication 真实性验证 【zhēnshíxìng yànzhèng】 ballistic-missile early warning 弹道导弹预警系统 system 【dàndàodǎodàn yùjǐng xìtǒng】 ballistic-missile submarine 弹道导弹潜艇 【dàndàodǎodàn qiántǐng】 ban 禁止【jìnzhǐ】 baseline data inspection 基准数据视察【jīzhǔn shùjù shìchá】 baseline exhibition for 非核重型轰炸机基线展示 non-nuclear heavy bombers 【fēihé zhòngxíng hōngzhàjī jīxiàn zhǎnshì】 batch data 批数据【pīshùjù】 beginning inventory of nuclear 核材料初期存量 material 【hécáiliào chūqī cúnliàng】 The amount of nuclear material at the 某一衡算周期开始时所拥有的材料 beginning of a balancing period. It 量。初始实物存量应等于前次材料 should be equal to the inventory at the 衡算周期中核材料的末期存量。(源

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6 end of the last material balancing 自:参考文献[2],p186) period. (From: Reference [2], p186) bilateral cooperation agreement 双边合作协定 【shuāngbiān hézuò xiédìng】 binding energy 结合能【jiéhé’néng】 boiling water reactor (BWR) 沸水堆【fèishuǐduī】 E book inventory of a material 材料平衡区的账面存量 C balance area 【cáiliào pínghéngqū de zhàngmiàn cúnliàng】 boosted atomic bomb 助爆型原子弹 【zhùbàoxíng yuánzǐdàn】 burnup 燃耗【ránhào】 calibration 校准【jiàozhǔn】 canned subassembly (CSA) 罐装组件【guànzhuāng zǔjiàn】 The secondary assembly in a nuclear 核武器的次级装置,其内包含聚变 weapon containing both fusion fuel and 燃料和(大多数情况下)铀装料(可能 in most cases uranium (some or all of 部分或全部是高浓铀)。(源自:参考 which may be HEU). (From: Reference [11], 文献[11],p90) p90) Note: In America, the subassembly that 注:在美国,要装入最终武器的部 is to be incorporated into the final 件被称为“罐装组件”。 weapon is called a “canned subassem- bly” capability of destroying 毁伤硬目标能力 hardened target 【huǐshāng yìngmùbiāo nénglì】 capability of destroying soft 毁伤软目标能力 target 【huǐshāng ruǎnmùbiāo nénglì】 cascade 级联【jílián】 centrifuge damping device 离心机阻尼装置 【líxīnjī zǔní zhuāngzhì】 centrifuge failure rate 离心机失效率【líxīnjī shīxiàolǜ】 centrifuge rotor dynamics 离心机转子动力学 【líxīnjī zhuànzǐ dònglìxué】

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7 centrifuge rotor material 离心机转子材料 【líxīnjī zhuànzǐ cáiliào】 centrifuge separation plant 离心分离工厂【líxīn fēnlí gōngchǎng】 chain reaction 链式反应【liànshì fǎnyìng】 charter 宪章【xiànzhāng】 China’s nonproliferation export 中国防扩散出口管制体系 E control system 【zhōngguó fángkuòsàn chūkǒu C guǎnzhì tǐxì】 China’s comprehensive export control 中国关于核、生物、化学和导弹等 system regarding various nuclear, bio- 各类敏感物项和技术及所有军品的 logical, chemical and missile-related sensitive items, technology and all 全面的出口控制体制。(源自:参考文 military goods.(From: Reference [38]) 献[38]) circular error probable (CEP) 圆概率偏差【yuán gàilǜ piānchā】 For repeated trials, the radius of a circle 对于射弹、导弹或炸弹而言,其圆 enclosing half of the impacts of a pro- 概率偏差是指,在反复试验中,包 含其半数弹着点的圆形区域的半 jectile, missile, or bomb. (Modified from: 径。(改自:参考文献[9]) Reference [9]) classical super design 经典超级模型 【jīngdiǎn chāojí móxíng】 classification of reactor 反应堆分类【fǎnyìngduī fēnlèi】 clean hydrogen bomb 干净氢弹【gānjìng qīngdàn】 close-out inspection 设施关闭视察 【shèshī guānbì shìchá】 closed-down facility/closed- 已关闭设施/已关闭的设施外场所 down location outside facilities 【yǐguānbì shèshī yǐguānbì de shèshīwài chǎngsuǒ】 closed nuclear fuel cycle 闭式核燃料循环 【bìshì héránliào xúnhuán】 There are two common types of nuclear fuel cycle. One is the “open” fuel cycle, 核燃料循环通常有两种类型。一种 in which the spent fuel is not reprocess- 是“开式”燃料循环,即乏燃料不 ed but kept in storage pending eventual 经过后处理,在最终处置前以废料 disposal as waste. The other is the 形式储存。另一种是“闭式”燃料 “closed” fuel cycle, where the spent fuel 循环,即乏燃料经过后处理从裂变 is reprocessed and the uranium and plutonium separated from the fission 产物中分离出铀和钚。铀和钚都可

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8 products. Both the uranium and the 作为新的燃料元件循环使用。(源自: plutonium can be recycled into new fuel 参考文献[14],p1-2) elements. (From: Reference [14], p1-2) cobalt bomb 钴弹【gǔdàn】 Refer to “induced-radioactivity 参见“感生放射性弹” bomb ” cold war 冷战【lěngzhàn】 E collective radiation dose 集体辐照剂量【jítǐ fúzhào jìliàng】 C collective security 集体安全【jítǐ ānquán】 An approach to prevent and curb aggre- 多国通过有组织的集体行动来预防 ssion and maintain security for countri- 和制止侵略,保护各国安全的一种 es through the organized collective 方式。(源自:参考文献[1],p23) action of multiple countries. (From: Reference [1], p23) command, control,communi- 指挥、控制、通信和情报 cation and intelligence system 系统(C3I 系统) (C3I) 【zhǐhuī kòngzhì tōngxìn hé qíngbào xìtǒng C3I xìtǒng】 command, control,communi- 指挥、控制、通信、计算和 cations, computing and 情报系统(C4I 系统) intelligence (C4I) 【zhǐhuī kòngzhì tōngxìn jìsuàn hé qíngbào xìtǒng C4I xìtǒng】 Committee on Disarmament 裁军谈判委员会 【cáijūn tánpàn wěiyuánhuì】 common security 共同安全【gòngtóng ānquán】 A security concept that originated in 冷战时期欧洲形成的一种安全概 Europe during the Cold War era. In 念。1982 年,瑞典首相帕尔梅主持 1982, the Independent Commission on Disarmament and Security Issues 的“裁军和安全问题独立委员会” chaired by Swedish prime minister Olof 的报告《共同安全:生存蓝图》中 Palme published a report entitled “Common Security: A Blueprint for 首次提出。该报告认为,共同安全 Existence”, which for the first time put 是基于这样一种认识,即安全的最 forward this concept. The report pointed 佳保证是通过双边或多边的增强安 out that common security is based on the following concept: the best 全合作而非通过相互竞争的强权政 guarantee for security is obtained 治来获得。(源自:参考文献[1],p23) through cooperation in improving

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9 security for both or all parties rather than through competitive power politics.(From: Reference [1], p23) communication system for 实体保护通信系统 physical protection 【shítǐ bǎohù tōngxìn xìtǒng】 communique 公报【gōngbào】 E compellence 威逼【wēibī】 The use of the threat of force to compel 威胁使用武力以迫使敌手采取己方 C a desired action by one’s adversary. 期望的行动。(源自:参考文献[23]) (From: Reference [23]) Note: compellence refers to efforts to 注:威逼致力于终止已发生的行为 stop an action already underway 而威慑致力于防止未发生的行动。 whereas deterrence refers to efforts to (源自:参考文献[39]) prevent future action. (From: Reference [39]) Derived from: “Compellence… usually 衍生:威逼,通常包括发起(威胁性) involves initiating an action (or an 的行动(或诉诸行动的不可更改的 irrevocable commitment to action) that 决心),只有在对手作出(妥协性的) can cease, or become harmless, only if 反应后才能终止或变得无害。(源自: the opponent responds.” (From: Reference 参考文献[23]) [23]) complex (diffusion) barrier 多层分离膜/复合分离膜 【duōcéng fēnlímó fùhé fēnlímó】 A kind of (isotope) separation barrier composed of multiple layers of 由多层不同结构的多孔膜紧密叠合 compactly overlapped porous barriers 组成的分离膜。(源自:参考文献[2], with different structure. (From: Reference [2], p81) p81) composite sample 混合样品【hùnhé yàngpǐn】 comprehensive (full scope) 全面保障监督协定 safeguards agreement (CSA) 【quánmiàn bǎozhàng jiāndū xiédìng】 comprehensive national power 综合国力【zōnghé guólì】 Comprehensive Test Ban 全面禁止核试验条约 Treaty (CTBT) 【quánmiàn jìnzhǐ héshìyàn tiáoyuē】 compressor for gaseous 气体扩散分离压缩机 diffusion separation 【qìtǐ kuòsàn fēnlí yāsuōjī】

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10 computer simulation of a 核爆炸的计算机模拟 nuclear explosion 【hébàozhà de jìsuànjī mónǐ】 concert of powers 大国协调【dàguó xiétiáo】 Conference of the Committee 裁军委员会会议 on Disarmament (CCD) 【cáijūn wěiyuánhuì huìyì】 Conference on Disarmament 裁军谈判会议 (CD) E 【cáijūn tánpàn huìyì】 C Confidence and Security 建立信任与安全措施 Building Measures (CSBMs) 【jiànlì xìnrèn yǔ ānquán cuòshī】 configuration of hydrogen 氢弹构形【qīngdàn gòuxíng】 bomb contact fuze of nuclear weapon 核武器触发引信 【héwǔqì chùfā yǐnxìn】 containment of nuclear material 核材料封隔【hécáiliào fēnggé】 containment strategy 遏制战略【èzhì zhànlüè】 Refers to the foreign policy strategy of 美国在冷战初期试图阻止苏联的扩 the United States during the Cold War 张和防止一些国家在政治上走向苏 in which it attempted to stop the expan- 联领导的共产主义的外交政策战 sion of the Soviet Union and to prevent nations moving politically towards com- 略。(改自:参考文献[40]) munism led by the Soviet Union. (Modified from: Reference [40]) continental shelf 大陆架【dàlùjià】 continuous inspection 连续视察【liánxù shìchá】 An inspection regime intended to 为达到保障监督目的,通过察看关 maintain continuity of knowledge con- 键操作、记录测量和运行的数据并 cerning inventory and flow of nuclear 核实这些信息,借以持续地掌握材 material by witnessing key operations, recording measurement and operating 料的库存清单和流向情况的视察机 data, and verifying the information in 制。(源自:参考文献[4],11.12) order to meet the safeguards objec- tives. (From: Reference [4], 11.12) control center for physical 实体保护控制中心 protection 【shítǐ bǎohù kòngzhì zhōngxīn】

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11 control sample 对照样品【dùizhào yàngpǐn】 convention 公约【gōngyuē】 Convention on Physical 核材料实体(物)保护公约 Protection for Nuclear Material 【hécáiliào shítǐwù bǎohù gōngyuē】 The convention signed to promote the 该公约以促进《不扩散核武器条约》 peaceful purpose of developing and 的各缔约国和平发展和利用核能为 using nuclear energy among every E Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty State 目的,并加强各国对核材料使用、 C Party, to strengthen the protection of 储存和运输的保护,防止核材料的 nuclear material usage, storage and 非法获取及使用而可能造成的危 transportation, and to prevent the possible dangers caused by illegally 险。公约于 1980 年 3 月签署。2005 obtaining and using nuclear material. It 年 7 月通过了旨在进一步加强核设 was signed on 3 March, 1980. In July 2005, the amended version of the 施与核材料保护的公约修订案并签 convention that aims to further 署了新公约。新公约采纳了中国提 strengthen the protection of nuclear 交的支持国际社会加强对核设施保 material and facilities was adopted and the new convention was signed. The 护的努力、反对以任何形式对其他 new convention accepted the 国家和平核设施动用武力或进行武 amendment submitted by China which 力威胁的修订案。新公约还首次明 declared its support for the effort of the international community to strengthen 确规定,缔约国要在保护核材料安 the protection of nuclear facilities, and 全、防范核恐怖主义方面进一步加 opposed any form of force or threat of force to any States’ peaceful nuclear 强国际合作。(源自:参考文献[52]) facility. It also prescribes for the first time that any State Party should further strengthen international cooperation on protecting the safety of nuclear material and preventing nuclear terrorism. (From: Reference[52]) conversion inspection 转化视察【zhuǎnhuà shìchá】 conversion of uranium 六氟化铀转化 hexafluoride 【liùfúhuàyóu zhuǎnhuà】 conversion of uranium product 铀产品的转化 【yóuchǎnpǐn de zhuǎnhuà】

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74 corps-level military forces under 挥下进行的由一系列战斗组成的作 uniformed command to achieve partial 战行动。(源自:参考文献[33],p9) or overall objectives. (From: Reference [33], p9) Refer to “strategic nuclear weapon” 参见“战略核武器” tag 标签【biāoqiān】 A unique identifier set up for facilitating E 在军备控制条约的限制对象上,为 verification of items restricted by arms C 便于核查而设置的某种独特标志。 control treaties. A tag must have 标签必须具有固有的特征,不能复 intrinsic characteristic which make it difficult to be duplicated, transferred, 制、转移、篡改或探测,同时要稳 tampered or detected. A tag should also 定、可靠、便宜。(源自:参考文献[1], be stable, credible and inexpensive. p496) (From: Reference [1], p496) Note: An active tag requires electrical 注:有源标签工作时需要电源,但 power, while a passive tag works 无源标签不需要电源。 without a power supply. tailored deterrence 针对性威慑【zhēnduìxìng wēishè】 Flexible deterrence capabilities and 根据目标国具体的心理、政治、意 operational doctrines specifically de- 识形态,及经济状况而特别制订的 signed according to the specific psychological, political, ideological, and 灵活的威摄能力与实战原则。(源自: economic characteristics of the targeted 参考文献[21],p49-51) actor. (From: Reference[21], p49-51) tailored effects nuclear weapon 特殊效应核武器 【tèshū xiàoyìng héwǔqì】 tamper resistance 抗干扰【kàng gānrǎo】 tampering 干扰【gānrǎo】 target-changing capability 变换打击目标能力 【biànhuàn dǎjī mùbiāo nénglì】 target of nuclear strike 核打击目标【hédǎjī mùbiāo】 target positioning 目标定位【mùbiāo dìngwèi】 technical characteristics 技术特性展示和视察 exhibition and inspection 【jìshù tèxìng zhǎnshì hé shìchá】

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75 technologies for on-site 核爆炸现场视察技术 inspection of nuclear explosion 【hébàozhà xiànchǎng shìchá jìshù】 telemetry data packet 遥测数据打包和加密 encryption 【yáocè shùjù dǎbāo hé jiāmì】 telemetry signal for missiles 导弹遥测信号【dǎodàn yáocè xìnhào】 telemetry system for nuclear 核武器遥测系统 weapon 【héwǔqì yáocè xìtǒng】 E template approach 模板法【móbǎnfǎ】 C The template approach to identify 模板法是通过测量物体的某些特 treaty-limited objects works by measur- 征,并与从某个参照物(如经认证的 ing certain characteristics of an object 一件特定类型的武器)测得的同样 and comparing them with the same set 一组特征(即模板)相比较。如果这 of measurements taken from a refer- 两组数据测量相符,就可以判定该 ence object (e.g., an authentic weapon 物体就是这种类型的武器。(源自: of a particular type): the template. (From: 参考文献[11],p99) Reference [11], p99) temporal resolution 时间分辨率 【shíjiān fēnbiànlǜ】 Ten Principles of the Bandung 万隆会议十项原则 Conference 【wànlóng huìyì shíxiàng yuánzé】 Ten-Nation Committee on 十国裁军委员会 Disarmament (TNCD) 【shíguó cáijūn wěiyuánhuì】 termination of IAEA safeguards 国际原子能机构保障监督的终止 【guójì yuánzǐnéng jīgòu bǎozhàng jiāndū de zhōngzhǐ】 theater nuclear weapon 战区核武器【zhànqū héwǔqì】 theoretical maximum 气体离心机的最大理论分离功率 separative power of a gas 【qìtǐ líxīnjī de zuìdà lǐlùn fēnlí gōnglǜ】 centrifuge theory of cascade 级联理论【jílián lǐlùn】 theory of escalation 逐步升级论【zhúbù shēngjílùn】 theory of low intensity conflict 低强度冲突理论 【dīqiángdù chōngtū lǐlùn】

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76 theory of peaceful settlement 和平解决理论【hépíng jiějué lǐlùn】 theory of victory decided by 核武器制胜论【héwǔqì zhìshènglùn】 nuclear weapons thermal neutrons 热中子【rèzhōngzǐ】 thermal radiation of nuclear 核爆炸光(热)辐射 explosion 【hébàozhà guāngrèfúshè】 E thermonuclear ignition 热核点火【rèhé diǎnhuǒ】 C thermonuclear weapon 热核武器【rèhéwǔqì】 third-generation nuclear 第三代核武器【dìsāndài héwǔqì】 weapon THOREX (thorium extraction) 梭雷克斯流程【suōléikèsī liúchéng】 process (钍萃取流程) thorium-uranium nuclear fuel 钍-铀核燃料循环 cycle 【tǔ yóu héránliào xúnhuán】 Three Principles on Nuclear 中国核出口三项原则 Export Control of China 【zhōngguó héchūkǒu sānxiàng yuánzé】 China's three principles of nuclear ex- 中国核出口三项原则:第一,只用 ports: guarantee for peaceful purposes 于和平目的;第二,接受国际原子 only; acceptance of IAEA safeguards; 能机构的保障和监督;第三,未经 and no retransfer to any third party without prior approval of the Chinese 中国同意,接受国不得转让给第三 side. (From: Reference [1], p414) 国。(源自:参考文献[1],p414) throw weight of nuclear missile 核导弹投掷重量 【hédǎodàn tóuzhì zhòngliàng】 TNT equivalent 梯恩梯当量【tī’ēntī dāngliàng】 transfer guideline 转让准则【zhuǎnràng zhǔnzé】 transient radiation effects on 电子系统的瞬态辐射效应 electronics 【diànzǐ xìtǒng de shùntài fúshè xiàoyìng】 transmutation 嬗变【shànbiàn】 transparency 透明度【tòumíngdù】 Openness of information. In the verifica- 信息公开。在核查领域可指国家军 tion field it may refer to openness about 事活动和可能带有军事意味的和平

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77 a state’s military activities and about 活动(如军民两用技术)的公开。(源 any peaceful activities that may have 自:参考文献[54]) military implications (such as dual-use technology). (From: Reference [54]) treatment of radioactive solid 放射性固体废物处理 waste 【fàngshèxìng gùtǐ fèiwù chǔlǐ】 Treaty Banning Nuclear 禁止在大气层、外层空间和水下进 E Weapon Tests in the 行核武器试验条约 C Atmosphere, in Outer Space 【jìnzhǐ zài dàqìcéng wàicéng kōngjiān and Under Water (PTBT) hé shuǐxià jìnxíng héwǔqì shìyàn tiáoyuē】 Treaty Between the United 美俄关于进一步削减和限制进攻性 States of America and the 战略武器条约 Russian Federation on Further 【měi é guānyú jìnyībù xuējiǎn hé Reduction and Limitation of xiànzhì jìngōngxìng zhànlüè wǔqì Strategic Offensive Arms tiáoyuē】 (START II) Treaty Between the United 美俄削减进攻性战略武器条约(莫 States of America and the 斯科条约) Russian Federation on 【měi é xuējiǎn jìngōngxìng zhànlüè Strategic Offensive Reductions wǔqì tiáoyuē mòsīkē tiáoyuē】 (Moscow/SORT) Treaty Between the United 美苏关于消除两国中程及中短程导 States of America and the 弹条约(中导条约) Union of Soviet Socialist 【měi sū guānyú xiāochú liǎngguó Republics on the Elimination of zhōngchéng jí zhōngduǎnchéng Their Intermediate-Range and dǎodàn tiáoyuē zhōngdǎo tiáoyuē】 Shorter-Range Missiles (INF Treaty) Treaty Between the United 美苏关于限制反弹道导弹系统条约 States of America and the (反导条约) Union of Soviet Socialist 【měi sū guānyú xiànzhì fǎn Republics on the Limitation of dàndàodǎodàn xìtǒng tiáoyuē fǎndǎo Anti-ballistic Missile Systems tiáoyuē】 (ABM Treaty) Treaty Between the United 美苏限制进攻性战略武器条约 States of America and the 【měi sū xiànzhì jìngōngxìng zhànlüè Union of Soviet Socialist wǔqì tiáoyuē】 Republics on the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (SALT II Treaty)

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78 Treaty Between the United 美苏限制地下核武器试验条约(限 States of America and the 当量条约) Union of Soviet Socialist 【měi sū xiànzhì dìxià héwǔqì shìyàn Republics on the Limitation of tiáoyuē xiàndāngliàng tiáoyuē】 Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests (TTBT) Treaty Between the United 美苏关于削减和限制进攻性战略武 States of America and the 器条约 E Union of Soviet Socialist 【měi sū guānyú xuējiǎn hé xiànzhì C Republics on the Reduction jìngōngxìng zhànlüèwǔqì tiáoyuē】 and Limitation of Offensive Strategic Arms (START I) Treaty Between the United 美苏和平利用地下核爆炸条约 States of America and the 【měi sū hépíng lìyòng dìxià hébàozhà Union of Soviet Socialist tiáoyuē】 Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosion for Peaceful Purposes (PNE) Treaty for the Prohibition of 拉丁美洲和加勒比海禁止 Nuclear Weapons in Latin 核武器条约 America and the Caribbean 【lādīngměizhōu hé jiālèbǐhǎi (Treaty of Tlatelolco) jìnzhǐ héwǔqì tiáoyuē】 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation 不扩散核武器条约 of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) 【bùkuòsàn héwǔqì tiáoyuē】 Treaty on the Southeast Asia 东南亚无核武器区条约(曼谷条约) Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone 【 dōngnányà wúhéwǔqìqū tiáoyuē (Treaty of Bangkok) màngǔ tiáoyuē】 triad strategic nuclear force 三位一体战略核力量 【sānwèiyītǐ zhànlüè hélìliàng】 Refer to “old nuclear triad” 参见“旧核三位一体” trigger list 触发清单【chùfā qīngdān】 The NSG prescribes that items on the 核供应国集团规定,向无核武器国 list exported to non-nuclear-weapon 家出口“清单”上的项目,要“触 states should trigger the IAEA safe- 发”国际原子能机构的保障监督。 guards. (From: Reference [1], p407) (源自:参考文献[1],p407) tri-phase bomb 三相弹【sānxiàngdàn】 A type of hydrogen bomb whose energy 放能过程经历由裂变到聚变再到裂 release process consists of three

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79 phases: fission, fusion, and then fission. 变三个阶段的一种氢弹,其最后的 The final fission phase is achieved by 裂变阶段由临近于热核燃料的天然 the use of natural uranium, depleted 铀、贫铀或浓缩铀来完成。世界上 uranium, or enriched uranium in proximity to the thermonuclear fuel. 大多数战略核武器都属于这种类 Most strategic nuclear weapons in the 型。(改自:参考文献[3],p802) world belong to this type. (Modified from: E Reference [3], p802) tritium C 氚【chuān】 tritium production reactor 产氚堆【chǎn chuān duī】 tunnel nuclear test 平洞地下核试验 【píngdòng dìxià héshìyàn】 two cycle process 双循环流程 【shuāngxúnhuán liúchéng】 type (environment) of nuclear 核爆炸方式(环境) explosion 【hébàozhà fāngshì huánjìng】 Nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive 核武器或核爆炸装置在不同介质、 devices can be exploded in different 不同高度或深度的爆炸,包括大气 media or at different heights/depths, in 层核爆炸、高空核爆炸、水下核爆 the atmosphere, in space, underwater 炸和地下核爆炸等。(改自:参考文献 and underground. (Modified from: Reference [1],p191) [1], p191) UN General Assembly 联合国大会【liánhéguó dàhuì】 UN resolution concerning the 联合国关于侵略定义的决议 definition of aggression 【liánhéguó guānyú qīnlüè dìngyì de juéyì】 unannounced inspection 不通知视察【bùtōngzhī shìchá】 undeclared facility or location 未申报设施或设施外场所 outside facilities (LOF) 【wèi shēnbào shèshī huò shèshīwài chǎngsuǒ】 underground nuclear test 地下核试验【dìxià héshìyàn】 unified uranium 合计铀【héjì yóu】 United Nations Advisory Board 联合国裁军事务咨询委员会 on Disarmament Affairs 【liánhéguó cáijūn shìwù zīxún wěiyuánhuì】

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80 United Nations Charter 联合国宪章【liánhéguó xiànzhāng】 United Nations Commission for 联合国常规军备委员会 Conventional Armaments 【liánhéguó chángguī jūnbèi wěiyuánhuì】 United Nations Disarmament 联合国裁军审议委员会 Commission (UNDC) 【liánhéguó cáijūn shěnyì wěiyuánhuì】 United Nations Institute for 联合国裁军研究所 E Disarmament Research 【liánhéguó cáijūn yánjiūsuǒ】 C (UNIDIR) United Nations Office 联合国裁军事务部 (Department) for Disarmament 【liánhéguó cáijūn shìwùbù】 Affairs United Nations Register of 联合国常规武器转让登记册 Conventional Weapons 【liánhéguó chángguī wǔqì zhuǎnràng dēngjìcè】 uranium 铀【yóu】 uranium alloy 铀合金【yóu héjīn】 铀化学浓缩物 uranium chemical concentrate 【yóu huàxué nóngsuōwù】 uranium decontamination cycle 铀净化循环 【yóu jìnghuà xúnhuán】 uranium dioxide 二氧化铀【èryǎnghuàyóu】 uranium hexafluoride 六氟化铀【liùfúhuàyóu】 uranium hexafluoride 六氟化铀水解【liùfúhuàyóu shuǐjiě】 hydrolysis uranium isotope separation 铀同位素分离【yóu tóngwèisù fēnlí】 uranium mine and ore 铀矿开采和水冶 processing 【yóukuàng kāicǎi hé shuǐyě】 uranium purification plant 铀纯化厂【yóu chúnhuàchǎng】 uranium recycling 铀再循环【yóu zàixúnhuán】 A process of reusing the uranium 将从乏燃料中回收得到的铀在反应 extracted from spent fuel in nuclear 堆内再循环使用的过程。(源自:参 reactors. (From: Reference [2], p457) 考文献[2],p457)

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81 uranium spectrum 铀光谱【yóu guāngpǔ】 uranium-233 铀-233【yóu 233】 uranium-plutonium cycle 铀钚循环【yóu bù xúnhuán】 uranium-plutonium mixed 铀钚混合氧化物 dioxide 【yóu bù hùnhé yǎnghuàwù】 uranium-plutonium partition 铀钚分离循环 E cycle 【yóu bù fēnlí xúnhuán】 C U.S. Nuclear Non-Proliferation 美国 1978 年核不扩散法 Act of 1978 【měiguó 1978 nián hébùkuòsàn fǎ】 The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act 核不扩散法声明了美国的政策:(1) declares it United States policy: (1) to 寻求建立核设备、核材料和核技术 pursue the establishment of inter- national controls of nuclear equipment, 的国际控制;(2)提高美国作为核反 material, and technology, (2) to 应堆和核燃料供应国的可靠性;(3) enhance the reliability of the United States as a supplier of nuclear reactors 鼓励批准《不扩散核武器条约》 (4) ; and fuels, (3) to encourage ratification 帮助其他国家核实和调整适当的能 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of 源生产技术。(改自:参考文献[35]) Nuclear Weapons, and (4) to aid other nations in identification and adaptation of appropriate energy production technology. (Modified from: Reference [35]) value function 价值函数【jiàzhí hánshù】 variable frequency power for 离心机专用变频电源 special purpose of a centrifuge 【líxīnjī zhuānyòng biànpín diànyuán】 variance σ2 方差 σ2【fāngchā σ2】 verification 核查【héchá】 In the arms control field, it refers to the 在军控中是指确认缔约国是否遵守 process of establishing whether state 协议条款的过程。它必须监测各缔 parties are complying with the provision of an agreement. It entails monitoring 约国有关条约承诺的活动,分析从 the activities of the parties relevant to 监测收集的信息,并确定各缔约国 their treaty commitments, analysing the information collected from monitoring, 是否遵守其对条约承诺的义务。 and determining whether the parties are (改自:参考文献[19],p237) complying with their agreement obliga- tions. (Modified from: Reference [19], p237)

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82 verification and validation 验证与确认【yànzhèng yǔ quèrèn】 (V&V) 验证:是一个确定过程,即验证计 Verification is the process of confirming 算程序正确地求解了数学方程的过 that a computer code correctly 程。 implements the algorithms that were intended. 确认:也是一个确定过程,即确认 Validation is the process of confirming that the predictions of a code E 计算程序的计算结果恰当地描述了 adequately represent measured physi- 相关物理现象的过程。(改自:参考文 C cal phenomena. (Modified from: Reference 献[63]) [63]) verification of the fissile 禁止生产易裂变材料核查 material production cutoff 【jìnzhǐ shēngchǎn yìlièbiàn cáiliào héchá】 virtual nuclear test 虚拟核试验【xū’nǐ héshìyàn】 The numerical simulation of a nuclear 用先进的计算机程序和高性能计算 explosion test done by advanced com- 机对核爆试验进行数值模拟。(改自: puter programs and high performance 参考文献[2],p430) computers. (Modified from: Reference [2], p430) visual observation 目视观察【mùshì guānchá】 voluntary offer agreement 自愿提交协定【zìyuàn tíjiāo xiédìng】 voluntary reporting scheme on 关于核材料、规定设备和非核材料 nuclear material and specified 自愿报告机制 equipment and non-nuclear 【guānyú hécáiliào guīdìngshèbèi hé material fēihécáiliào zìyuàn bàogào jīzhì】 vulnerability assessment 易损性评定【yìsǔnxìng píngdìng】 waste from nuclear fuel cycle 核燃料循环废物 【héránliào xúnhuán fèiwù】 waste from nuclear power plant 核电厂废物【hédiànchǎng fèiwù】 waste solidification 废物固化【fèiwù gùhuà】 waste storage 废物贮存【fèiwù zhùcún】 weapon-grade plutonium 武器级钚【wǔqìjí bù】 Plutonium containing no more than 7% 含小于或等于 7%以下钚-240 的钚。 Pu-240. (From: Reference [1], p233) (源自:参考文献[1],p233)

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83 Note: Pu containing much more than 注:含远大于 7%以上钚-240 的钚 7% Pu-240 can actually be used in a 事实上亦可用于核武器。(源自:参 nuclear weapon. (From: Reference [13], 考文献[13],p32-33) p32-33) weapon-grade uranium 武器级铀【wǔqìjí yóu】 Enriched uranium containing no less 含大于或等于 90%以上铀-235 的 E than 90% U-235. (From: Reference [1], p233) 铀。(源自:参考文献[1],p233) C weaponization 武器化【wǔqìhuà】 weaponization of space 外空武器化【wàikōng wǔqìhuà】 To deploy systems or components 部署专门设计用于在/从外空作战 specifically designed to fight a war in or 的系统或部件,或部署专门设计用 from space, or military capabilities on 于在地球上攻击外空中目标的军事 the earth specifically designed to destroy or disable targets in space. 能力。(改自:参考文献[56],p29) (Modified From: Reference [56], p29) 参见“外空军事化” Refer to “militarization of space” weapon-usable material 可用于武器的材料 【kěyòngyú wǔqì de cáiliào】 Western Group 西方国家集团 【xīfāng guójiā jítuán】 wet storage 湿法贮存【shīfǎ zhùcún】 X-ray laser pumped by nuclear 核爆激励 X 射线激光器 explosion 【hébào jīlì X shèxiàn jīguāngqì】 yellow cake 黄饼【huángbǐng】 A concentrate produced during the 铀水冶过程中的中间产物,含有大 uranium milling process that contains 约 80%带着少量铀酰盐的八氧化三 about 80% U3O8 with small amounts of uranyl salts. In preparation for uranium 铀(U3O8)。用于铀浓缩的黄饼被转 enrichment, the yellowcake is converted 化成六氟化铀气体(UF6),用于天然 to uranium hexafluoride gas (UF6). In 铀反应堆燃料的黄饼被加工成纯净 the preparation of natural uranium reactor fuel, yellowcake is processed 的二氧化铀。(源自:参考文献[12]) into purified uranium dioxide. (From: Reference [12])

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84 yield 威力【wēilì】 yield-to-weight ratio 比威力【bǐwēilì】 Zangger Committee 桑戈委员会【sānggē wěiyuánhuì】 The Zangger Committee, also known as 一些有核出口能力的《不扩散核武 the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty 器条约》(NPT)缔约国组成的核出口 Exporters Committee, is a nuclear 控制集团,又称 NPT 出口国委员 export group, which consists of parties E of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty 会。该委员会于 1971 年成立,宗旨 C (NPT) who have the capability of 是控制《不扩散核武器条约》成员 nuclear export. The committee was 国对没有核武器的非条约成员国的 formed in 1971. It aims to prevent the prohibition of nuclear weapons by 核材料和核设备的出口,以防止核 controlling the export of nuclear 武器扩散。委员会的主要出口控制 materials and equipment from parties of 机制是“触发清单”,即向无核武 the NPT to non-nuclear-weapon states. The main export control mechanism of 器国家出口触发清单上的项目,接 the committee is the “Trigger List”. 收国必须接受“国际原子能机构” Items on this List exported to 的保障监督。目前该委员会有 36 个 non-nuclear- weapon states must be subject to IAEA safeguards. The 成员国。(改自:参考文献[1],p374) committee now has 36 member states. (Modified from: Reference [1], p374) Zangger Committee Export 桑戈委员会出口准则 Guidelines 【sānggē wěiyuánhuì chūkǒu zhǔnzé】 zero-yield experiment 零威力实验【língwēilì shíyàn】 Refer to “subcritical experiment” 参见“次临界实验”