1991 –

An International Journal of Science Education special issue on informal science learning is published.

1992 –

The journal Public Understanding of Science is established.

1994 –

A conference funded by NSF results in publication of Public Institutions for Personal Learning: Establishing a Research Agenda (Falk and Dierking, 1995).

1996 –

The first major informal learning research grant is awarded to the Museum Learning Collaborative, funded by a consortium of federal agencies.

1997 –

A Science Education special issue on informal science learning is published.

1998 –

NSF-funded conference results in publication of Free-Choice Science Education: How We Learn Science Outside of School (Falk, 2001).

2000 –

NSF-funded conference results in publication of Perspectives on Object-Centered Learning in Museums (Paris, 2002).

2001 –

Founding of the Center for Informal Learning and Schools.

2002 –

A Journal of Research on Science Teaching special issue on informal science learning is published.

2002 –

Free-choice/informal learning is added as a strand of graduate study in science and mathematics education in the College of Science at Oregon State University.

2004 –

A conference called “In Principle, In Practice: A Learning Innovation Initiative” resulted in a preconference supplemental issue of Science Education, a postconference online publication called Insights, and a postconference edited book on informal science learning.

2004 –

Founding of the Learning in Informal and Formal Environments Center.

2005 –

Informalscience (http://www.informalscience.org) is launched to share evaluation and research on informal science learning environments.

2008 –

NSF publishes Framework for Evaluating Impacts of Informal Science Education Projects .

spread interest in science centers, and, over the next decade, several of the leading institutions in informal science education were established.

More recently several education research organizations, which focus primarily on schools, have added special-interest groups devoted to informal learning and informal science. Numerous peer-reviewed journals have



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