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Appendix B
Bibliography

Acs, Zoltan, and David Audretsch. 1990. Innovation and Small Firms. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Advanced Technology Program. 2001. Performance of 50 Completed ATP Projects, Status Report Number 2. NIST Special Publication 950-2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Advanced Technology Program and National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2003. Beyond Measure: A Profile of ATP Health Care Investments. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Advanced Technology Program and National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2003. Powering Our High-Speed Economy: A Profile of ATP Energy Investments. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Advanced Technology Program and National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2003. Survey of ATP Applicants 2000. NIST GCR 03-847. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Advanced Technology Program and National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2004. Measuring ATP Impact: 2004 Report on Economic Progress. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Advanced Technology Program and National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2005. A Profile of ATP Manufacturing Investments, Inspiring Innovations in Industry. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Advanced Technology Program and National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2005. Survey of ATP Applicants 2002. NIST GCR 05-876. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Aerts, Kris, and Dirk Czarnitzki. 2005. “Using Innovation Survey Data to Evaluate R&D Policy: The Case of Flanders.” Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Applied Economics and Steunpunt O&O Statistieken.

Aerts, Kris, and Dirk Czarnitski. 2006. “The Impact of Public R&D Funding in Flanders.” IWT Studies 54.



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Appendix B Bibliography Acs, Zoltan and David Audretsch. 1990. Innoation and Small Firms. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Advanced Technology Program. 2001. Performance of 0 Completed ATP Projects, Status Report Number 2. NIST Special Publication 950-2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Advanced Technology Program and National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2003. Beyond Measure: A Profile of ATP Health Care Inestments. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Advanced Technology Program and National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2003. Powering Our High-Speed Economy: A Profile of ATP Energy Inestments. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Advanced Technology Program and National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2003. Surey of ATP Applicants 2000. NIST GCR 03-847. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Advanced Technology Program and National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2004. Measur- ing ATP Impact: 200 Report on Economic Progress. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Advanced Technology Program and National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2005. A Profile of ATP Manufacturing Inestments, Inspiring Innoations in Industry. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Advanced Technology Program and National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2005. Surey of ATP Applicants 2002. NIST GCR 05-876. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Aerts, Kris and Dirk Czarnitzki. 2005. “Using Innovation Survey Data to Evaluate R&D Policy: The Case of Flanders.” Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Applied Economics and Steunpunt O&O Statistieken. Aerts, Kris and Dirk Czarnitski. 2006. “The Impact of Public R&D Funding in Flanders.” IWT Studies, 54. 260 PRePublication coPy

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261 APPENDIX B Aghion, Phillipe, Robin Burgess, Stephen Redding, and Fabrizio Zilibotti. 2003. “The Unequal Effects of Liberalization: Theory and Evidence from India.” Center for Economic Policy Research. Agrawal, A. and R. Henderson. 2002. “Putting Patents in Context: Exploring Knowledge Transfer from MIT.” Management Science 48(1):44-60. Ahluwalia, Montek Singh. 2001. “State Level Reforms Under Economic Reforms in India.” Stanford University Working Paper No. 96, March. Aizcorbe, A., K. Flamm, and A. Kurshid. 2002. “The Role of Semiconductor Inputs in IT Hardware Price Decline: Computers vs. Communications.” Federal Reserve Finance and Economics Dis - cussion Paper 2002-37. Washington, D.C.: The Federal Reserve Board of Governors. August 2002; revised 2004. Aizcorbe, A., S. Oliner, and D. Sichel. 2006. “Shifting Trends in Semiconductor Prices and the Pace of Technological Progress.” Federal Reserve Board Finance and Economics Discussion Series Working Paper No. 2006-44. September. Alberts, David, John Garska, and Frederick Stein. 1999. Network Centric Warfare. Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense Command and Control Research Program. Available at . Alic, John A., Lewis M. Branscomb, Harvey Brooks, Ashton B. Carter, and Gerald L. Epstein. 1992. Beyond Spin-off: Military and Commercial Technologies in a Changing World. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Allison, J., and M. Lemley. 1998. “Empirical Evidence on the Validity of Litigated Patents.” AIPLA Quarterly Journal 26:185-277. American Intellectual Property Law Association. 2004. Reply to the National Academies Report, Washington, DC. Amsden, Alice H. 2001. The Rise of “the Rest”: Challenges to the West from Late-industrializing Economies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Amsden, Alice H. and Wan-wen Chu. 2003. Beyond Late Deelopment: Taiwan’s Upgrading Policies. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Amsden, Alice H., Ted Tschang, and Akira Goto. 2001. “Do Foreign Companies Conduct R&D in Developing Countries?” Tokyo, Japan: ADB Institute. Anderson, Gary, Jeanne Powell, and Stephanie Shipp. 2003. “Improving the Advanced Technol- ogy Program’s Business Reporting System—A Firm-Level R&D Survey.” Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Government Statistics Section, [CD-ROM]. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association. Aoki, Reiko and Sadao Nagaoka. 2004. “The Consortium Standard and Patent Pools.” The Economic Reiew (Keizai Kenkyu) 55(4):345-356. Aoki, Reiko and Sadao Nagaoka. 2005. “Coalition Formation for a Consortium Standard through a Standard Body and a Patent Pool: Theory and Evidence from MPEG2, DVD and 3G.” IIR Working Paper WP#05-01. February. Applied Research Institute, Inc. 2006. Surey of the Enironment for Startups. Applied Research Institute. November. Archibugi, Danielle, Jeremy Howells, and Jonathan Michie, eds. 1999. Innoation Policy and the Global Economy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Argyres, N. S. and J. P. Liebeskind. 1998. “Privatizing the Intellectual Commons: Universities and the Commercialization of Biotechnology.” Journal of Economic Behaior & Organization 35:427-454. Arora, A., A. Fosfuri, and A. Gambardella. 2003. “Markets for Technology and Corporate Strategy.” In O. Granstrand, ed., Economics, Law, and Intellectual Property, Boston/Dordrecht/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Arora, A., and R. P. Merges. 2004. “Specialized Supply Firms, Property Rights, and Firm Boundaries,” Industrial and Corporate Change 13(3):451-476. PRePublication coPy

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262 APPENDIX B Arora, A., M. Ceccagnoli, and W. Cohen. 2001. “R&D and the Patent Premium.” Carnegie-Mellon University and INSEAD: paper presented at the ASSA Annual Meetings. January 2002. Atlanta Georgia. Arrow, Kenneth. 1962. The Rate and Direction of Inentie Actiity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Uni- versity Press, pp. 609-626. Asheim, Bjorn T. et al., eds. 2003. Regional Innoation Policy for Small-medium Enterprises. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. Athreye, Suma S. 2000. “Technology Policy and Innovation: The Role of Competition Between Firms.” In Pedro Conceicao et al., eds. Science, Technology, and Innoation Policy: Opportunities and Challenges for the Knowledge Economy. Westport, CT and London, UK: Quorum Books. Atkinson, Robert. 2004. The Past and Future of America’s Economy–Long Waes of Innoation that Power Cycles of Growth. Edward Elgar. Atkinson, Robert. 2006. “Is the Next Economy Taking Shape?” Issues in Science and Technology. Winter. Audretsch, David B., ed. 1998. Industrial Policy and Competitie Adantage, Volumes 1 and 2. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Audretsch, David B. 2006. The Entrepreneurial Society. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Audretsch, David B., Heike Grimm, and Charles W. Wessner. 2005. Local Heroes in the Global Village: Globalization and the New Entrepreneurship Policies. New York: Springer. Audretsch, D. B., B. Bozeman, K. L. Combs, M. P. Feldman, A. N. Link, D. S. Siegel, P. Stephan, G. Tassey, and C. Wessner. 2002. “The Economics of Science and Technology.” Journal of Technology Transfer 27:155-203. Auerswald, Philip E., Lewis M. Branscomb, Nicholas Demos, and Brian K. Min. 2005. Understand- ing Priate-Sector Decision Making for Early-Stage Technology Deelopment: A “Between Inention and Innoation Project” Report. NIST GCR 02–841A. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Augustine, Norman. 2007. Is America Falling Off the Flat Earth? Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Baker, Stephen. 2005. “New York’s Big Hopes for Nano.” Businessweek. February 4. Baldwin, John Russel, and Peter Hanel. 2003. Innoation and Knowledge Creation in an Open Economy: Canadian Industry and International Implications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Baldwin, J. R., P. Hanl, and D. Sabourin. 2000. “Determinants of Innovative Activity in Canadian Manufacturing Firms: The Role of Intellectual Property Rights” Statistics Canada Working Paper No. 122. March. Balzat, Markus and Andreas Pyka. 2006. “Mapping National Innovation Systems in the OECD Area.” International Journal of Technology and Globalisation 2(1-2):158-176. Bartzokas, Anthony and Morris Teubal. 2002. “The Political Economy of Innovation Policy Imple - mentation in Developing Countries.” Economics of Innoation and New Technology 11(4-5). Beinhocker, Eric D. 2007. Origin of Wealth—Eolution, Complexity, and the Radical Remaking of Economics. Harvard Business School. Bennis, Warren, and Patricia Ward Biederman. 1997. Organizing Genius. Basic Books. Berlin, Leslie. 2005. The Man Behind the Microchip: Robert Noyce and the Inention of Silicon Valley. New York: Oxford University Press. Bessen, J., and M. J. Meurer. 2005. “The Patent Litigation Explosion,” Research on Innovation and Boston University School of Law: manuscript. August. Bhidé, Amar. 2006. “Venturesome Consumption, Innovation and Globalization.” Paper presented at the Centre on Capitalism & Society and CESifo Venice Summer Institute 2006, “Perspectives on the Performance of the Continent’s Economies,” 21-22 July 2006. Held at Venice International University. San Servolo, Italy. Biegelbauer, Peter S. and Susana Borras, eds. 2003. Innoation Policies in Europe and the U.S.: The New Agenda. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate. PRePublication coPy

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26 APPENDIX B Birch, David. 1981. “Who Creates Jobs?” The Public Interest, 65:3-14. Blanpied, William A. 1998. “Inventing U.S. Science Policy.” Physics Today 51(2):34-40. Blomström, Magnus, Ari Kokko, and Fredrik Sjöholm. 2002. “Growth & Innovation Policies for a Knowledge Economy: Experiences from Finland, Sweden, & Singapore.” EIJS Working Paper, Series No. 156. Bloomberg News. 2006. “The Next Green Revolution.” August 21. Bonvillian, William B. 2006. “Power Play, The DARPA Model and U.S. Energy Policy.” The American Interest II(2):39-48. Booz Allen Hamilton. 2005. “Booz Allen Hamilton Global Innovation 1000: Money Isn’t Everything.” Strategy + Business, Issue 41. Borras, Susana. 2003. The Innoation Policy of the European Union: From Goernment to Goer- nance. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Borrus, Michael and Jay Stowsky. 2000. “Technology Policy and Economic Growth.” In Charles Edquist and Maureen McKelvey, eds. Systems of Innoation: Growth, Competitieness and Employment, Vol. 2. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. Branscomb, Lewis M. and Philip E. Auerswald. 2002. Between Inention and Innoation: An Analysis of Funding for Early-Stage Technology Deelopment. NIST GCR 02–841. Gathersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. November. Branscomb, L. M. and P. E. Auerswald. 2001. Taking Technical Risks: How Innoators, Executies, and Inestors Manage High-Tech Risks. Boston, MA: The MIT Press. Braudel, Fernand. 1973. Capitalism and Material Life 100-1800. London: Harper Colophon Books. Browning, L., and J. Shetler. 2000. SEMATECH: Saing the U.S. Semiconductor Industry. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press. Buchanan, James M. 1987. “An Economic Theory of Clubs.” In Economics: Between a Predictie Science and Moral Philosophy. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1987. Bush, Nathan. 2005. “Chinese Competition Policy, It Takes More than a Law.” China Business Reiew. May-June. Bush, Vannevar. 1945. Science: The Endless Frontier. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Capron, Henri and Michele Cincera. 2006. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Flemish Innovation System: An External Viewpoint. Brussles: IWT. Caracostas, Paraskevas and Ugur Muldur. 2001. “The Emergence of the New European Union Research and Innovation Policy,” in P. Laredo and P. Mustar, eds. Research and Innoation Policies in the New Global Economy: An International Comparatie Analysis. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Cebrowski, Arthur, and John Garska. 1998. “Network Centric Warfare: Its Origin and Future.” U.S. Naal Institute Proceedings. January. Chambers, John, ed. 1999. The Oxford Companion to American Military History. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Chand, Satish and Kunal Sen. 2002. “Trade Liberalization and Productivity Growth: Evidence from Indian Manufacturing.” Reiew of Deelopment Economics 6, February. Chang, Connie, Stephanie Shipp, and Andrew Wang. 2002. The Advanced Technology Program: A Public-Private Partnership for Early-stage Technology Development. Venture Capital 4(4): 363-370. Chesbrough, Henry. 2003. Open Innoation: The New Imperatie for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. April. China Trade Extra. 2005. China Agrees to Delay Software Procurement Rule While Talking with U.S. July 11. Chinese Ministry of Finance. 2006. Opinions of the Ministry of Finance on Implementing Goernment Procurement Policies That Encourage Indigenous Innoation. Cai Ku [2006] No. 47, June 13. PRePublication coPy

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26 APPENDIX B Chuma, Hiroyuki. 2006. “Increasing Complexity and Limits of Organization in the Microlithography Industry: Implications for Science-based Industries.” Research Policy 35:394-411. Chuma, Hiroyuki, and Norikazu Hashimoto. 2007. “Moore’s Law, Increasing Complexity and Limits of Organization: Modern Significance of Japanese DRAM ERA.” NISTEP Discussion Paper No. 44. National Institute of Science and Technology Policy. Mooris, P. R. 1990. A history of The World Semiconductor Industry. Peter Peregrinus Ltd. Cimoli, Mario and Marina della Giusta. 2000. “The Nature of Technological Change and its Main Implications on National and Local Systems of Innovation.” IIASA Interim Report IR-98-029. Cincera, Michele. 2006. Comparison of Regional Approaches to Foster Innovation in the European Union: The Case of Flanders. Brussels: IWT. Cincera, Michele. 2006. R&D Activities of Flemish Companies in the Private Sector: An Analysis for the Period 1998-2002. Brussels: IWT. Clark, B. 1995. Places of Inquiry. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Clarke, P. 2004. “LETI, Crolles Alliance Open $350-million 32-nm Research Fab.” EE Times, April 24, 2004. Clarke, P., M. LaPedus and M. Santarini. 2005. “IBM-led Consortium to Build Fab in N.Y.” EE Times. January 5. Coburn, Christopher and Dan Berglund. 1995. Partnerships: A Compendium of State and Federal Cooperatie Programs. Columbus, OH: Battelle Press. Cohen, W. M., A. Goto, A. Nagata, R. R. Nelson, and J. P. Walsh. 2002. “R&D Spillovers, Patents and the Incentives to Innovate in Japan and the United States.” Research Policy 1425:1-19. Cohen, W., R. Florida, and R. Goe. 1992. Uniersity-Industry Research Centers in the United States Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie-Mellon University. Cohen, W., R. Nelson, and J. Walsh. 2000. “Protecting Their Intellectual Assets: Appropriability Conditions and why U.S. Manufacturing Firms Patent (or Not).” NBER Working Paper 7552. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Combs, Kathryn L. and Albert N. Link. 2003. Innovation Policy in Search of an Economic Paradigm: The Case of Research Partnerships in the United States. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management 15(2). Conant, Jennet. 2002. Tuxedo Park. Simon and Shuster. Conant, Jennet. 2005. 10 East Palace. Simon and Shuster. Council on Competitiveness. 2005. Innoate America: Thriing in a World of Challenge and Change. Washington, D.C.: Council on Competitiveness. Council on Government Relations. 2000. “Technology Transfer in U.S. Research Universities: Dispel- ling Common Myths.” Washington, D.C.: Council on Government Relations. Council for Science and Technology Policy. 2002. Reports on the Reform for Competitie Research Grants. (in Japanese). Council for Science and Technology Policy. 2003. Reform of Competitie Funding System. (Kyousouteki Sikinseido no kaikaku). Council for Science and Technology Policy. April 15. Council for Science and Technology Policy. 2005. Reports of the Expert Panel on the Basic Policy. . Council for Science and Technology Policy. 2005. Report on S&T Basic Policy. (Kagaku-gijutu-kihon- seisaku-ni-tsuite ni-taisuru tousin). Council for Science and Technology Policy. December 27. Crafts, N. F. R. 1995. “The Golden Age of Economic Growth in Western Europe, 1950-1973.” Eco- nomic History Reiew 3:429-447. Czarnitzki, Dirk and Niall O’Byrnes. 2007. “Innovation and the Impact on Productivity in Flanders.” Tijdschrift oor Economie en Management 52(2). Dahlman, Carl J. 2005. India and the Knowledge Economy: Leeraging Strengths and Opportunities. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Publications. Dahlman, Carl J. and Jean Eric Aubert. 2001. China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. PRePublication coPy

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26 APPENDIX B Dahlman, Carl and Anuja Utz. 2005. India and the Knowledge Economy: Leeraging Strengths and Opportunities. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Daneke, Gregory A. 1998. “Beyond Schumpeter: Non-linear Economics and the Evolution of the U.S. Innovation System.” Journal of Socio-economics 27(1):97-117. Darby, Michael, Lynne G. Zucker, and Andrew J. Wang. 2002. Program Design and Firm Success in Program the Adanced Technology Program: Project Structure and Innoation Outcomes. NISTIR 6943. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Das, Gurcharan. 2006. “The India Model.” Foreign Affairs 85(4). Dasgupta, P. and P. David. 1994. “Toward a New Economics of Science.” Research Policy 23: 487-521. Davidsson, Per. 1996. “Methodological Concerns in the Estimation of Job Creation in Different Firm Size Classes.” Working Paper, Jönköping International Business School. Davis, Steven, John Haltiwanger, and Scott Schuh. 1993. “Small Business and Job Creation: Dissect - ing the Myth and Reassessing the Facts.” Working Paper No. 4492. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Debackere, Koenraad and Wolfgang Glänzel. 2004. “Using a Bibliometric Approach to Support Research Policy Making: The Case of the Flemish BOF-key.” Scientometrics 59(2). Debackere, Koenraad and Reinhilde Veugelers. 2005. “The Role of Academic Technology Transfer Organizations in Improving Industry Science Links.” Research Policy 34(3):321-342. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. 2003. DARPA Oer The Years. Arlington, VA: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. October 27. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. 2005. DARPA—Bridging the Gap, Powered by Ideas. Arlington, VA: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. February. Defense Science Board. 2005. High Performance Microchip Supply. February. de Jonquieres, Guy. 2004. “China and India Cannot Fill the World’s Skills Gap.” Financial Times. July 12. de Jonquieres, Guy. 2004. “To Innovate, China Needs More than Standards.” Financial Times. July 12. de Jonquieres, Guy. 2006. “China’s Curious Marriage of Convenience.” Financial Times. July 19. De la Mothe and Gilles Paquet. 1998. “National Innovation Systems, ‘Real Economies’ and Instituted Processes.” Small Business Economics 11:101-111. De Proft, A. 2006. Presentation at symposium on “Synergies in Regional and National Policies in the Global Economy.” Leuven, Belgium. September. Doloreux, David. 2004. “Regional Innovation Systems in Canada: A Comparative Study.” Regional Studies 38(5):479-492. Domain-b.com. 2005. “Nasscom-McKinsey: India to Face Skilled Workers’ Shortage by Next Decade.” Dec. 12. Available online at . Dries, Ilse, Peer van Humbeek, and Jan Larosse. 2005. “Linking Innovation Policy and Sustainable Development in Flanders.” Paris: OECD. Dudas, J. 2005. “Statement of the Honorable Jon W. Dudas Deputy Under Secretary of Commerce for Intellectual Property and Director of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office before the Sub - committee on Intellectual Property, Committee on the Judiciary.” U.S. Senate. . Eaton, Jonathan, Eva Gutierrez, and Samuel Kortum. 1998. “European Technology Policy.” NBER Working Papers 6827. The Economist. 2005. “Competing Through Innovation.” December 17. Edler, J. and S. Kuhlmann. 2005. “Towards One System? The European Research Area Initiative, the Integration of Research Systems and the Changing Leeway of National Policies.” Technik- folgenabschätzung: Theorie und Praxis. 1(4):59-68. EE Times. 2006. “Chinese Province Pays to Get 300-mm Wafer Fab.” June 28. PRePublication coPy

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267 APPENDIX B The Financial Times. 2005. “World Leader in Patents Focuses on Incremental Innovations.” October 12. The Financial Times. 2006. “India Needs Big Infrastructure Drive.” February 23. Flamm, K. 1996. Mismanaged Trade: Strategic Policy and the Semiconductor Industry. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. Flamm, K. 2003. “Microelectronics Innovation: Understanding Moore’s Law and Semiconductor Price Trends.” International Journal of Technology, Policy, and Management 3(2). Flamm, K. 2003. “The New Economy in Historical Perspective: Evolution of Digital Technology.” in New Economy Handbook. Academic Press. Flamm, Kenneth. 2003. “SEMATECH Revisited: Assessing Consortium Impacts on Semiconductor Industry R&D.” In National Research Council. Securing the Future: Regional and National Programs to Support the Semiconductor Industry. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Flamm, K. 2006. “The Economics of Innovation in Microprocessors.” Draft. December. Foerst, Ann. 2005. God in the Machine. Penguin Books. Fogarty, Michael S., Amit K. Sinha, and Adam B. Jaffe. Forthcoming. ATP and the U.S. Innoation System—A Methodology for Identifying Enabling R&D Spilloer Networks with Applications to Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS) and Optical Recording . Draft report submitted to ATP. Fonfria, Antonio, Carlos Diaz de la Guardia, and Isabel Alvarez. 2002. “The Role of Technology and Competitiveness Policies: A Technology Gap Approach.” Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics 13(1-2-3):223-241. Fong, Glenn R. 2001. “ARPA Does Windows: The Defense Underpinning of the PC Revolution,” Business and Politics 3(3), 2001. Foray, Dominique and Patrick Llerena. 1996. “Information Structure and Coordination in Technology Policy: A Theoretical Model and Two Case Studies.” Journal of Eolutionary Economics 6(2). Fortune. 2006. “America’s Most Admired Companies 2006.” Friedman, Thomas. 2005. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the 21st Century. New York: W. H. Freeman. Fukao, Kuoji, and Hyeog Ug Kwon. 2005. “Why Did Japan’s TFP Growth Slow Down in the Lost Decade? An Empirical Analysis Bases on Firm- Level Data of Manufacturing Firms” RIETI Discussion Paper Series. 05-E-004. Fujimura, Shuzo. 2000. “Handotai Rikkoku Futatabi.” (In Japanese.) Nikkann-Kogyo Shin-bun-sha. Fujimura, Shuzo, and Hiroyuki Chuma. 2006. “Semiconductor Consortia in Japan: Experiences and Lessons.” Presentation at the conference, 21st Century Innoation Systems for the United States and Japan: Lessons from a Decade of Change. Tokyo, Japan. The National Academies, NISTEP of Japan, and The Institute of Innovation Research of Hitotsubashi University. . Furman, Jeffrey L., Michael E. Porter, and Scott Stern. 2002. “The Determinants of National Innova - tive Capacity.” Research Policy 31:899-933. Geiger, R. 1986. To Adance Knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press. Geiger, R. 1993. Research and Releant Knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press. George, Gerard and Ganesh N. Prabhu. 2003. “Developmental Financial Institutions as Technology Policy Instruments: Implications for Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies.” Research Policy 32(1):89-108. Good, Mary. 2005. Presentation at the National Academies Conference, “Accelerating Innovation.” Washington, D.C. October 19. Goodwin, James C., et al. 1999. Technology Transition. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Government of the People’s Republic of China. 2004. Anticompetitie Practices of Multinational Companies and Countermeasures. Administration of Industry and Commerce, Office of Anti- monopoly, Fair Trade Bureau, State Administration of Industry and Commerce, May. PRePublication coPy

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268 APPENDIX B Government of the People’s Republic of China, Office of Anti-monopoly, Fair Trade Bureau, State Administration of Industry and Commerce. 2004. “Anticompetitive Practices of Multinational Companies in China and Countermeasures.” Journal of Administration of Industry and Com- merce. May. Government of the People’s Republic of China. 2005. Article 10: Exemptions of Monopoly Agree- ments. Anti-Monopoly Law of the People’s Republic of China. Revised July 27. Government of the People’s Republic of China, Ministry of Information Industry. 2006. “Outline of the 11th Five-Year Plan and Medium-and-Long-Term Plan for 2020 for Science and Technology Development in the Information Industry.” Xin Bu Ke, No. 309, August 29. Government of the People’s Republic of China, National Development and Reform Commission. 2006. The 11th Five-Year Plan. March 19. Available online at . Grande, Edgar. 2001. “The Erosion of State Capacity and European Innovation Policy: A Comparison of German and EU Information Technology Policies.” Research Policy 30(6):905-921. Griffing, Bruce. 2001. “Between Invention and Innovation, Mapping the Funding for Early-Stage Technologies.” Presentation at Carnegie Conference Center. Washington, D.C. January 25. Griliches, Z. 1993. “The Search for R&D Spillovers.” Scandinaian Journal of Economics 94(S): S29-S47. Grindley, Peter, David Mowery, and Brian Silverman. 1994. “SEMATECH and Collaborative Research: Lessons in the Design of High Technology Consortia.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 13(4):723-758. Grove, A. 2001. Swimming Across. New York: Warner Books. Guellec, Dominique, and Bruno van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie. 2001. “R&D and Productivity Growth: Panel Data Analysis of 16 OECD Countries.” Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. DSTI Working Papers 2001/314. June. Guo Ban Han No. 0. 2006. Letter from the General Office of the State Council on Approving the Formulation of the Rules for Implementation of the Several Supporting Policies for Implementa- tion of the Outline of the National Medium and Long-term Plan for Development of Science and Technology. Gazette of the State Council. Issue No. 17, Serial No. 1196, June 20. Hall, Bronwyn H. 2002. “The Assessment: Technology Policy.” Oxford Reiew of Economic Policy 18(1):1-9. Hall, B. H. 2004. “Exploring the Patent Explosion.” NBER Working Paper 10605. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Hall, B. H. 2005. “Exploring the Patent Explosion.” Journal of Technology Transfer 30:35-48. Hall, B. H., and R. H. Ziedonis. 2001. “The Patent Paradox Revisited: An Empirical Study of Patenting in the U.S. Semiconductor Industry. 1979-1995.” RAND Journal of Economics 32:101-128. Hall, B. H., A. Jaffe and M. Trajtenberg. 2005. “Market Value and Patent Citations.” RAND Journal of Economics 36:16-38. Halpern, Mark. 2006. “The Trouble with the Turing Test.” The New Atlantis 11(Winter):42-63. Hane, G. 1999. “Comparing University-Industry Linkages in the United States and Japan.” In L. Branscomb, F. Kodama, and R. Florida, eds. Industrializing Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Hart, David. 1998. Forged Consensus. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Hashimoto, T. 1999. “The Hesitant Relationship Reconsidered: University-Industry Cooperation in Postwar Japan.” In Lewis M. Branscomb, Fumio Kodama, and Richard Florida, eds. Industri- alizing Knowledge: Uniersity-Industry Linkage in Japan and the United States. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Hayashi, Fumio, and Edward C. Prescott. 2002. “The 1990s in Japan: A Lost Decade.” Reiew of Economic Dynamics 5(1):206-235. Heller, M. and R. Eisenberg. 1998. “Can Patents Deter Innovation? The Anticommons in Biomedical Research.” Science 280, 698. PRePublication coPy

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26 APPENDIX B Henderson, Jennifer A., and John J. Smith. 2002. “Academia, Industry, and the Bayh-Dole Act: An Implied Duty to Commercialize.” White Paper. Center for the Integration of Medicine and Innovative Technology. Harvard University. October. Henderson, R., M. Trajtenberg and A. Jaffe. 1998. “Universities as a Source of Commercial Tech- nology: A Detailed Analysis of University Patenting, 1965-1988.” Reiew of Economics and Statistics 80(1):119-127. Henderson, R., L. Orsenigo and G. P. Pisano. 1999. “The Pharmaceutical Industry and the Revolution in Molecular Biology: Interactions among Scientific, Institutional, and Organizational Change.” In D. C. Mowery and R. R. Nelson, eds. Sources of Industrial Leadership. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Hennessy, J. L. and D. A. Patterson 2002. Computer Architecture: A Quantitatie Approach. 3rd Edi- tion. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc. Hicks, D., T. Breitzman, D. Olivastro, and K. Hamilton. 2001. “The Changing Composition of Innovative Activity in the U.S—A Portrait Based on Patent Analysis.” Research Policy 30(4):681-704. Himmelberg, C. and Petersen, B. C. 1994. “R&D and Internal Finance: A Panel Study of Small Firms in High-Tech Industries.” Reiew of Economics and Statistics 76(1):38-51. Holtz-Eakin, D. Joulfian, D. and Rosen, H. 1994. “Striking it Out: Entrepreneurial Survival and Liquidity Constraints.” Journal of Political Economy 102(1):53-75. Hoshi, Takeo, and Anil Kashyap. 2004. “Japan’s Economic and Financial Crisis: An Overview.” The Journal of Economic Perspecties. Winter. Howell, Thomas. 2003. “Competing Programs: Government Support for Microelectronics.” In National Research Council. Securing the Future: Regional and National Programs to Support the Semiconductor Industry. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: The National Acad- emies Press. Howell, Thomas, et al. 2003. China’s Emerging Semiconductor Industry. Semiconductor Industry Association, October. Hu, Zhijian. 2006. “IPR Policies In China: Challenges and Directions.” Presentation at Industrial Innoation in China. Levin Institute Conference. July 24-26. Huang, Yasheng and Tarun Khanna. 2003. “Can India Overtake China?” Foreign Policy July–August. Huddleson, Lillian, and Vicki Daitch. 2002. True Genius—The Life and Science of John Bardeen. Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press. Hughes, Kent. 2005. Building the Next American Century: The Past and Future of American Economic Competitieness. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press. Chapter 14. Hughes, Kent H. 2005. “Facing the Global Competitiveness Challenge.” Issues in Science and Tech- nology. XXI(4):72–78. Hulsink, W., H. Bouwman, and T. Elfring. 2007. “Silicon Valley in the Polder? Entrepreneurial Dynamics, Virtuous Clusters and Vicious Firms in the Netherlands and Flanders.” ERIM Report Series Research in Management (ERS-2007-048-ORG). Hundley, Richard O. 1999. Past Reolutions, Future Transformations: What Can the History of Reolutions in Military Affairs Tell Us About Transforming the U.S. Military . Rand Corporation, National Research Institute. Iansati, Marco, and Roy Levien. 2005. The Keystone Adantage. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Industrial Research Institute, Inc. 2001. “Industry-University Intellectual Property.” Position Paper. External Research Directors Network. April. Inside U.S.-China Trade. 2006. Industry Worried China Backing out of Commitment to Join GPA. September 27. International Herald Tribune. 2006. “Start-Ups Explore Abroad for IPOs.” December 25. Jacobs, Tom. 2002. “Biotech Follows Dot.com Boom and Bust.” Nature 20(10):973. PRePublication coPy

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270 APPENDIX B Jaffe, A. B. 1997. Economic Analysis of Research Spilloers: Implications for the Adanced Tech- nology Program. NIST GCR 97-708. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Jaffe, A. B. 2000. “The U.S. Patent System in Transition: Policy Innovation and the Innovation Pro - cess.” Research Policy 29:531-557. Jaffe, Adam B., Josh Lerner, and Scott Stern, eds. 2003. Innoation Policy and the Economy: Volume . Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Jaffe, A. B., and J. Lerner. 2006. Innoation and Its Discontents: How Our Broken Patent System is Endangering Innoation and Progress, and What to Do About It. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Japan Patent Office. 2003. Reports on Technology Trend and Patent Application: Life Science. (In Japanese). Japan Small Business Research Institute. 2002. Surey of the Enironment for Startups. Tokyo, Japan: Japan Small Business Research Institute. Jasanoff, Sheila, ed. 1997. Comparatie Science and Technology Policy. Elgar Reference Collection. International Library of Comparative Pubic Policy, Volume 5. Cheltenham, UK and Lyme, NH: Edward Elgar. Jorgenson, D. W. 2001. “Information Technology and the U.S. Economy.” American Economic Reiew 91(1). March. Jorgenson, D. W. 2001. “U.S. Economic Growth in the Information Age.” Issues in Science and Tech- nology. Fall. Jorgenson, Dale and Kevin Stiroh. 2002. “Raising the Speed Limit: Economic Growth in the Informa - tion Age.” In National Research Council. Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy. Dale Jorgenson and Charles Wessner, eds. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Jorgenson, D. W., and K. Motohashi. 2003. “The Role of Information Technology in the Economy: Comparison between Japan and the United States.” Prepared for RIETI/KEIO Conference on Japanese Economy: Leading East Asia in the 21st Century? Keio University. May 30. Joy, William. 2000. “Why the Future Does Not Need Us.” Wired 8.04. April. Kapur, Devesh. 2003. “Indian Diaspora as a Strategic Asset.” Economic and Political Weekly 38(5):445-448. Kapur, Surinder. 2006. “Nurture New Technology and Innovation, Stay Competitive.” The Financial Express. November 16. The Kauffman Foundation and the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation. 2007. The 2007 State New Economy Index. Available online at . Kawamoto, Takuji. 2004. “What Do the Purified Solow Residuals Tell Us about Japan’s Lost Decade?” Bank of Japan IMES Discussion Paper Series. No. 2004-E-5. Tokyo: Bank of Japan. Kim, Yong-June. 2006. “A Korean Perspective on China’s Innovation System.” Presentation at Indus- trial Innoation in China. Levin Institute Conference. July 24-26. Kneller, R. 2003. “University-Industry Cooperation and Technology Transfer in Japan Compared with the U.S.: Another Reason for Japan’s Economic Malaise?” Journal of International Economic Law 24:329-450. Koizumi, Kei. 2007. “Historical Trends in Federal R&D.” In AAAS Report XXXII: Research and Deelopment FY2008. AAAS Publication Number 07-1A. Washington, D.C.: American Asso- ciation for the Advancement of Science. Kondo, Masayuki. 2003. “Chinese Model to Create High-Tech Start-Ups from Universities and Research Institutes.” In M. von Zedtwitz, G. Haour, T. Khalil, and L. Lefebvre, eds., Manage- ment of Technology: Growth through Business, Innoation and Entrepreneurship. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Kondo, Masayuki. 2004. “Policy Innovation in Science and Technology in Japan—from S&T Policy to Innovation Policy.” (In Japanese.) Journal of Science Policy and Research Management 19(3/4):132-140. PRePublication coPy

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27 APPENDIX B Mowery, D. C. and A. A. Ziedonis. 2002. “Academic Patent Quality and Quantity Before and After the Bayh-Dole Act in the United States.” Research Policy 31(3):399-418. Murali, Kanta. 2003. “The IIT Story: Issues and Concerns.” Frontline 20(3). Murphy, L. M. and P. L. Edwards. 2003. Bridging the Valley of Death: Transitioning from Public to Priate Sector Financing. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, May. Mustar, Phillipe and Phillipe Laredo. 2002. “Innovation and Research Policy in France (1980–2000) or The Disappearance of the Colbertist State.” Research Policy 31:55-72. Nadiri I. 1993. Innoations and Technological Spilloers. NBER Working Paper No. 4423. Boston, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Nagaoka Sadao. 2005. “How Does Priority Rule Work? Evidence from the Patent Examination Records in Japan.” A Paper Presented for Patent Statistics and Innovation Research Workshop, November 25. Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo. Nagaoka, Sadao. 2006. “Reform of Patent System in Japan and Challenges.” Presentation at the confer- ence, 21st Century Innoation Systems for the United States and Japan: Lessons from a Decade of Change. Tokyo, Japan. The National Academies, NISTEP of Japan, and The Institute of Innova - tion Research of Hitotsubashi University. . Nagaoka, Sadao. 2007. “Assessing the R&D Management of Firms by Patent Citation: Evidence from the U.S. Patents.” Journal of Economics & Management Strategy 16(1). Nagaoka, Sadao, Naotoshi Tsukada and Tomoyuki Shimbo. 2006. “The Emergence and Structure of Essential Patents of Standards: Lessons from Three IT standards.” IIR Working Paper WP#06- 08. Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University. (Forthcoming in the Conference volume of 2006 International Schumpeter Society Conference.) Nail, John and Hayden Brown. Forthcoming. Classifying and Analyzing ATP Projects Using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). NISTIR 2005. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Nakamura, K., Y. Okada, and A. Tohei. 2006. “Does the Public Sector Make a Significant Contribution to Biomedical Research in Japan? A Detailed Analysis of Government and University Patenting, 1991-2002.” Discussion Paper Series. Competition Policy Research Center. Fair Trade Commis - sion of Japan. CPDP25-E . Nakayama, Yasuo, Mitsuaki Hosono, Nobuya Fukugawa and Masayuki Kondo. 2005. “University- Industry Cooperation: Joint Research and Contract Research.” (In Japanese.) NISTEP Research Material. No. 119. National Institute of Science and Technology Policy, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Nanotechwire. 2005. “Governor Pataki Announces Historic Investments by IBM Global High-Tech Leaders In Nanoelectronics Manufacturing And Development.” January 6. Accessed at . National Academy of Engineering. 2004. The Engineer of 2020: Visions of Engineering in the New Century. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. National Academy of Sciences/National Academy of Engineering/Insitute of Medicine. 2007. Rising Aboe the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. National Institute of Science and Technology Policy and Mitsubishi Research Institute. 2005. Go- ernment S&T Budget Analysis during the First and Second S&T Basic Plans. (Dai-ikki oyobi dai-niki Kagaku-Gijutu-Kihonkeikaku kikanchuu no kenkyuu-kaihatu-soushi no naiyou-bunseki). NISTEP Report No. 84. March. National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council. 2006. “The National Strategy for Manufacturing.” New Delhi, March. National Research Council. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1987. Balancing the National Interest: U.S. National Security Export Controls and Global Economic Competition. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. PRePublication coPy

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27 APPENDIX B National Research Council. 1996. Conflict and Cooperation in National Competition for High- technology Industry. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. The Adanced Technology Program: Challenges and Opportunities. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. Funding a Reolution: Goernment Support for Computing Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. Industry-Laboratory Partnerships: A Reiew of the Sandia Science and Technology Park Initiatie. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. New Vistas in Transatlantic Science and Technology Cooperation. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1999. The Small Business Innoation Research Program: Challenges and Opportunities. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2000. The Small Business Innoation Research Program: A Reiew of the Department of Defense Fast Track Initiatie. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2000. U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitie Performance. David C. Mowery, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2001. The Adanced Technology Program: Assessing Outcomes. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2001. Capitalizing on New Needs and New Opportunities: Goernment- Industry Partnerships in Biotechnology and Information Technologies. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2001. A Reiew of the New Initiaties at the NASA Ames Research Center. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2001. Trends in Federal Support of Research and Graduate Education. Stephen A. Merrill, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 2002. Goernment-Industry Partnerships for the Deelopment of New Technologies: Summary Report. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2003. Goernment-Industry Partnerships for the Deelopment of New Technologies: Summary Report. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2003. Securing the Future: Regional and National Programs to Sup- port the Semiconductor Industry. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. National Research Counci. 2004. Getting Up to Speed: The Future of Supercomputing. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2004. A Patent System for the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2004. Productiity and Cyclicality in Semiconductors: Trends, Implica- tions, and Questions. Dale W. Jorgenson and Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2004. The Small Business Innoation Research Program: Program Diersity and Assessment Challenges. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2005. Getting Up to Speed: The Future of Superconducting, Susan L. Graham, Marc Snir, and Cynthia A. Patterson, eds. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. PRePublication coPy

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276 APPENDIX B National Research Council. 2005. Policy Implications of International Graduate Students and Post- doctoral Scholars in the United States. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2007. Enhancing Productiity Growth in the Information Age: Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy. Dale W. Jorgenson and Charles W. Wessner, eds. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2007. India’s Changing Innoation System. Charles W. Wessner and Sujai J. Shivakumar, eds. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2007. Innoation Policies for the 21st Century. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2007. SBIR and the Phase III Challenge of Commercialization. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2008. An Assessment of the Small Business Innoation Research Program. Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. 2008. Innoatie Flanders: Innoation Policies for the 21st Century., Charles W. Wessner, ed. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. National Science Board. 2004. Science and Engineering Indicators 200. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. National Science Board. 2006. Science and Engineering Indicators, Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. National Science Board. 2008. Science and Engineering Indicators 2008. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation. 2004. Science and Engineering Doctorate Awards: 200, NSF 05-300, Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Needham, Joseph. 1954-1986. Science and Ciilization in China (five volumes). Cambridge: Cam- bridge University Press. Nelson, R. R. ed. 1993. National Systems of Innoation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Nelson, Richard R. and Katherine Nelson. 2002. “Technology, Institutions, and Innovation Systems.” Research Policy 31:265-272. Nelson, Richard R. and Nathan Rosenberg. 1993. “Technical Innovation and National Systems.” In National Innoation Systems: A Comparatie Analysis. Richard R. Nelson, ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Nishimura, Kiyohiko, G.., Takanobu Nakajima, and Kozo Kiyota. 2003. “Does the Natural Selec - tion Mechanism Still Work in Sever Recessions? Examination of the Japanese Economy in the 1990s.” Journal of Economic Behaior and Organization 58:53-78. NISTEP. 2004. Study for Ealuating the Achieements of the S&T Basic Plans in Japan—FY200 Highlights. (In Japanese.) NISREP REPORT No. 74. NISTEP. 2005. Study for Ealuating the Achieements of the S&T Basic Plans in Japan—Highlights (In Japanese.) NISTEP REPORT No. 83. NISTEP. 2005. Surey on the Performance of the 1st and the 2nd Science and Technology Basic Plan . NISTEP Report No. 84. (In Japanese). NISTEP and MRI. 2004. Achieements and Issues of Major Policies for Industry-Academy-Goernment Collaboration and Regional Innoation—Study for FY200. (In Japanese.) NISTEP REPORT No. 78. Odagari, H. 1999. “University-Industry Collaboration in Japan: Facts and Interpretations.” In Lewis M. Branscomb, Fumio Kodama, and Richard Florida, eds. Industrializing Knowledge: Uniersity- Industry Linkage in Japan and the United States. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. Odagiri, H., and A. Goto. 1993. “The Japanese System of Innovation: Past, Present and Future.” In R. R. Nelson, ed. National Systems of Innoation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Odagiri, H. and A. Goto. 1996. Technology and Industrial Deelopment in Japan: Building Capabili- ties by Learning, Innoation and Public Policy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Office of Pharmaceutical Industry Research. 2000. Seiyaku Sangyou Ron (Analyses on Pharmaceutical Industry). Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. (In Japanese). PRePublication coPy

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280 APPENDIX B Shenzhen Daily. 2005. “Nation May Introduce Antimonopoly Law.” December 30. Sherwin, Martin, and Kai Bird. 2005. American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Openheimer. Alfred A. Knopf. Shin, Roy W. 1997. “Interactions of Science and Technology Policies in Creating a Competitive Industry: Korea’s Electronics Industry.” Global Economic Reiew 26(4):3-19. Shipp, Stephanie, Andrew Wang, Steve Campbell, Lorel Wisniewski, Kerry Levin, Jennifer O’Brien, and Westat. 2005. “Measuring Behavior Additionality in ATP Joint Venture Projects: Findings from the U.S. Advanced Technology Program.” Paper presented at OECD Workshop on Behav - ioral Additionality, Vienna, Austria, January 31-February 1, 2005. Siegel, Donald, David Waldman, and Albert Link. 2004. “Toward a Model of the Effective Trans- fer of Scientific Knowledge from Academicians to Practitioners: Qualitative Evidence from the Commercialization of University Technologies.” Journal of Engineering and Technology Management 21(1-2):115-142. Singh, Manmohan. 2006. Remarks by the Chairman of the Planning Commission on the release of the 11th Plan Approach Paper. Accessed at October 18. Skolnikoff, Eugene B. 1993. “Knowledge Without Borders? Internationalization of the Research Universities.” Daedalus 122(4). Small and Medium Enterprise Agency in Japan. 2002. “White Paper on Small and Medium Enterprises in Japan.” Tokyo, Japan: Japan Small Business Research Institute. Small and Medium Enterprise Agency in Japan. 2003. “White Paper on Small and Medium Enterprises in Japan.” Tokyo, Japan: Japan Small Business Research Institute. Smits, Ruud and Stefan Kuhlmann. 2004. “The Rise of Systemic Instruments in Innovation Policy.” International Journal of Foresight and Innoation Policy 1(1/2). Soete, Luc G. and Bastiann J. ter Weel. 1999. “Innovation, Knowledge Creation and Technology Policy: The Case of the Netherlands.” De Economist 147(3). September. Solomon Associates. 1993. The Adanced Technology Program: An Assessment of Short-Term Impacts: First Competition Participants. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Solow, Robert. 2000. Growth Theory: An Exposition. New York/Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 2nd edition. Solow, Robert. 2000.“Toward a Macroeconomics of the Medium Run.” Journal of Economic Per- specties. Winter. Spence, Michael. 1974. Market Signaling: Informational Transfer in Hiring and Related Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Spencer, William and T. E. Seidel. 2004. “International Technology Roadmaps: The U.S. Semiconduc- tor Experience.” In National Research Council. Productiity and Cyclicality in Semiconductors: Trends, Implications, and Questions. Dale W. Jorgenson and Charles W. Wessner, eds. Washing- ton, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Spencer, W. J., L. Wilson, and R. Doering. 2004. “The Semiconductor Technology Roadmap.” Future Fab International 18. Stanford University. 1999. Inentions, Patents and Licensing: Research Policy Handbook. Document 5.1. July 15. State Council of the Peoples’ Republic of China. 2006. Outline of the National Medium- and Long-term Program on Scientific and Technological Deelopment (2006-2020). February 9. Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2005. Report on the Surey of Research and Deelopment 200. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Stephan, P. 2001. “Educational Implication of University-Industry Technology Transfer.” Journal of Technology Transfer 26:199-205. Stiglitz, Joseph. 2005. “The Ethical Economist.” Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Affairs. November/December. Accessed at . PRePublication coPy

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