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a very successful national research institute which was managed by university professors that incubated a number of new firms in Japan.

While the university-industry collaboration stagnated in Japan in recent years, especially, compared to that in the United States, a number of policy measures have been taken to strengthen them in recent years. These measures have resulted in the increasing number of collaborative research centers established in national universities, the increase of the number of collaborative research projects and the increase of paper co-authoring and increasing academic spin-offs. At the same time, Japanese universities seek to maintain their identities as centers of higher education and the advancement of human knowledge. In this connection, Kondo concludes, Japanese universities need to establish rules to avoid conflicts of interests at the working level.


In his chapter entitled The Connected Science Model for Innovation: The DARPA Role, Bill Bonvillian describes the organizational and managerial characteristics underpinning DARPA effective as an incubator of breakthrough radical innovations. DARPA is a flexible and flat organization of only 100-150 professionals made up of world-class scientists and engineers who have substantial autonomy and freedom from bureaucratic impediments. In addition, it employs a connected science model for innovation, linking fundamental research, development, prototyping, and access to initial production. Furthermore, it organizes a significant part of its portfolio around specific ambitious technology challenges although its projects typically last 3-5 years.

However, today’s DARPA faces significant challenges. Increasing importance of addressing the short-term military have resulted in a cut back of university research, making it more difficult to sustain the hybrid approach bridging the gaps between academic research and industry development. In addition, as more of its portfolio focuses on classified “black” research, participation by most universities and non-defense tech firms is not possible. As a result, DARPA has been moving from its history of radical innovation to more incremental innovation.

In the final chapter, Yosuke Okada, Kenta Nakamura and Akira Tohei analyze Public-Private Linkages in Biomedical Research in Japan. Moving biomedical research from universities and public research institutions to commercialization is complex. Producing and transmitting scientific knowledge can take a wide variety of forms depending on research areas, organizations, participants, and other factors. Accordingly, there is no set method to organize public support for biomedical research. Public support for research, pro-patent policy measures in particular, must be designed on a case-by-case basis with sufficient attention to the characteristics of institutional and organizational features of the public sector. The authors believe that flexible funding schemes and higher mobility of researchers will be necessary to improve public-private linkage in Japan.

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