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On Being a Scientist: A Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research, Third Edition ADDITIONAL RESOURCES General Guides to the Responsible Conduct of Research Ahearne, J. F. The Responsible Researcher: Paths and Pitfalls. Research Triangle Park, NC: Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, 1999. Barnbaum, D.R., and Byron, M. Research Ethics: Text and Readings. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001. Beach, D. The Responsible Conduct of Research. New York: VCH Publishers, 1996. Bulger, R. E., Heitman, E., and Reiser, S. J. The Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health Sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2nd ed., 2002. Burroughs Wellcome Fund and Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Making the Right Moves: A Practical Guide to Scientific Management for Postdocs and New Faculty. Chevy Chase, MD: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 2004. Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative. CITI Course in the Responsible Conduct of Research: https://www.citiprogram.org/rcrpage.asp. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process, Vol. 1. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1992. Comstock, G. L. Life Sciences Ethics. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press, 2002. Djerassi, C., and Hoffmann, R. Oxygen. New York: Wiley-VCH, 2001. Goodman, Allegra. Intuition: A Novel. Cambridge, MA: Dial Press, 2006. Jackson, C. I. Honor in Science. Research Triangle Park, NC: Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, 2nd ed., 1986. Kalichman M. “Ethics and Science: A 0.1% Solution.” Issues in Science and Technology (Fall 2006). Kirby, K., and Houle, F. A. “Ethics and the Welfare of the Physics Profession.” Physics Today (November 2004):42-46. Korenman, S. G., and A. C. Shipp. Teaching the Responsible Conduct of Research through a Case Study Approach: A Handbook for Instructors. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges, 1997. Macrina, F. L. Scientific Integrity: Text and Cases in Responsible Conduct of Research. Washington, DC: ASM Press, 3rd ed., 2005. Maddox, Brenda. Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA. New York: Harper-Collins, 2002. Martinson, B.C., Anderson, M.S., and de Vries, R. “Scientists Behaving Badly.” Nature 435(2005):737-738. Shamoo, A. E., and D. B. Resnik. Responsible Conduct of Research. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Skelton, R. Forecast Earth: The Story of Climate Scientist Inez Fung. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press, 2005. Steneck, N. H. Introduction to the Responsible Conduct of Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, rev. ed., 2004. Steneck, N. H. “Fostering Integrity in Research: Definitions, Current Knowledge, and Future Directions.” Science and Engineering Ethics 12(2006):53-74.
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On Being a Scientist: A Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research, Third Edition Teich, A. H., and Frankel, M. S. Good Science and Responsible Scientists: Meeting the Challenge of Fraud and Misconduct in Science. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1992. Watson, J. D. The Double Helix. New York: Atheneum, 1968. Wilkins, Maurice. The Third Man of the Double Helix: Autobiography. Oxford University Press, 2003. Electronic Resources American Association for the Advancement of Science, Integrity in Scientific Research: http://www.aaas.org/spp/video/website.htm. National Institutes of Health, Ethics Program: http://ethics.od.nih.gov. The Online Ethics Center at the National Academy of Engineering: http://www.onlineethics.org. Office of Research Integrity. Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR). August 6, 2006. <http://ori.hhs.gov/education>. On-line Sources for Research Ethics: http://www.unmc.edu/ethics/links.html. Open Seminar in Research Ethics: http://openseminar.org/ethics. Open Seminar in Research Ethics Online Community: http://gsoars.acsad.ncsu.edu:85/. Resources for Research Ethics Education. University of California-San Diego. 2008: http://research-ethics.net. Responsible Conduct of Research. Columbia University: http://ccnmtl.columbia.edu/projects/rcr. The Responsible Conduct of Research Education Consortium: http://rcrec.org. The Poynter Center for the Study of Ethics and American Institutions: http://www.indiana.edu/~poynter. The Survival Skills and Ethics Program at the University of Pittsburgh: http://www.survival.pitt.edu. Mentoring and the Research Environment Bird, S. J., and Sprague, R. L. (eds.) “Mentoring and the Responsible Conduct of Research.” Science and Engineering Ethics 7(2001):449-640. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. Adviser, Teacher, Role Model, Friend: On Being a Mentor to Students in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers: A Guide for Postdoctoral Scholars, Advisers, Institutions, Funding Organizations, and Disciplinary Societies. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Darling, Lu Ann W. Discover Your Mentoring Mosaic: A Guide to Enhanced Mentoring. Bangor: Booklocker, 2006. Feibelman, P. J. A Ph.D. Is Not Enough! A Guide to Survival in Science. New York: Addison-Wesley, 1993.
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On Being a Scientist: A Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research, Third Edition Fischer, B. A., and Zigmond, M. J. “Promoting Responsible Conduct in Research through “Survival Skills” Workshops: Some Mentoring Is Best Done in a Crowd.” Science and Engineering Ethics 7(2001):563-587. Fort, C., Bird, S. J., and Didion, C .J. (eds.). A Hand Up: Women Mentoring Women in Science. Washington, DC: Association for Women in Science, 1993. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. Integrity in Scientific Research: Creating an Environment that Promotes Responsible Conduct. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2002. Lee, A., Dennis, C., and Campbell, P. “Nature’s Guide for Mentors.” Nature 447(2007):791-797. University of Michigan, Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. How to Mentor Graduate Students: A Guide for Faculty in a Diverse University. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 2002. Electronic Resources The American Association for the Advancement of Science, Professional Ethics Report: http://www.aaas.org/spp/sfrl/per/per3.htm. MentorNet: The E-Mentoring Network for Diversity in Science and Engineering: http://www.mentornet.net. The Treatment of Data Committee on Responsibilities of Authorship in the Biological Sciences. Sharing Publication-Related Data and Materials. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2003. Council on Government Relations. Access to and Retention of Research Data. Washington, DC: Council on Government Relations, 1995. Harmening, D. M. Laboratory Management: Principles and Processes. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2003. Kanare, H. M. Writing the Laboratory Notebook. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1985. Pascal, C. B. “Managing Data for Integrity: Policies and Procedures for Ensuring the Accuracy and Quality of the Data in the Laboratory.” Science and Engineering Ethics 12(2006):23-39. Rossner, M., and Yamada, K. M. “What’s in a Picture? The Temptation of Image Manipulation.” Journal of Cell Biology 166(2004):11-15. Stevens, A. R. Ownership and Retention of Data. Washington, DC: National Association of College and University Attorneys, 1997. Electronic Resources The National Institutes of Health Office of Extramural Research: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/policy/data_sharing.
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On Being a Scientist: A Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research, Third Edition Mistakes, Negligence, and Misconduct Bell, R. Impure Science: Fraud, Compromise, and Political Influence in Scientific Research. New York: Wiley, 1992. Budd, J. M., Sievert, M., and Schultz, T. R. “Phenomena of Retraction: Reasons for Retraction and Citations to the Publications.” Journal of the American Medical Association 280(1998):296-297. Commission on Research Integrity, Department of Health and Human Services. Integrity and Misconduct in Research. Washington, DC: Health and Human Services, 1995. De Vries, R., Anderson, M. S., and Martinson, B. C. “Normal Misbehavior: Scientists Talk About the Ethics of Research.” Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics 1(2006):43-50. Judson, H. F. The Great Betrayal: Fraud in Science. New York: Harcourt, Inc., 2004. Kohn, A. False Prophets: Fraud and Error in Science and Medicine. New York: Basil Blackwell, 1988. LaFollette, M. C. Stealing into Print: Fraud, Plagiarism, and Misconduct in Scientific Publishing. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1992. Levi, B. G. “Investigation Finds that One Lucent Physicist Engaged in Scientific Misconduct.” Physics Today 55(November 2002):15-17. Office of Science and Technology Policy. “Federal Policy on Research Misconduct.” Federal Register 65(December 6, 2000):76260-76264. Parrish, D. “Scientific Misconduct and the Plagiarism Cases.” Journal of College and University Law 21(1995):517-554. Wells, F. O., Lock, S., and Farthing, M. J. G. Fraud and Misconduct in Biomedical Research. London: BMJ Books, 2001. Zuckerman, H. “Deviant Behavior and Social Control in Science.” Pp. 87-138 in Deviance and Social Change. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1977. Responding to Suspected Violations of Professional Standards Gunsalus, C. K. “How to Blow the Whistle and Still Have a Career Afterwards.” Science and Engineering Ethics 4(1998):51-64. Johnson, R. A. Whistle Blowing: When It Works—and Why. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003. Schacter, A. M. “Integrating Ethics in Science into a Summer Graduate Research Program.” Journal of Chemical Education 80(2003):507-512. Unger, K., and Couzin, J. “Cleaning up the Paper Trail.” Science 312(2006):38-41. Electronic Resources National Whistleblower Center: http://www.whistleblowers.org. Office of Research Integrity, Handling Misconduct: http://ori.hhs.gov/misconduct. Office of Research Integrity, ORI Model Policy and Procedures for Responding to Allegations of Scientific Misconduct: http://ori.hhs.gov/documents/model_policy_responding_allegations.pdf.
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On Being a Scientist: A Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research, Third Edition Human Participants and Animal Subjects Federman, D. D., Hanna, K. E., and Rodriquez, L. L. (eds.). Responsible Research: A Systems Approach to Protecting Research Participants. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2002. Foster, C. The Ethics of Medical Research on Humans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Hart, L. A. Responsible Conduct with Animals in Research. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. King, N., Henderson, G., and Stein, J. Beyond Regulations: Ethics in Human Subjects Research. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999. Monamy, V. Animal Experimentation: A Guide to the Issues. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Shamoo, A. E., and Khin-Maung-Gyi, F. A. Ethics of the Use of Human Subjects in Research: Practical Guide. New York: Garland Science, 2002. Sugarman, J., Kahn, J. P. and Mastroianni, A. C. Ethics of Research with Human Subjects: Selected Policies and Resources. Hagerstown, MD: University Publishing Group, 1998. Electronic Resources Department of Health and Human Services, HHS Regulations for the Protection of Human Subjects: http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cfr46.htm. (This document is often referred to as the “Common Rule.”) Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Human Research Protections: http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp. Institute for Laboratory Animal Research: http://dels.nas.edu/ilar_n/ilarhome. Institute of Laboratory Animal Research, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (1996): http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=5140. National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research (1979): http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.htm. National Institutes of Health, OER Human Subjects Web site: http://grants2.nih.gov/grants/policy/hs. National Institute of Health, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, U.S. Public Health Service’s Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (2002): http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/PHSPolicyLabAnimals.pdf. National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature: http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nrc. World Medical Association, Declaration of Helsinki: http://www.wma.net/e/policy/be.htm. Sharing of Research Results and Authorship Chubb, S. R. “Introduction to the Special Collection of Articles in Accountability in Research Dealing with ‘Cold Fusion’.” Accountability in Research 8(2000):1-18.
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On Being a Scientist: A Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research, Third Edition Council of Science Editors. CSE’s White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications. Reston, VA: Council of Science Editors, 2006. Drenth, J. P. “Multiple Authorship: The Contribution of Senior Authors.” Journal of the American Medical Association 280(1998):219-221. Errami, M., and Garner, H. “A Tale of Two Citations.” Nature 451 (2008):397-399. Fischer, B. A., and Zigmond, M. J. Scientific Publishing. Pp. 29-37 in Chadwick, R. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics, vol. 4. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998. Huizenga, J. R. Cold Fusion: The Scientific Fiasco of the Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. Jefferson, T. “Redundant Publication in Biomedical Sciences: Scientific Misconduct or Necessity?” Science and Engineering Ethics 4(1998):135-140. Jones, A. H., and McLellan, F. Ethical Issues in Biomedical Publication. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000. Lang, T. A., and Secic, M. How to Report Statistics in Medicine: Annotated Guidelines for Authors, Editors, and Reviewers. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians, 1997. Electronic Resources American Chemical Society Ethical Guidelines for Publications: http://pubs.acs.org/ethics. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: http://www.icmje.org. Authorship and the Allocation of Credit Fine, M. A., and Kurdek, L. A. “Reflections on Determining Authorship Credit and Authorship Order on Faculty–Student Collaborations.” American Psychologist 48(1993):1141-1147. Ritter, S. K. “Publication Ethics: Rights and Wrongs.” Chemical and Engineering News 79(November 12, 2001):24-31. Intellectual Property Serafin, R. J., and Uhlir, P. F. A Question of Balance: Private Rights and Public Interest in Scientific and Technical Databases. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Stevens, A. R. Ownership and Retention of Data. Washington, DC: National Association of College and University Attorneys, 1997. Electronic Resources Council on Government Relations, Access to and Retention of Research Data: Rights and Responsibilities: http://220.127.116.11/docs/DataRetentionIntroduction.htm. National Academies, IP @ the National Academies:http://ip.nationalacademies.org. University of Minnesota, Intellectual Property Online Workshop: http://www.research.umn.edu/intellectualproperty.
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On Being a Scientist: A Guide to Responsible Conduct in Research, Third Edition Competing Interests, Commitments, and Values Association of American Medical Colleges. Guidelines for Dealing with Faculty Conflicts of Commitment and Conflicts of Interest in Research. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges, 1990. Association of American Universities. Report on Individual and Institutional Financial Conflict of Interest. Washington, DC: Association of American Universities, 2001. Cho, M. K., Shohara, R., Schissel, A. and Rennie, D. “Policies on Faculty Conflicts of Interest at US Universities.” Journal of the American Medical Association 284(2000):2203-2208. Council on Government Relations. Recognizing and Managing Personal Conflicts of Interest. Washington, DC: Council on Government Relations, 2002. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Shared Responsibility, Individual Integrity: Scientists Addressing Conflicts of Interest in Biomedical Research. Bethesda, MD: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 2006. Electronic Resources Association of American Universities, Conflict of Interest and Misconduct: http://www.aau.edu/research/conflict.cfm. National Institutes of Health, Office of Extramural Research, Conflict of Interest: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/policy/coi/. The Researcher in Society Beckwith, J. Making Genes, Making Waves: A Social Activist in Science. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002. Galston, A. W. “The Social Responsibility of Scientists.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 196(1972):223-235.
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