IEc (Industrial Economics, Inc). 2006. Expanded Expert Judgment Assessment of the Concentration-Response Relationship Between PM2.5 Exposure and Mortality. Prepared for the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, by Industrial Economics Inc., Cambridge, MA. September, 2006 [online]. Available: [accessed Jan. 14, 2008].

Ingelman-Sundberg, M., I. Johannson, H. Yin, Y. Terelius, E. Eliasson, P. Clot, and E. Albano. 1993. Ethanol-inducible cytochrome P4502E1: Genetic polymorphism, regulation, and possible role in the etiology of alcohol-induced liver disease. Alcohol 10(6):447-452.

Ingelman-Sundberg, M., M.J. Ronis, K.O. Lindros, E. Eliasson, and A. Zhukov. 1994. Ethanol-inducible cytochrome P4502E1: Regulation, enzymology and molecular biology. Alcohol Suppl. 2:131-139.

IPCS (International Programme on Chemical Safety). 2000. Human exposure and dose modeling. Part 6 in Human Exposure Assessment. Environmental Health Criteria 214. Geneva: World Health Organization [online]. Available: [accessed Jan. 15, 2008].

IPCS (International Programme on Chemical Safety). 2004. IPCS Risk Assessment Terminology Part 1: IPCS/OECD Key Generic Terms used in Chemical Hazard/Risk Assessment and Part 2: IPCS Glossary of Key Exposure Assessment Terminology. Geneva: World Health Organization [online]. Available: [accessed Jan. 15, 2008].

IPCS (International Programme on Chemical Safety). 2006. Draft Guidance Document on Characterizing and Communicating Uncertainty of Exposure Assessment, Draft for Public Review. IPCS Project on the Harmonization of Approaches to the Assessment of Risk from Exposure to Chemicals. Geneva: World Health Organization [online]. Available: [accessed Jan. 15, 2008].

Ito, K., S.F. DeLeon, and M. Lippmann. 2005. Associations between ozone and daily mortality: Analysis and meta-analysis. Epidemiology 16(4):446-457.

Kavlock, R. 2006. Computational Toxicology: New Approaches to Improve Environmental Health Protection. Presentation on the 1st Meeting on Improving Risk Analysis Approaches Used by the U.S. EPA, November 20, 2006, Washington, DC.

Kousa, A., C. Monn, T. Totko, S. Alm, L. Oglesby, and M.J. Jantunen. 2001. Personal exposures to NO2 in the EXPOLIS study: Relation to residential indoor, outdoor, and workplace concentrations in Basel, Helsinki, and Prague. Atmos. Environ. 35(20):3405-3412.

Kousa, A., J. Kukkonen, A. Karppinen, P. Aarnio, and T. Koskentalo. 2002a. A model for evaluating the population exposure to ambient air pollution in an urban area. Atmos. Environ. 36(13):2109-2119.

Kousa, A., L. Oglesby, K. Koistinen, N. Kunzli, and M. Jantunen. 2002b. Exposure chain of urban air PM2.5− associations between ambient fixed site, residential outdoor, indoor, workplace, and personal exposures in four European cities in EXPOLIS study. Atmos. Environ. 36(18):3031-3039.

Krupnick, A., R. Morgenstern, M. Batz, P. Nelsen, D. Burtraw, J.S. Shih, and M. McWilliams. 2006. Not a Sure Thing: Making Regulatory Choices under Uncertainty. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future. February 2006 [online]. Available: [accessed Nov. 22, 2006].

Landi, M.T., A. Baccarelli, R.E. Tarone, A.Pesatori, M.A. Tucker, M. Hedayati, and L. Grossman. 2002. DNA repair, dysplastic nevi, and sunlight sensitivity in the development of cutaneous malignant melanoma. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 94(2):94-101.

Levy, J.I., S.M. Chemerynski, and J.A. Sarnat. 2005. Ozone exposure and mortality: An empiric Bayes meta-regression analysis. Epidemiology 16(4):458-468.

Mackay, D. 2001. Multimedia Environmental Models: The Fugacity Approach, 2nd Ed. Boca Raton: Lewis.

McKone, T.E., and M. MacLeod. 2004. Tracking multiple pathways of human exposure to persistent multimedia pollutants: Regional, continental, and global scale models. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 28:463-492.

Micu, A.L., S. Miksys, E.M. Sellers, D.R. Koop, and R.F. Tyndale. 2003. Rat hepatic CYP2E1 is induced by very low nicotine doses: An investigation of induction, time course, dose response, and mechanism. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 306(3):941-947.

Morgan, M.G., M. Henrion, and M. Small. 1990. Uncertainty: A Guide to Dealing with Uncertainty in Quantitative Risk and Policy Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC (National Research Council). 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC (National Research Council). 1996. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement