Jaffe, Adam B., and Josh Lerner. 2004. Innovation and its Discontents. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Lemley, Mark. 2000. “Rational Ignorance at the Patent Office.” Berkeley Program in Law and Economics Working Paper Series No. 19.

Lerner, Joshua, and Jean Tirole. 2004. “Efficiency of Patent Pools.” American Economic Review 94(3):691-711.

Merges, Robert P. 1996. “A Comparative Look at Intellectual Property Rights and the Software Industry” in David C. Mowery, ed., The International Software Industry, New York: Oxford University Press.

Merges, Robert P. 1999. “As Many as Six Impossible Patents before Breakfast: Property Rights for Business Concepts and Patent System Reform.” Berkeley Technology Law Journal.

National Research Council. 2005. A Patent System for the 21st Century, Merrill Stephen A., Richard C. Levin, and Mark B. Myers, eds. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

Nagaoka Sadao. 2005. “How Does Priority Rule Work? Evidence from the Patent Examination Records in Japan.” A Paper Presented for Patent Statistics and Innovation Research Workshop, November 25. Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo.

Nagaoka, Sadao. 2007. “Assessing the R&D Management of Firms by Patent Citation: Evidence from the U.S. Patents.” Journal of Economics & Management Strategy 16(1).

Nagaoka, Sadao, Naotoshi Tsukada, and Tomoyuki Shimbo. 2006. “The Emergence and Structure of Essential Patents of Standards: Lessons from Three IT standards.” IIR Working Paper WP#06-08. Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University. (Forthcoming in the Conference volume of 2006 International Schumpeter Society Conference.)

Scotchmer, Suzanne. 1996. “Protecting Early Innovators: Should Second-Generation Products Be Patentable?” RAND Journal of Economics 27:322-331.

Scotchmer, Suzanne. 2004. Innovation and Incentives. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Shapiro, Carl. 2001. “Navigating the Patent Thicket: Cross License, Patent Pools and Standard-Setting.” In Adam Jaffe, Joshua Lerner, and Scott Stern, eds. Innovation Policy and the Economy. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement