The information in this booklet was derived from data provided by the Energy Information Administration and from the following National Research Council reports. Specific citations can be found in the online version of the booklet at

Coal: Research and Development to Support National Energy Policy (2007)

The Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects (2007)

Prospective Evaluation of Applied Energy Research and Development at DOE (Phase Two) (2007)

Alternatives to the Indian Point Energy Center for Meeting New York Electric Power Needs (2006)

Prospective Evaluation of Applied Energy Research and Development at DOE (Phase One): A First Look Forward (2005)

Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: First Report (2005)

The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs (2004)

Novel Approaches to Carbon Management: Separation, Capture, Sequestration, and Conversion to Useful Products—Workshop Report (2003)

Review of the DOE’s Vision 21 Research and Development Program, Phase 1 (2003)

Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards (2002)

Partnerships for Solid-State Lighting: Report of a Workshop (2002)

Energy Research at DOE: Was It Worth It? Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research 1978 to 2000 (2001)

Renewable Power Pathways: A Review of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Renewable Energy Programs (2000)

Reports from the National Academies are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001; 800-624-6242; Reports are available online in a fully searchable format.

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