Click for next page ( 292


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 291
Index A Abiotic processes, 125-130,133 Accuracy and uncertainty, models, 6,15-16, 20,171,178, 216-233, 240,249, 252-254 computer models, 2,1o-ll,18, 214 deep aquifer, pressure head, 182, 183, 203-205 estimation methods, 166,265-266 fracture flow models, 107 generic vs site-specific models, 10, 214-215,262 hazardous waste, 166 long-term prediction, 171,178, 249, 252-254 numerical models, 72-73,82-83, 86-87,189-190 parameters, 84, 221-225, 254 quantification, 278-279 radioactive materials transport, 164 sampling, 217-225, 230,273 Alec also Error of measurement 291 Acids and acidity, pH conditions, 47,48,125,128, 133,275 Administrative law, Cc Regulations Administrative Procedures Act, 180 Absorption and adsorption, arc Sorption Advection, 1, 37-39,55, 62, 275 solute transport, 113-116,120, 132,140-141,143,215 Aerobic bacteria, 50,63 Air Force, 199-200 Airports, 174,175, 191-200 Aldicarb, 143,146-147 Anaerobic bacteria, 51 Analytical models, 67-68,170,212, 251-252, 254 Aquifers case studies, 173,181-186, 191-200 input estimation, 225-230 landfill contamination, 200-206 permeability, 83-84,119,137-138 point source pollution, 186-lg sampling techniques, 217-225 seawater intrusion, 149

OCR for page 291
292 well injection, 171-172, 186, 274-276 well withdrawals from regional, 5, 181-186 see also Boundary and initial conditions; Vertical-horizontal spread model Arizona, 174, 175, 191-200 Arthur D. Little, 201, 203, 204 Artificial intelligence, 267-269 Attenuation, see Dispersion B Bacteria contaminant degradation by, 20, 50-51, 63 contaminant transport by, 20 permeability clogging, 137-138 Big Lost River, 188 Biodegradation, 21, 140, 261-262, 273 bacterial, 20, 50-51 microorganisms, 133-138, 139 vertical-horizontal spread model. 180 Biological processes, 223 contaminant transformation, 50-52, 63 solute transport models, 133-138. 261-262 Bee ~80 Microbiological processes; Organic compounds Biomass, 134-137 Boundary and initial conditions, 2, 15, 32, 53, 54, 64-66, 220, 222, 225, 226-227, 239, 240, 265 dimensionality, 85-86 multiphase flow, 153-155 em also Mass transport; Pressure head Bureau of Land Management, 185 C Capillary forces multiphase flows, 33-35 unsaturated flows, 88-91 Case studies, 5, 172-206 INDEX Madison aquifer, 173, 175, 181-186 Niagara Falls, landfill, 200 Snake River plain, 5, 174-175, 186-191 Tucson Airport, 174, 175, 191-200 Vertical-horizontal spread model (McConnelsville, Ohio), 173, 174, 175-181 Center of Exposure Assessment Modeling, 167 Chemical processes; 8CC Reaction kinetics and dynamics CHEMTRN, 129 Chlorine, 186, 187-189 Chromium, 199 CH2M Hill, 193-194, 195, 197 Citrus fruit, 143, 144 well clusters, 145 Clay, 145, 202, 203, 275 Climate factors, 141, 251 Coal slurry pipelines, 181-186 Colloids, 131 Colorado, 191-200 Complexation, 47-48, 125-126, 128 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 23, 199 Computer databases, 8CC Databases Computer hardware, 266-267 Computer simulation accuracy, 2, 10-11, 18, 214 aquifer flow, 183, 187-198, 203-206 artificial intelligence, 267-271 code development and documentation, 13, 16, 17, 127-129, 162-164, 167, 212, 234, 235-239, 241, 264-265 deep-well injection, 275-276 expertise required, 214 expert systems, computers, 3, 267-271 geochemical models, 127, 129, 143; linkage to physical models, 258-262 landfills, 253 limitations, 10-11 mass balance, 128 multiphase flows, 37, 153-155

OCR for page 291
INDEX nuclear waste disposal, 252-253 numerical models and, 67-68, 83 research, 266-271 seawater intrusion, 149 Computer simulations, specific CHEMTRN, 129 DEMOTOX, 269 EPASMOD, 168-169, 181 EXINS, 269, 270 EXPAR, 269-270 FASTCHEM, 129, 261 GEOCHEM, 127 IMPES, 203 MICROQL:1, 261 MINEQL, 261 MINTED, 127, 129 PHREEQE, 127 PRZM, 143 ROKEY, 269 SWANFLOW, 203 TRANQL, 129, 261 vertical-horizontal spread model, 5, 169, 173, 175-181, 215, 276 WATEQF, 127 Computer software code development and documentation, 13, 16, 17, 127-129, 162-164, 167, 234, 235-239, 241, 264-265 management system, nuclear waste disposal, 163-164 Conduits, 102 pipelines, 181-186 Contaminants, specific aldicarb, 143, 146-147 chlorine, 186, 187-189 chromium, 199 fertilizers, 139 pesticides, 139, 143, 144, 146-147 278 salinity, 148-149, 151-152, 154, 275 strontium-90, 186, 187 trichloroethene, 191, 193, 196-199 tritium, 43, 186, 187 Continuity equations, 56-61 Convection, 255-256 Cost factors, 251, 276 deep-well injection data, 275 numerical models, 72-73 293 sampling designs, 224 unsaturated flow experiments, 3 Court cases, Cc Litigation D Darcy equation, 56-57, 81-82, 83, 85 Databases, 3, 16 abiotic reactions, 125, 129, 133 limitations, 108-109, 155, 182 mu It iphase flows, 155 thermodynamics, 128 Data collection, 9-10, 241 Decisionmaking computer models, accuracy, 2, 214 expertise, 17-19, 20, 82-83, 182-183, 212-216, 249 models, use of, 3, 6-7, 9-14, 20, 79-80, 214-216, 252-254 in regulatory system, 160-205 saturated continuum flow models, 85-88 site-specific models, 172-206 Cc also Artificial intelligence; Expert systems DEMOTOX, 269 Density and density modeling, 222, 275 phase transfers, 130 seawater intrusion, 151-152, 154 Department of Energy, 164, 172, 186, 252 Department of Justice, 206 Differential equations, 67-68 advection and dispersion, 120 saturated continuum flow, 82, 83 Diffusion, 1, 39-40, 55, 62, 134-135, 154 fractured media, 118, 147 Dispersion, 1, 40-41, 61-62, 141, 143, 145, 154, 215, 226, 255-256, 275 numerical modeling, 116-117, 119 research, 250 sampling scale, 119-120, 222 Dissolution, 46-47, 125-126, 128, 133

OCR for page 291
294 Documentation, software and code, 13, 16, 17, 127-129, 162-164, 167, 212, 234, 235-239, 241, 264-265 Dosimetry, 164 Drinking water, 23, 168, 169, 171-172, 176, 191, 199, 215, 275 EEconomic factors, see Cost factors Education, 23 personnel training, 18-19, 20, 82-83, 213 Efficiency, 23 Electric Power Research Institute, 26 Environmental Protection Agency, 26, 160, 164-172, 185, 199-200, 201, 205-206, 252 models, problems with, 211-212, 215 National Environmental Policy Act, 23 personnel qualifications, 213 research, 276-279 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 23, 167-170, 180, 242, 275, 279 Superfund, 23, 161, 164-167, 169, 211-212, 213-214, 242, 279 Underground Injection Control Program, 171-172 vertical-horizontal spread model, 5, 169, 173, 175-181, 215, 276 EPASMOD, 168-169, 181 Equations, Cc Differential equations; Mathematical models Error of measurement, 6, 67, 68, 189-190, 232, 233, 238 sampling, 218, 219-220, 224, 230 Estimation and estimation theory dispersivity and sampling scale, 110120, 222 hazardous waste, 166 input estimation, 225-230, 241 sampling, 23, 119-120, 217-225, 230, 273 validity, 223, 265-266 INDEX dCC ~80 Accuracy and uncertainty; Parameter estimation; Probabilistic methods Evaporation, 33 EXINS, 269, 270 EXPAR, 269-270 Expertise, 18, 182-183, 212, 249 qualifications, 18-19, 20, 82-83, 213-216 shortages, 17 Expert systems, 3, 267-271 F FASTCHEM, 129, 261 Fertilizers, sorption, 139 Field studies, 3, 16, 23 nuclear waste disposal, 161, 163 recommendations, 19-20 research 19-20, 264-267 sampling, 23, 119-120, 217-225, 230, 273 saturated continuum flows, 85 solute transport, 129-130 8CC ~80 Case studies; Site-specific models and data Finite-difference/finite element methods, 190 Flow models, 1, 29-37, 79-103, 256-258, 275 differential equations, 2, 28-73 fractured media, 99-102 regulatory system and, 160-208 research, 19-20 solution of, 66-73, 230 viscosity, 100, 120, 155, 275 d CC ~80 apecipc pow types Fluxes, em Advection; Diffusion; Dispersion; Mass transport Fractured media, 2, 4, 8, 9, 99-109, 11S, 222 continuum, 104-105, 107 research, 20 transport, 118, 143-148 voids, 35, 118, 144, 145 G see ~80 Gases (geochemical), 275 multiphase transport, 154

OCR for page 291
INDEX phase transfers, 130, 132-133, 138, 153 soil, 33 unsaturated flow and transport, 88, 139 Generic models, 276 V8 site-specific, 10, 214-215, 262 vertical-horizontal spread model, 5, 169, 173, 175-181, 215, 276 GEOCHEM, 127 Geochemistry, 127-129 physical transport models, linkages, 250, 258-262 radioactive contaminant transport, 162 reactive contaminants, 4-5 see ~80 Gases (geochemical) Geology complexity, 6, 10 nuclear waste disposal, 161-164, 252-253 see also Hydrogeology Goodness of fit, 230, 231 Gould, Inc., 179 Governing equations, 55-63, 72, 151-153 Government role, 25-26 agency guidelines and, 11-13, 20-21, 25, 160, 212 financial, 20, 276-281 research, 11-13, 20-21, 25, 160, 276-281 see ~80 Decisionmaking; Legislation; Litigation; Regulations; Standards; specific agencies Groundwater C7ontanur~ation, 253 H Hazardous waste injection wells, 171-172, 186, 274-276 Monte Carlo simulations, 184, 233 permits, EPA, 167-172 sampling, 217-225 Superfund, 23, 161, 164-167, 169, 211-212, 213-214, 242, 279 vertical-horizontal spread model, 5, 169, 173, 175-181, 215, 276 295 Cc ale o Nuclear waste Historic perspectives ground water models, 79-81 hydrogeological data, 219-220, 229 numerical solute transport models, 113-114 Hooker Chemicals Plastics Corporation, 200 Hughes Aircraft Company, 199 Human factors computer-human interface, see Expert systems expertise, 18, 182-183, 212 qualifications, 18-19, 20, 82-83, 213-216 shortages, 17 subjective, 252, 279 em also Decisionmaking Hydraulic conductivity, 29, 31, 32, 33-34, 52, 54, 56-57, 222, dispersivity and, 116, 226 fracture cow, 99-101, 104-105 108 unsaturated flows, 90-91 8ec ~80 Porosity Hydraulic potential gradients, 1 Hydrogeology, 79-156, 222 aquifer dynamics, 183, 185 complexity of, 2, 6, 7, 16, 20, 63, 116-117, 183, 276-277 hazardous waste and, 169 historical data, 219-220, 229 research, 250, 279 Snake River point source pollution, 186 Tucson Airport, 193-194 Hydrolysis, 9, 48-49, 125-126, 128, 133 Hysteresis, 155, 203, 276 I Idaho, 186-191 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 186 Illinois, 275 Ill-posed problems, 227-228 IMPES, 203 Indiana, 275

OCR for page 291
296 Infiltration, 140,216 radioactive waste, 162 structured soils, 145 time dependence following pending, 93,94-96 Initial conditions, ecu Boundary and initial conditions Input estimation, 225 230 sensitivity analysis, 229,232,238, 241 see also Sampling Interdisciplinary approaches, 271-276 Interfacial phenomena, 153 seawater intrusion, 151-152 8ec ~80 Multiphase Bow and transport; Phase transfers and phase equilibria; Surface chemistry International Groundwater Modeling Center, 167 Ions and ionization processes complexation, 47-48,125-126, 128 exchange, 142 Iterative methods, 68-69,72,191 K Karst systems, 99 Kentucky, 99 L Laboratory studies, 16 geochemical models, 129-130 recommendations, 19-20 unsaturated flows, 3 Landfills case studies, 5,174,175,200-206 Hyde Park, 101, 200 Love Canal, 23,101, 200 vertical-horizontal spread model, 176 Law, ace Legislation; Liability; Litigation Leaching, 106,168,186 vertical-horizontal spread model, 5,169,173, 175-181,215,276 Legislation INDEX Administrative Procedures Act, 180 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 23,199 contaminant problems, needs assessment, 24-25 National Environmental Policy Act, 23 Nuclear Waste Policies Act of 1982,252 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 23,167-170, 180,242,275,279 Safe Drinking Water Act, 23, 171-172,275 Superfund, 23,161,164-167,169, 211-212,213-214,242,279 Licenses and permits, hazardous waste disposal, 167-170,171,180-181 injection wells, 171-172,186 nuclear facilities, 161-164,211, 279 Liability, 165,249,277 Limestone, 181 Litigation case study models, 175,200-202, 205-206 hazardous waste disposal, 165 models used, evaluation of, 12, 23,278 Louisiana, 275 Love Canal, 23,101 M Macropores, Cc Fractured media; Voids Madison aquifer, 5,173,181-186 Mammoth Cave, 99 Management, software storage system, nuclear waste, 163-164 Mass transport, 2,8-9,37,61,69, 124-125,131-132,261 within aquifer, 196,275 biological reactions, 133-136 biomass, 134-137 complexation, 48

OCR for page 291
INDEX multiphase, 153 solution of equations, 66-73, 134, 128-129, 134-136 in unsaturated media, 138-148 see also Advection; Diffusion; Dispersion Mathematical models alternatives, 14 analytical V8 numerical, 67-69, 163 application, 239-243 aquifers, 181-186, 194-200, 203-206 complexity, 14-15 continuity equations, 56-61 Darcy equation, 56-57, 81-82, 83, 85 decisionmaking and, 2, 3, 6-7, 9-14, 20, 79-80 defined, 1, 28, 52-55 development and use, 211-243, 252-254 fractured media flow, 102-109 generic, 10, 214-215, 262, 276; Cc also Vertical-horizontal spread model goodness of fit, 230, 231 governing equations, 55-63, 72, 151-153 hazardous waste disposal sites, 165-167, 170-171 mult iph use flow, 102, 103-104, 151-153 input estimation, 225-230 Navier-Stokes equations, 81-82 nuclear facilities, 164, 172 parameterization, 64-66 point sources, 5, 32, 155, 174-175, 186-200 policy assumptions, 18 problems affecting, 211-212 process, 28-73 quality control, 13, 16, 17, 127-129, 162-164, 167, 212, 234, 235-243, 264-265 research, 6, 11-13, 19-21, 25, 160, 212, 225, 249-281 well injection, 171-172, 186, 274-276 297 see also Accuracy and uncertainty; Computer simulation; Numerical models; Parameter estimation; Reliability; Site-specific models and data; Statistics; Validity Matrix systems equations, 68 fractured flows, 4, 147 thermodynamics of mass balance, 128 unsaturated flows, 139 Measurement techniques research, 21 sampling, 23, 119-120, 217-225, 230, 273 transport codes, calibration, 162-163, 187, 189, 236-238, 241, 265-266 see also Error of measurement Michigan, 275 Microbiological processes, 50, 137-138, 139, 250, 261 bacterial, 20, 50-51 reaction kinetics, 133-136 MICROQL:1, 261 MINEQL, 261 MINTED, 127, 129 Missouri, 23 Models, Cc Computer simulation; Mathematical models; Site-specific models and data; specie types of flows Montana, 181-186 Monte Carlo simulations, 184, 233 Multidisciplinary approaches, see Interdisciplinary approaches Multiphase flow and transport, 5, 7-8, 32-37, 148-155, 250 in fractured media, 101, 102, 103-104 governing equations, 61, 151-153 organic fluid contamination, 149-151 parameters and boundary conditions, 153-155 problems, 155 seawater intrusion, 148-149, 151-152, 154

OCR for page 291
298 solute transport, 130-138 transport models and, 256-258 N National Environmental Policy Act, 23 National Science Foundation, 26, 279 Natural gas, 84 Navier-Stokes equations, 81-82 Nevada, 100, 108 New York, 23 Nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPL), 36-37, 88, 101, 108, 133, 201-202, 203, 205, 256-258 Nonreactive contaminants fractured cow, 4 saturated flow, 2 transport, 113 Nuclear reactors, 186 Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 185 26, 101, 160-164, 211, 252, 277, 279 Nuclear waste, 23, 101, 161-164, 172, 211, 252-253, 277 Nuclear Waste Policies Act of 1982, 252 Numerical models, 67-69 accuracy and cost, 72-73, 82-83, 189 aquifer, 187-191, 203 computer codes, 235-236 hazardous waste, 170 personnel training in, 18-19, 20, 82-83 radioactive waste transport, 163 research, 266-267 seawater intrusion, 149 solute transport, 113-155 o Occidental Chemical Corporation, 200-206 Ohio, 179, 275 Oil, 84, 150 Organic compounds, 136, 191, 276 aerobic bacterial degradation, 51 hazardous, EPA list, 168 INDEX multiphase transport, 149-151, 152-153, 154 nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPL), 36-37, 88, 101, 108, 133, 201-202, 203, 205, 256-258 scarcity of data, 7-8 sorption, 45-46, 138, 257-268 Bee also Biological processes A Parameter estimation, 6, 7, 15, 21, 53, 64-66, 229, 240, 241 boundary conditions, 226-227 computer simulations, 2 constitutive coefficients and, 226, 228 fracture flow, 108 mass transport, 9 multiphase flow, 153-155 pressure head, 33-35, 84, 88-91, research, 250 saturated flows, 83, 87-88 uncertainty and reliability, 221-225 Peer review, 242-243 Percolation, sec Leaching Permeability, Cc Porosity Permits and licenses see Licenses and permits Personnel qualifications, 18-19, 20, 82-83, 212-216, 249 shortages, 17 Pesticides in shallow water table, 143, 144, 146-147 regulation, 278 sorption, 139 Phase transfers and phase equilibria, 124-125, 130-138, 259-260 abiotic reactions, 125-130 den also Multiphase flow and transport; Nonaqueous phase liquids pH conditions and measurements, 47, 48, 275

OCR for page 291
INDEX solute transport, 125, 128, 133 PHREEQE, 127 Physical processes, 22, 255 advection, 1, 37-39, 55, 62, 113-116, 120, 132, 140-141, 143, 215, 275 capillary forces, 33-35, 88-91 convection, 255-256 diffusion, 1, 39-40, 55, 62, 118, 134-135, 147, 154 dispersion, 1, 40-41, 61-62, 116-120, 141, 143, 145, 154, 215, 222, 226, 250, 255-256, 275 evaporation, 33 geochemical models, linkages, 258-262 hysteresis, 155, 203, 276 infiltration, 93, 94-96, 140, 145, 162, 216 interracial phenomena, 151-153 leaching, 106, 168, 186 pressure head, 33-35, 66, 67, 79, 84, 81-82, 87, 89-90, 182, 183, 203-205 radioactive contaminant transport, 162 recharge, 88, 182, 216, 275 runoff, 96 saturated flows, 8~81 seawater, intrusion of, 148-149, 151-152, 154 sinks, 1, 32, 33, 37, 51, 57, 85-86, 130, 226-227 surface roughness, 100 thermodynamics, 125, 126, 127-128, 131, 133, 183, 275 velocity modeling, 87, 117, 120-121, 132, 140-141, 221-222, 274 vertical-horizontal spread model, 5, 169, 173, 175-181, 215, 276 wetting, 35 see Boundary and initial conditions; Mass transport; Porosity; Spatial dimensionality; Transport models Pipelines, 181-186 Point sources, 32 299 multiphase transport, 155 Tucson Airport, 174, 175, 191-200 Snake River, 5, 174-175, 186-191 Policy issues assumptions in models, 18, 26-27 research support, 250, 276-281 ace Legislation; Regulations; Standards Pollutant transport, Cc Contaminants, specific; Transport models Porosity, 7, 55-56, 275 aquifers, 83-84, 119, 137-138, 203, 274 capillary rise and pressure head, 33-35, 88-91, 203-205 Darcy equation, 82 expert systems, 269 hysteresis and, 155 secondary/macropores, 117-118; Cc also Fractured media; voids transport models, 12~121, 150 arc also Saturated flows; Unsaturated flows Postaudit analysis, 242 Potentiometry, 182 Powder River, 181-186 Precipitation (meteorology), 141 Precipitation (solution chemistry), 9, 46-47, 126, 128, 133, 180, 260 Predictive validity, sec Validity Pressure head, 33-35, 66, 67, 79, 84, 87, 89-90 aquifer, 182, 183, 203-205 Darcy equation, 81-82 Probabilistic methods, 255, 256, 262-263 stochastic models, 6, 262 Problem solving, 8CC Artificial intelligence; Decisionmaking; Expert systems Process models, 28-73, 221-225, 256 analytical, 212 biological, 50-52, 63, 133-138, 223, 261-262 chemical, see Reaction kinetics and dynamics

OCR for page 291
300 flow, 79-103 microbiological, 20, 50-51, 133-138, 139, 250, 261 pH conditions and measurements, 47, 48, 125, 128, 133, 275 research trends, 255-263 see Physical processes PROM, 143 Public opinion and review, 12, 23 Q Quality control code development and documentation, 13, 16, 17, 127-129, 162-164, 167, 212, 234, 235-239, 241, 264-265 model application, 239-243 models, general, 212, 233-235 peer review, 242-243 postaudit analysis, 242 radioactive materials containment, 162-164 sensitivity analysis, 229, 232, 238, 241 Bee also Accuracy and uncertainty; Reliability; Standards; Validity RRadioactivity decay, 9, 42-44, 62, 125, 129 fractured flow, 4, 101 BCC ~80 Nuclear waste Rain, 8CC Precipitation (meteorology) Reaction kinetics and dynamics abiotic, 125-130 biological, 133-136, 273-274 complexity, 2, 274 dissolution, 46-47, 125-126, 128, 133 hydrolysis/substitution, 9, 48-49, 125-126, 128, 133 ~ ~ - ~ons ant . ionization processes, 47-48, 125-126, 128, 142 microbiological, 133-136 models, 124-125, 275 INDEX multiple contaminants, 9 phase transfers, 131-132 potentiometry, 182 precipitation, 9, 46-47, 126, 128, 133, 180, 260 reactive transport models, 4-5, 124-125 redox, 9, 49-50, 125-126, 128, 133 Bee also Sorption Recharge, See Water recharge Recordkeeping, 23, 238 am ale o Documentation Redox reactions, 9, 49-50 microorganisms, 133 solute transport, 125-126, 128, 133 Regression (statistics), 223 Regulations, 23, 26, 160 aquifer contamination, 199-200, 205-206 expertise in model use, 213-216 injection wells, 171-172 Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 26, 101, 160-164, 211, 252, 277, 279 models, general, 14, 18-19, 22, 27, 160-206, 277-278 model use requirements, 11-13, 139-140, 211-216 pesticides, 278 state agencies, 212 arc also Environmental Protection Agency; Licenses and permits; Standards Reliability, 20, 216-233 Remedial actions, 23, 139-140, 214, 273-274 airport chemical releases to aquifer, 191, 193, 199, 200 hazardous waste, 220 landfills, 206 Superfund, 165 Remote sensing, 225 Research agency guidelines and, 11-13, 20-21, 25, 160, 212 artificial intelligence and expert systems, 3, 267-271 computer models and hardware, 266-271

OCR for page 291
INDEX federal agency support, 11-13, 20-21, 25, 160, 276-281 field tests, 19-20, 264-267 interdisciplinary approaches, 271-276 laboratory experiments, 3, 16, 19-20, 129-130 recent efforts, 6 recommendations, detailed, 249-281 sampling designs, 225, 273 theoretical, 22, 99-102, 108 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 23, 167-170, 180, 242, 275, 279 Risk assessment hazardous waste, 165, 169, 170 worst-case assumptions, 215-216, 276 Rivers Big Lost River, 188 fracture cows, analogy, 98-99 Powder River basin, 181-186 Snake River, point source contamination, 5, 174-175, 186-191 ROKEY, 269 Runoff, 96 S Safe Drinking Water Act, 23, 171-172, 275 Salinity, 148-149, 151-152, 154, 275 Sampling, 217-225, 230, 273 and estimation of dispersivity, 119-120 location selection, 23 uncertainty and reliability, 217-221 Sand, 141 S-Area Landfill, 200-206 Saturated cows continuum, 80-88, 107 decisionmaking, models used in, 85-88 early models, 79-80 in fractured media, 98, 107 simplicity, 3, 7, 83 301 single nonreactive contaminants in, 2 va transient unsaturated flows, 98 Seawater, intrusion of, 148-149, 151-152, 154 Sensitivity analysis, 229, 232, 238, 241 Sinks, 1, 37 Darcy equation, 57 dimensionality, 85-86 energy, 51 forcing terms, 226-227 ground water Bow, general, 32 multiphase flows, 33, 130 Site-specific models and data, 15, 172-206 administrative records, 23, 238 generic models w, 10, 214-215, 262 hazardous waste, 164-170, 22() nuclear waste disposal, 160-164, 172, 252-253 uncertainty and reliability, 216-233 validity, 236-238, 265-265 eec ~80 Case studies; Field studies Sludge, 179 Snake River, 5, 174-175, 186-191 Software, Cc Computer software Soil characteristics modeling clay, 147, 202, 203, 275 contouring, 228 expert systems, 269 duid-soil interactions, 90, 95-97, 153 gases, 33 heterogeneous, 4 sand, 141 structured, 143-148 unsaturated flows, 3, 90, 91-92, 95-97, 140-141, 143-148 sec alto Hydraulic conductivity; Porosity Solid wastes, 173 sludge, 179 Solute transport, 113-155 abiotic transformations, 128-130 biological processes, 137-138 dissolution, 46-47, 125-126, 128, 133

OCR for page 291
302 numerical models, 113-114 phase transfers and, 132 sec also Contaminants, specific Sorption, 9, 44~46, 48, 154, 275 mass transport and, 63, 147 organic solvents, 45-46, 138, 257-258 unsaturated zone, 139, 140~142 vert~cal-hortzontal spread model, 5, 169,173, 175-181, 215, 276 ace also InfilI-rat~on; Leaching South Dakota, 184 Spatial dimensionality, 217, 276 aquifers, 189, 201 mult~phase Bow and transport, 155 percolation, 106 river basin, 175 unsaturated Bows, 83, 85-86, 14~141 velocity and, 117 sec also Three-dimensional models Standards, 231 drinking water, 23, 168, 169, 170, 171-172, 176, 179 generic, vet site-specific, 10, 214-215, 262; vertical-hormontal spread model, 5, 169; 17S, 175-181, 215 hazardous waste disposal, 165-167, 168 nuclear waste disposal, 161-163 State-Ievel actions, expertise, 212 8CC ~80 Pacific Arch Statistics goodness of fit,. 230, 231 iterative methods, 68-69, 72, 191 Monte Card simulations, 184, 233 probabilistic methods, 255, 256, 262-2.63. regression, 223 sampling, 23,119-120, 217-225, 230, 273 stochastic models, 6, 262 Statutes, sec Law Steady state flows, 32, 64, 72, 196 saturated media, 86 unsaturated media, 86,91,96-97 vertical-horizontal spread model, 177-178 INDEX Stochastic models, 6 Strontium-90, 186,187 Subjective factors, 252,279 Substitution (reaction chemistry), 9,48-49,125-126, 128,133 Supercomputers, 266-267 Superfund, 23,161,164-167,169, 211-212,213-214, 242,279 Surface chemistry, 130, 155 dCC ~80 Sorption Surface roughness, fracture flow, 100 SWANFLOW, 203 T Technological innovation, JCC Research Texas, 275 Theory, 22 fracture flow, 99-102, 108 Thermodynamics, 275 abiotic reactions, 125,126, 127-128 aquifers, 183 microorganisms, reactions, 133 phase transfers, 127,131 Three-dimensional models, 83, 85-86,98,154,222 aquifers, 184,190-191,201 dispersivity and, 116 fracture cow, 106-107 river basin, 175 seawater intrusion, 149 Time factors, 217,225 infiltration rate, 93,94-96 Monte Carlo simulations, 233 numerical models, accuracy, 72-73 steady-state flow, 32,64, 72,86, 96-97,177-178, 196 transient cows, 32,86,92-98, 116,196 unsaturated Bows, 92-98,139,140 Cc also Velocity modeling Times Beach, 23 Toxicity level, 176 dosimetry, 164 TFL\NQL, 129, 261 Transient flows, 32, 86, 92-98, 116, 196

OCR for page 291
INDEX Transport models, 1, 18, 37-52, 62-63, 79, 113-155, 275 abiotic transformations, 128-130 aquifers, 187, 194-198, 203 expertise, 213 geochemical and, 258-262 hazardous waste, 165-167, 169, 170 landfill contaminants, 200-201 multiphase flow and, 256-258 nonreactive contaminants, 2, 4, 113 phase transfers, 132-133 radioactive waste, 161-164 research requirements, 19-20, 250 solution of, 66-73, 230 unsaturated cows, 138-148 8ec ~80 Boundary and initial conditions; Dispersion; Diffusion; Mass transport; Vertical-horizontal spread model Treatment techniques, see Remedial actions Trichloroethene, 191, 193, 196-199 Tritium, 43, 186, 187 Tucson Airport, 174, 175, 191-200 U Uncertainty, see Accuracy and uncertainty; Stochastic models Underground Injection Control Program, 171 Unsaturated flows, 3, 34-35, 80, 88-98, 222, 226 equations, steps involved, 57-60 in fractured media, 108 research, 20 saturated media models, coupling, 139-140 solute transport, 138-148 in structured soils, 142-143 V Validity, 26, 281 estimation methods, 223, 265-266 geochemical models, 129-130 long-term prediction, 171, 178, 249, 252-254 303 models, general, 6, 212, 230-233, 235, 236-238, 241 saturated flows in porous media, 7 unsaturated solute transport models, 139 Vapor phase, unsaturated zone, 139 Velocity modeling, 87, 117, 120-121, 132, 140-141, 221-222, 274 Vertical-horizontal spread model, 5, 169, 173, 175-181, 215, 276 Viscosity fracture flow and transport, 100 multiphase flow and transport, 155 transport models, 120, 275 Voids, 35, 118, 144, 145 W Waste management, 160 chemical, 191-205 landfills, 5, 23, 101, 174, 175, 176, 200-206 sludge, 179 solid, 173 Superfund, 23, 161, 164-167, 169, 211-212, 213-214, 242, 279; dCC ~80 Hazardous waste; Nuclear waste Wastewater, 179, 191 WATEQF, 127 Water recharge, 88, 182, 216, 275 Wells, 80, 82, 138 clusters, 145 injection, 171-172, 186, 274-276 for monitoring hazardous waste sites, 165, 187, 189, 222, 275 municipal, 199 regional aquifers, withdrawals, 5, 173, 181-186 remedial action, 274 sampling cores, 218 vertical-horizontal spread model, 5, 169, 173, 175-181, 215 see ~80 Drinking water Wetting, 35 Worst-case scenario, 215-216, 276 Wyoming, 181-186

OCR for page 291