sponses of those individuals. It also is important to examine carefully one’s own motivations and biases, since others inevitably will do so.

Institutional policies generally divide investigations of suspected misconduct into an initial inquiry to gather information and a formal investigation to reach conclusions and decide on responses. These procedures are designed to take into account fairness for the accused, protection for the accuser, and coordination with funding agencies. A model for this process can be seen in the guidelines set by the Department of Health and Human Services Office of Research Integrity.

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