Lanjouw, J. O., and J. Lerner 1997. “The Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights: A Survey of the Empirical Literature.” NBER Working Paper No. W6296. Available at <>.

Lanjouw, J. O., and I. Cockburn. 2000. “Do Patents Matter? Empirical Evidence after GATT.” NBER Working Paper No. 7495.

Lerner, J. 1995. “Patenting in the Shadow of Competitors.” Journal of Law and Economics 38(Oct):463-495.

Lerner, J. 2002.” Patent Policy Shifts and Innovation Over 150 Years.” American Economic Review P&P. (May).

Levin, R. C., A. K. Klevorick, R. R. Nelson, and S. G. Winter. 1987. “Appropriating the Returns to Industrial R&D.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 783-820.

Mansfield, E. 1986. “Patents and Innovation: An Empirical Study.” Management Science 32:173-81.

Merges, R., and R. R. Nelson. 1990. “On the Complex Economics of Patent Scope,” Columbia Law Review 90:839-916.

Moser, P. 2001. “How Do Patent Laws Influence Innovation? Evidence from Nineteenth Century World Fairs.” University of California at Berkeley: working paper.

National Research Council. 2004. A Patent System for the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

Park, W. G., and J. C. Ginarte. 1997. “Intellectual Property Rights and Economic Growth.” Contemporary Economic Policy XV(July):51-61.

Penrose, E. 1951. The Economics of the International Patent System. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.

Sakakibara, M., and L. Branstetter. 2001. “Do Stronger Patents Induce More Innovation? Evidence from the 1988 Japanese Patent law Reforms.” Rand Journal of Economics 32:77-100.

Thomas, J. R., and W. H. Schacht. 2008. “Patent Reform in the 110th Congress: Innovation Issues.” Report for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Order Code RL33996.

Walsh, J., A. Arora, and W. Cohen. 2003. “Research Tool Patent and Licensing and Biomedical Innovation.” In Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy, W. Cohen and S. Merrill, eds. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

Ziedonis, R. H. and B. H. Hall. 2001. “The Effects of Strengthening Patent Rights on Firms Engaged in Cumulative Innovation: Insights from the Semiconductor Industry.” In Libecap, Gary, ed., Entrepreneurial Inputs and Outcomes: New Studies of Entrepreneurship in the United States. Vol. 13 of Advances in the Study of Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Economic Growth. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement