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ATTACHMENT A: BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS John Ahearne (Chair) is executive director emeritus of Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society, and director emeritus of the Sigma Xi Ethics Program. Before working at Sigma Xi, Dr. Ahearne served as vice president and senior fellow at Resources for the Future and as commissioner and chair of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. He worked in the White House Energy Office and as deputy assistant secretary of energy. He also worked on weapons-systems analysis, force structure, and personnel policy as deputy and principal deputy assistant secretary of defense. Serving in the US Air Force (USAF), he worked on nuclear-weapons effects and taught at the USAF Academy. Dr. Ahearne’s research interests include risk analysis, risk communication, energy analysis, reactor safety, radioactive waste, nuclear weapons, materials disposition, science policy, and environmental management. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1996 for his leadership in energy policy and in the safety and regulation of nuclear power. Dr. Ahearne has served on many National Research Council committees in the last 20 years and has chaired a number of them, including the current Committee on Evaluation of Quantification of Margins and Uncertainty Methodology Applied to the Certification of the Nation’s Nuclear Weapons Stockpile and the Committee on the Internationalization of the Civil Nuclear Fuel Cycle. In 1966, Dr. Ahearne earned his PhD in physics from Princeton University. Thomas W. Armstrong recently retired from his position as senior scientific associate in the Exposure Sciences Section of ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc., where he had worked since 1989. Dr. Armstrong is working with the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center as the lead investigator in exposure assessment for epidemiological investigations of potentially benzene-related hematopoietic diseases in Shanghai, China. Dr. Armstrong spent 9 years working for the Linde Group as the manager of loss control in the gases division and a manager of safety and industrial hygiene. He recently conducted research on quantitative risk-assessment models related to inhalation exposure to Legionella. He is a member of the Society for Risk Analysis and the American Industrial Hygiene Association, and he has been certified as an industrial hygienist by the American Board of Industrial Hygiene. Dr. Armstrong has an MS in environmental health and a PhD in environmental engineering from Drexel University. Gerardo Chowell is an assistant professor at the Arizona State University (ASU) School of Human Evolution and Social Change. Before joining ASU, Dr. Chowell was a director’s postdoctoral fellow with the Mathematical Modeling and Analysis group (Theoretical Division) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. He performs mathematical modeling of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases (including SARS, influenza, Ebola, and foot-and-mouth disease) with an emphasis on quantifying the effects of public-health interventions. His research interests include agent-based modeling, model validation, and social-network analysis. Dr. Chowell received his PhD in biometry from Cornell University and his engineering degree in telematics from the Universidad de Colima, Mexico. 15

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Margaret E. Coleman is a senior microbiologist at Syracuse Research Corporation (SRC) in the Environmental Science Center, an independent not-for-profit research and development organization. Ms. Coleman leads multidisciplinary teams in SRC’s Microbial Risk Assessment Center of Excellence (M-RACE) and is a founding member and councilor of the new Upstate New York Chapter of the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA). Since 1996, she has served in various leadership roles in SRA: chairing symposia and workshops in quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), being a member of program committees for domestic and international conferences, and holding offices in the Biostressors Specialty Group and the Dose-Response Specialty Group. An active member of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), she recently contributed an article to ASM’s Microbe magazine (“Microbial Risk Assessment Scenarios, Causality, and Uncertainty”). Ms. Coleman contributes to peer-review processes in QMRA for several journals, including SRA’s journal Risk Analysis. She served as a reviewer for the National Research Council report Reopening Public Facilities After a Biological Attack and as a committee member for Review of Testing and Evaluation Methodology for Biological Point Detectors. Before her work in SRC, Ms. Coleman contributed to development of QMRA methodology for foodborne and waterborne hazards at the US Department of Agriculture and member agencies of the federal Risk Assessment Consortium. Ms. Coleman earned her BS from the State University of New York at Syracuse College of Environmental Science and Forestry and MSs from Utah State University and the University of Georgia in biology and biochemistry and in medical microbiology. Gigi Kwik Gronvall is a senior associate at the Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) and assistant professor of medicine at the University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Gronvall is an immunologist by training. Her work addresses how scientists can diminish the threat of biological weapons and how they can contribute to an effective response against biological weapons and natural epidemics. She is a term member of the Council on Foreign Relations and also serves on the American Association for the Advancement of Science Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility. Dr. Gronvall is a founding member of the Center for Biosecurity of UPMC and, before joining the faculty in 2003, worked at the Johns Hopkins University Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies. From 2000 to 2001, she was a National Research Council postdoctoral associate at the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) in Fort Detrick, Maryland. Dr. Gronvall earned a PhD from Johns Hopkins University for her work on T-cell receptor/MHC I interactions. Eric Harvill is an associate professor of microbiology and infectious diseases at the Pennsylvania State University. His primary research interest is in the interactions between bacterial pathogens and the host immune system, and his group investigates bacterial virulence factors and host immune functions at the molecular level, using the tools of bacterial genetics and mouse molecular immunology. The studies investigate the possible effects of these molecular-level activities on the population-level behavior of infectious diseases. Dr. Harvill has served on several National Research Council 16

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committees, including the Committee on Methodological Improvements to the Department of Homeland Security's Biological Agent Risk Analysis. He has reviewed for more than 20 scientific journals and serves on the Editorial Board of Infection and Immunity. Dr. Harvill has reviewed proposals for six National Institutes of Health study sections, the US Department of Agriculture, and multiple international funding organizations. He has organized international and local meetings and chaired sessions at annual meetings of the American Association of Immunologists and the American Society for Microbiology. He earned his PhD at the University of California, Los Angeles. Barbara Johnson has over 15 years of experience in biosafety, biocontainment, and biosecurity for the US government and owns the consulting company Barbara Johnson & Associates, LLC. Dr. Johnson has managed the design, construction, and commissioning of a biosafety level-3 aerosol pathogen test facility, and she launched the US government’s first chemical and biological counterterrorism training facility. Her research interests include biological risk assessment and mitigation, testing of the efficiency of respiratory protective devices, and testing of novel decontamination methods against biological threat agents. In the private sector, she pioneered the development of the first joint biosafety and biosecurity programs between the United States and institutes in the former Soviet Union, and she founded and directed a center for biosecurity in association with this work. She has served as the president of the American Biological Safety Association and is the coeditor of the journal Applied Biosafety. Paul A. Locke is an associate professor in the Department of Environmental Health Sciences at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He is a public-health scientist and attorney with expertise in risk assessment and risk management, radiation- protection law and policy, and alternatives to animals in biomedical testing. Dr. Locke serves on the Environmental Protection Agency’s Clean Air Act Advisory Committee and is a member of the Board of Councilors of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Since 2004, he has been a member of the National Research Council Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board, and he has participated on two Research Council committees that evaluated the risks associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Dr. Locke has received several awards, including the Yale School of Public Health Alumni Service Award and the American Public Health Association Environment Section Distinguished Service Award. He holds an MPH from Yale University School of Medicine, a JD from Vanderbilt University School of Law, and a DrPH from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Warner North is president of NorthWorks, Inc., a consulting firm in Belmont, California. He is also a consulting professor in the Department of Management Science and Engineering at Stanford University. Over the last 30 years, Dr. North has carried out applications of decision analysis and risk analysis for electric utilities in the United States and Mexico, for petroleum and chemical industries, and for government agencies with responsibility for energy and environmental protection. He has served as a member and consultant to the Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board since 1978 and as a presidentially appointed member of the US Nuclear Waste Technical Review 17

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Board. Dr. North is a member of the National Research Council Panel on Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making and has chaired Research Council committees. He is a past president of the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA), a recipient of SRA’s Outstanding Risk Practitioner Award, and a recipient of the Frank P. Ramsey Medal from the Decision Analysis Society for lifetime contributions to the field of decision analysis. Jonathan Richmond is CEO of Jonathan Richmond and Associates, a biosafety consulting firm with a global clientele. Before starting his own firm, Dr. Richmond was the director of the Office of Health and Safety at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. He is an international authority on biosafety and laboratory-containment design. Dr. Richmond was trained as a geneticist, worked for 10 years as a research virologist, and has been involved in biosafety for the last 25 years. He is the author of many scientific publications in microbiology and has edited numerous books, has chaired many national symposia, and is an international consultant to ministries of health on laboratory safety and training. He served as president of the American Biological Safety Association. Gary Smith is chief of the Section of Epidemiology and Public Health in the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine. He has a secondary appointment in the Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology of the university’s School of Medicine and is an associate scholar in the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. He is also an affiliated faculty member of the university’s Institute for Strategic Threat Analysis and Response. His research deals with the epidemiology and population dynamics of infectious disease in humans and in wild and domestic animals. He has extensive experience in mathematical modeling in the context of infectious and parasitic disease control strategies (including the evolution of drug resistance) and has published case-control studies of various infectious diseases of animals and humans. Dr. Smith served on a Food and Agriculture Organization–World Health Organization expert committee on the implementation of farm models in the developing world, served on the Pennsylvania Food Quality Assurance Committee, and was a member of a European Union expert committee on the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. He has served on the editorial boards of Parasitology Today, the International Journal of Parasitology, the Veterinary Quarterly, and Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. Dr. Smith earned bachelor’s degrees in zoology and education from the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, respectively, and a DPhil in ecology from the University of York. 18