TRANSITIONING TO SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ON ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND BIOFUELS

WORKSHOP SUMMARY

PATRICIA KOSHEL AND KATHLEEN MCALLISTER, Rapporteurs

Science and Technology for Sustainability Program

Policy and Global Affairs

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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TransiTioning To susTainabiliTy Through research and developmenT on ecosysTem services and biofuels Workshop summary PATRICIA KOSHEL AND KATHLEEN MCALLISTER, Rapporteurs Science and Technology for Sustainability Program Policy and Global Affairs

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This workshop was supported by the George and Cynthia Mitchell Endowment for Sus- tainability Science, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the USGS, USFS, NOAA, NASA, USDA, and USEPA. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-11982-5 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-11982-0 If you would like to request a copy of this report, please call the Science and Technology for Sustainability Program Unit at 202-334-2047 or Email Sustainability@nas.edu. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Cover: Photo credit: U.S. Department of Energy. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, PIX13531. Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examina- tion of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Na- tional Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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STEERING COMMITTEE ON TRANSITIONING TO SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ON ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND BIOFUELS Pamela Matson (NAS) (Co-Chair), Dean, School of Earth Sciences, Stanford University James Mahoney (Co-Chair), Former Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, US Department of Commerce (retired), Co-Chair of the Roundtable on Science and Technology for Sustainability (until 7/1/2007) Ann Bartuska, Deputy Chief for Research and Development, US Forest Service William Clark (NAS), Harvey Brooks Professor of International Science, Public Policy and Human Development Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University Gregory Crosby, National Program Leader for Sustainable Development, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, US Department of Agriculture Linda Gundersen, Chief Scientist for Geology, US Geological Survey Alan Hecht, Director of Sustainable Development, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency Kai Lee, Program Officer, Conservation and Science Program, Packard Foundation Steve Murawski, Director of Scientific Programs and Chief Science Advisor, National Oceans and Atmospheric Administration Staff Patricia Koshel, Senior Program Officer, Science and Technology for Sustainability, The National Academies Julia Kregenow, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow, The National Academies Kathleen McAllister, Senior Program Assistant, Science and Technology for Sustainability, The National Academies Gregory Symmes, Deputy Executive Director, Division on Earth and Life Studies, The National Academies, Director, Roundtable on Science and Technology for Sustainability (until 8/31/ 2007) Derek Vollmer, Senior Program Associate, Science and Technology for Sustainability, The National Academies v

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ROUNDTABLE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABILITY Pamela Matson (Co-Chair), Dean of the School of Earth Sciences and Goldman Professor of Environmental Studies, Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University Emmy Simmons (Co-Chair), Former Assistant Administrator for Economic Growth, Agriculture, and Trade, US Agency for International Matt Arnold, Co-founder and Managing Director, Sustainable Finance Ltd. Arden Bement, Director, National Science Foundation* Michael Bertolucci, President, Interface Research Corporation John Carberry, Director of Environmental Technology, DuPont Leslie Carothers, President, Environmental Law Institute William Clark, Harvey Brooks Professor of International Science, Public Policy, and Human Development, Harvard University John Dernbach, Professor of Law, Widener University Sam Dryden, Managing Director, Wolfensohn & Company Kathryn Fuller, Chair of the Board of Trustees, Ford Foundation George Gray, Assistant Administrator, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency* Hank Habicht, Vice Chairman, Global Environment and Technology Foundation (GETF) and Managing Partner of SAIL Venture Partners Jeremy Harris, Former Mayor of Honolulu Rosalyn Hobson, Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, School of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University Jack Kaye, Director, Research and Analysis Program of the Earth-Sun System Division, National Aeronautics and Space Administration* Gerald Keusch, Assistant Provost, Medical Campus and Associate Dean, School of Public Health, Boston University Kai Lee, Program Officer, Conservation & Science Program, Packard Foundation J. Todd Mitchell, Chairman, Board of Directors, Houston Advanced Research Center Mark Myers, Director, US Geological Survey* Raymond Orbach, Director, Office of Science, US Department of Energy* Larry Papay, Former Senior Vice President, Integrated Solutions Sector, SAIC and Senior Vice President and General Manager, Bechtel Technology and Consulting *Denotes Ex-Officio Membership vi

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Merle Pierson, Acting Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics, US Department of Agriculture* Prabhu Pingali, Director, Division of Agricultural and Development Economics, UN Food and Agriculture Organization Peter Raven, Director, Missouri Botanical Garden and Chair, Division on Earth and Life Studies* Robert Stephens, International Chair, Multi-State Working Group on Environmental Performance Staff Marty Perreault, Director, Roundtable on Science and Technology for Sustainability (As of 9/1/07) Greg Symmes, Director, Roundtable on Science and Technology for Sustainability (Until 9/1/07) Pat Koshel, Senior Program Officer Derek Vollmer, Senior Program Associate Kathleen McAllister, Senior Program Assistant *Denotes Ex-Officio Membership vii

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Acknowledgments This workshop report is the result of efforts by many organizations and peo- ple. The workshop steering committee was ably chaired by Roundtable members, Pamela Matson and James Mahoney. Other members of the steering committee included: Ann Bartuska (USFS); Gregory Crosby (USDA); Linda Gundersen (USGS); Alan Hecht (USEPA); Steve Murawski (NOAA); and Roundtable Mem- bers, Bill Clark and Kai Lee. Jack Kaye and Woody Turner of NASA, William Chernicoff of the Department of Transportation, and Ann Russell of the NSF also provided valuable support to the workshop. Gregory Symmes, the former staff director of the Academies’ Science and Technology for Sustainability Roundtable, offered valuable guidance to the Acad- emies staff and to the steering committee. We would also like to recognize the contributions made by Julia Kregenow, a Christine Mirzayan Science and Tech- nology Policy Graduate Fellow, Derek Vollmer, and Marty Perreault. Financial support for the workshop was provided by the US Geological Survey (USGS), the US Forest Service (USFS), the National Oceanic and At- mospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Ad- ministration (NASA), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the US Environmental Protection Administration (EPA), the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, and the George and Cynthia Mitchell Endowment for Sustainability Science. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures ap- proved by the National Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ix

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x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality and objectivity. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Diana Bauer, US Department of Transportation; Kenneth Cassman, University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Thomas Lovejoy, The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment; and Bruce Rodan, US Office of Science and Technology Policy. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authors and the institution.

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Contents 1 Introduction and Overview 1 2 Ecosystem Services R&D 7 3 Biofuels R&D 19 4 Common Themes 29 APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 37 B List of Organizers and Panelists 43 C Descriptions of Agency Activities Presented at the Forum on Ecosystem Services and Sustainability 47 D Descriptions of Agency Activities Presented at the Forum on Biofuels and Sustainability 69 E Biographical Information: Roundtable on Science and Technology for Sustainability 87 F Federal Sustainability R&D Forum Workshop Participants 103 G Biographical Information: Federal Sustainability R&D Forum Speakers and Panelists 107 xi

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