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Setting the Stage for InternatIonal Spent nuclear Fuel Storage FacIlItIeS InternatIonal WorkShop proceedIngS Glenn Schweitzer and Kelly Robbins, Editors Committee on Issues in Consolidating Spent Nuclear Fuel at International Storage Sites Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs In cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by a grant from the Russell Family Foundation to the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11961-0 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11961-8 A limited number of copies are available from the Office for Central Europe and Eur- asia, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-2376. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examina- tion of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Na- tional Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL COMMITTEE ON ISSUES IN CONSOLIDATING SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AT INTERNATIONAL STORAGE SITES Milton Levenson, Chair, Bechtel International, Retired John F. Ahearne, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society John Kessler, Electric Power Research Institute Staff Glenn E. Schweitzer, Program Director, National Research Council A. Chelsea Sharber, Senior Program Associate, National Research Council Kelly Robbins, Senior Program Officer, National Research Council 

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Preface In May 2003, the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) and the National Academies organized an international workshop in Moscow on the scientific is- sues relevant to the establishment and operation of an international spent nuclear fuel storage facility in Russia. The papers presented at the workshop were pub- lished in 2005 in An International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility—Explor- ing a Russian Site as a Prototype: Proceedings of an International Workshop. Given the broad international interest in this topic, the academies decided to organize an international workshop on important issues that were not on the agenda or were not adequately discussed at the first workshop. These issues included international monitoring at the facility, transportation requirements, liability and insurance concerns, and status of Russian legislation and regula- tions that are important in locating and operating a facility. Relevant experience from Europe, the United States, and Asia was also considered. The Workshop on Setting the Stage for International Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities was held in June 2005 at the Vienna International Center with the participation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A second session of this workshop was held in Washington, D.C., in October 2005. At this session, an overview of new developments concerning the proposed facility was presented. Also, a representative of the U.S. government made a presentation on policy for shipments of U.S.-origin spent fuel to Russia by any country. The U.S. government was opposed to such shipments at that time. This report includes the papers that were presented in Vienna and Wash- ington, D.C. Together with the proceedings from the 2003 workshop, the report provides an overview of some of the issues that were of concern to the Russian government and to the international community at that time. Since the U.S. gov- ii

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iii PREFACE ernment modified its policy in 2006 so as not to oppose shipment of spent nuclear fuel to Russia, these publications take on additional significance. They provide useful background for those organizations and individuals involved in further development of an international spent nuclear fuel storage facility in Russia. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Special appreciation is extended to George Russell, who had the foresight to provide generous financial support for both the first and second workshops and for the publication of the proceedings. Also, the support of the RAS, and particularly Academician Nikolay Laverov, was critical to the success of these workshops. The statements made and views expressed are solely the responsibility of the individual authors and do not represent the positions of the Russell Family Foundation, the National Academies, the Russian Academy of Sciences, or other organizations where the authors are employed. This volume has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of selected papers: Mark Abkowitz, Vanderbilt University; Carl Alexander, Battelle Memo- rial Institute; Robert Bernero (Retired), U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Matthew Bunn, Harvard University; Margaret Chu, M.S. Chu & Associates, LLC; Charles McCombie, Arius Association; and Frank von Hippel, Princeton University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the individual papers. Responsibility for the final content of the papers rests with the individual authors. Special thanks are extended to Kelly Robbins for her translation of some of the Russian language papers into English. Milton Levenson, Chair, National Research Council Committee on Issues in Consolidating Spent Nuclear Fuel at International Storage Sites Glenn E. Schweitzer, Director, Office for Central Europe and Eurasia, National Research Council

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Contents VIENNA, JUNE 1-2, 2005 1 Welcoming Remarks 1 Daid N. McNelis 2 International Monitoring of Storage and Disposal Facilities: The Potential Role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 3 Bruno Pellaud 3 Status of Liability and Insurance Laws for International Shipments of Spent Nuclear Fuel 11 Norbert Pelzer 4 Insurance and Liability in the Transport and Reception of Fuel for Storage in Russia 21 Nikolay S. Pronkin 5 Overview of National Laws in Relation to a Regional Repository: Legal and Other Nontechnical Aspects of Multinational Repositories 28 Christina Boutellier 6 Current Russian Legislation Regulating Procedures and Conditions for the Import of Foreign Spent Nuclear Fuel 41 Valery S. Bezzubtse ix

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x CONTENTS 7 The Importance of Storage and Disposal in Multinational Approaches to the Fuel Cycle 56 Charles McCombie and Neil Chapman 8 Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Japan 70 Kinichiro Kusunose 9 Methods for VVER-1000 Fuel Testing Under Dry Storage Conditions 72 Valentin B. Iano 10 U.S. Nuclear Power Industry Trends in Spent Fuel Management 75 John H. Kessler 11 Comments of Particular Interest During the Workshop Discussions 83 Glenn E. Schweitzer 12 Summary Remarks 86 Daid N. McNelis WASHINGTON, D.C., OCTObER 3, 2005 13 Welcoming Remarks, October 3, 2005 92 Milton Leenson 14 On the Problem of Creating Regional International Storage Facilities for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Based on the Russian Example) 93 Nikolay P. Laero 15 International Storage of Commercial Spent Fuel and High-Level Waste: Considerations for U.S. Approval to Ship Spent Fuel with U.S.-Origin Uranium to Russia for Storage and Disposal 99 Alex R. Burkart and Janet M. Gorn APPENDIxES A Workshop Agenda, June 1-2, 2005 109 B Workshop Agenda, October 3, 2005 112 C Experience of Russian Companies in Transportation of Nuclear Materials 113 Valentin B. Iano