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English - Chinese Chinese - English Nuclear Security Glossary Committee on the U.S. - Chinese Glossary of Nuclear Security Terms Committee on International Security and Arms Control Policy and Global Affairs Division U.S. NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Chinese Scientists Group on Arms Control CHINESE PEOPLE’S ASSOCIATION FOR PEACE AND DISARMAMENT THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS ATOMIC ENERGY PRESS Washington, D.C. Beijing www.nap.edu www.aep.com.cn

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National Academies Press The National Academies Press was established in the early 1980s as the official publisher of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. NAP employs approximately 75 people and has 10 departments: Administration, Composition and Graphics, Design, Editorial, Digital Strategies, Fulfillment and Warehouse, Marketing, Printing, Production, and Reprographics.                                                                                  The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. DE-AT01-06NA26358, TO #16 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11931-3 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11931-6 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the United States); Internet, http://www.nap.edu All written materials and other works prepared under this agreement and the copyrights therein, in all media and languages, now or hereafter known throughout the world are assigned to and shall be owned by the National Academy of Sciences and the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament. This means that these materials shall become the property of the National Academies and the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament. Publication of the material, either prior to or after its acceptance by the National Academies and the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament, must be authorized by the National Academies or the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament. Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Peoples Association for Peace and Disarmament. All rights reserved.

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Atomic Energy Press The Atomic Energy Press (AEP), established in 1973, is a national specialized publishing house. It grew out of the former Editorial Board of Nuclear Science Committee of Chinese Academy of Sciences, which was established in 1959. The AEP, subordinated to the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), edits and publishes scientific and technical books, textbooks, periodicals and dictionaries in the nuclear field, and books and reference works in relevant fields. ※ ※ ※ ※ ※※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ 图书在版编目(CIP)数据 汉英/英汉核安全术语/中国人民争取和平与裁军协会, 美国国家科学院编著. —北京:原子能出版社,2008.4 ISBN 978-7-5022-4102-5 Ⅰ.汉⋅⋅⋅ Ⅱ. ①中⋅⋅⋅②美⋅⋅⋅ Ⅲ. 核工程-安全技术-术 语-英、汉 Ⅳ.TL7-64 中国版本图书馆 CIP 数据核字 (2008) 第 038028 号 汉英/英汉核安全术语 出版发行 原子能出版社 (北京市海淀区阜成路 43 号 100037) 责任编辑 卫广刚 李代斌 印 刷 绵阳市科学城曙光印刷厂 经 销 全国新华书店 开 本 787mm×1092mm 1/16 印 张 17 字 数 420 千字 版 次 2008 年 4 月第 1 版 2008 年 4 月第 1 次印刷 书 号 ISBN 978-7-5022-4102-5 印 数 1—2000 定 价 128.00 元 版权所有 侵权必究 http://www.aep.com.cn

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COMMITTEE ON THE U.S. - CHINESE GLOSSARY OF NUCLEAR SECURITY TERMS CISAC GLOSSARY TEAM Chair Ming-Shih Lu Ph.D., Brookhaven National Laboratory (retired) Members Richard L. Garwin Ph.D., Thomas J. Watson Research Center, IBM Corporation (emeritus) Raymond Jeanloz Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley Alastair Iain Johnston Ph.D., Harvard University Alvin W. Trivelpiece Ph.D., Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired) Staff Senior Program Associate, Committee on International Benjamin J. Rusek Security and Arms Control Director, Committee on International Security and Arms Anne Harrington Control CSGAC GLOSSARY TEAM Chair Tian Dongfeng Ph.D., China Academy of Engineering Physics Members Member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, Hu Side China Academy of Engineering Physics Beijing Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Zhu Jiaheng Mathematics Beijing Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Shi Jianbin Mathematics Ph.D., Beijing Institute of Applied Physics and Wu Jun Computational Mathematics Yu Xiaoling Chinese Scientists Group on Arms Control He Yidan Chinese Scientists Group on Arms Control Kang Chunmei China Academy of Engineering Physics Ph.D., Beijing Institute of Applied Physics and Sun Xiangli Computational Mathematics Ph.D., Beijing Institute of Applied Physics and Tian Jingmei Computational Mathematics

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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THE CHINESE PEOPLE'S ASSOCIATION FOR PEACE AND DISARMAMENT Founded in June 1985 by various concerned non-official organizations and prominent personages from all walks of life in China, the Chinese People's Association for Peace and Disarmament (CPAPD) is the largest nationwide non- governmental peace association with a total of 24 important member organizations. The objectives of the CPAPD are to promote mutual understanding, friendship and cooperation between the peoples of China and the rest of the world in joint efforts to maintain world peace, oppose arms races and war, achieve arms control and disarmament, strive for the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction, protect ecological environment and promote economic development and social progress. Having established a wide range of friendly contacts and ties abroad, the CPAPD undertakes cooperation and exchanges in various forms with more than 300 NGOs and research institutions in about 90 countries, which work for peace and conduct research in the fields of arms control, disarmament, global or regional security. While actively engaged in research on such issues as arms control, disarmament, peace and security, the CPAPD sponsors or co-sponsors various academic seminars annually, sends scholars and experts to attend international conferences or seminars, and hosts visiting delegations from abroad. The CPAPD has Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations and is a member of the Conference of NGOs (CONGO) in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The glossary committee members and staff have benefited greatly from the insights and observations of well-informed officials and scientific colleagues in the United States and China. The views that were obtained during these discussions were essential in providing a basis for the glossary. The committee expresses its gratitude for the time that these colleagues devoted to helping ensure that this glossary is as complete and accurate as possible. The glossary has also benefited from previous work by a number of organizations, both U.S. and Chinese. In particular, we would like to acknowledge the Nuclear Threat Initiative and the Monterey Institute on International Studies for allowing us to access work they did in 2002 on a nuclear terms dictionary. We also would like to acknowledge the Editing Committee of the National Defense Science and Technology Dictionary-Nuclear Energy Column, the Editing Committee of the Arms Control and Disarmament Handbook, and the Editing Committee of the Chinese Military Encyclopedia. Many terms and definitions in the glossary are quoted from their achievements. This glossary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee and by the joint Review Committee organized by the Atomic Energy Press and the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament. The purpose of these independent reviews is to provide candid and critical comments that assist the institutions in making this published glossary as sound as possible and ensure that the glossary meets institutional standards for objectivity and accuracy. During the review, comments and the draft manuscript remained confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: U.S. Reviewers Ping Lee National Security Technologies, LLC, Division Leader Stephanie Lieggi Monterey Institute of International Studies, Research Associate James Mulvenon Center for Intelligence Research and Analysis, Director, Defense Group Inc. Brad Roberts Institute for Defense Analysis, Research Staff Christopher Twomey Naval Postgraduate School, Assistant Professor and Associate Chair for Research Jing-dong Yuan Monterey Institute of International Studies, Director, East Asia Nonproliferation Program

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Chinese Reviewers Qian Shaojun Member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, PLA General Armament Department, Senior Researcher Lü Min Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Institute of System Engineering, Senior Researcher Song Jiashu Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Senior Researcher Zhu Xuhui China National Nuclear Industry Corporation, Senior Researcher Yan Shuheng China National Nuclear Industry Corporation, Senior Researcher Liu Gongliang Beijing Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Senior Researcher Niu Qiang Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament, Secretary-general Duan Zhanyuan The Department of Defense, Senior Researcher Ouyang Liping China Institute of Contemporary International Relations, Senior Researcher Wei Guanggang Atomic Energy Press, Editor Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the publication, nor did they see the final draft of the glossary before its release. The review of this report was overseen by R. Stephen Berry, the University of Chicago. Appointed by the National Academies, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this publication was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Correspondingly, in China the review was finally supervised by Qian Shaojun, Member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. He was elected by the review committee members and led the committee to examine and verify the terms thoroughly, especially the terms with definition. Responsibility for the final content of this report, including its objectivity and accuracy, rests entirely with the authoring committees and institutions.

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PREFACE The Chinese Scientists Group on Arms Control (CSGAC) of the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament, and the Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences have been meeting for almost 20 years to discuss nuclear arms control, nuclear nonproliferation, nuclear energy, and regional security issues, with the goal of reducing the possibility of nuclear weapons use and reducing nuclear proliferation in the world at large. Throughout these rich exchanges, our discussions have benefited from the contribution of bilingual participants and the services of interpreters. Despite long-standing personal relationships and strongly shared interests between CSGAC and CISAC, it was often evident that beyond the never-simple translation of one language into the other, there was also the difficulty of differing interpretations of terms. With substantial and growing international efforts in nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, counter-proliferation and the prevention of nuclear terrorism, and with the expansion of the use of nuclear power and the role of international inspections, it is important that participants whose respective native languages are Chinese and English agree on the meanings given to relevant terms in the two languages. In cases where they cannot agree, then it is important that they understand the usage in the other language, and be aware that a simple statement of the term may have alternative or ambiguous meanings. In April 2006, CISAC and CSGAC considered a joint project to produce an unclassified glossary of nuclear security terms, and concluded that this was feasible and would be valuable. Accordingly, participants on the two sides formed working groups and developed a framework for the glossary, and CSGAC prepared an initial set of terms. The working group members used e- mail intensively during this development phase, and also held joint meetings in Beijing in September 2006 and again in March 2007. Following several more rounds of e-mail consultations, the text was reviewed in China and the United States by experts from both countries whose comments and clarifications are reflected in the final manuscript. CISAC and CSGAC finalized the list of terms, definitions, and references at a November 2007 joint working group meeting. We believe that the product of this project, a joint CISAC and CSGAC glossary,

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Preface x will be a valuable resource to the government, academic, and security community. This glossary of approximately 1000 terms is intended to reduce the likelihood of misunderstanding, and to remove barriers to progress in exchanges and diplomatic, cooperative, or other activities where unambiguous understanding is essential. For many of the terms, this is just a matter of translation because, in our review, we could readily agree on an appropriate translation of the term P volunteered by one side or the other. Consequently, there was little likelihood of misunderstanding, and so the majority of the terms in this glossary are simply paired with the corresponding term in the other language. Another category of terms required definition. It was clear that although there might be a single meaning in one language, there were several possible options that dealt with matters that were quite distinct in the other, For these terms, we have arrived at what we believe to be a common definition, which, in turn, we present in both languages. A third category of terms is one in which there are different meanings even within a single language. That is, the same set of words is used in different contexts to describe different objects, actions or concepts. For these terms, although we have in many cases agreed on a single translation of the term, we felt it necessary to provide varying interpretations that might be encountered for example, in military or diplomatic circles. Where possible, we have taken our definitions from reputable preexisting sources in authoritative texts or preexisting glossary compilations. We have given preference to international documents, then to official governmental documents, and then to organizations or references of some standing such as the National Academy of Sciences, the Arms Control and Disarmament Handbook ( 军 备 控 制 与 裁 军 手 册 ), the National Defense Science and Technology Dictionary-Nuclear Energy ( 国 防 科 技 名 词 大 典 ⎯⎯ 核 能 卷 ), and similar sources. We have published the work as a book in the conventional Chinese- English and English-Chinese format. In addition, we have published the same source material on the Internet in a more “user friendly” format at: http://www8.nationalacademies.org/webglossary and at: http://www.cpapd.org.cn/webglossary.

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Preface xi Because terminology continues to evolve, we expect that an expanded version of the physical book may be produced at some future point. It is our intent to update the on-line version routinely, as the scope of interaction increases and clarifications come to light. We have arranged to do this in a transparent fashion; on-line one can see the changes and updates as well as the original version. The committees intend to formally review the list of terms approximately one year following publication and will make additions and corrections as needed at P that time. The committees welcome comments on the glossary at: cisac@nas.edu and at: css@iapcm.ac.cm Finally, we would like to especially thank Dr. Richard Garwin of CISAC and Academician Hu Side of CSGAC for providing invaluable guidance during all phases of this project. We are very proud to have had their participation as the U.S. and Chinese committee leaders and technical guides for the preparation of this glossary. Ming-Shih Lu Dongfeng Tian April, 2008

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CONTENTS Glossary Organization and Content ⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅ 1 Index ⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅ 5 Text ⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅ 1~84 Abbreviations ⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅ 85 References ⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅ 91