TABLE D-1 Environmental Protection Agency Response to National Research Council Recommendations of 1983-2006: Policy, Activity, and Practice


NRC Report: Recommendationa

EPA Response: Stated Policyb

EPA Response: Implementation Activityc

Aggregate and Cumulative Risk

NRC 1994 at 240: “EPA should consider using appropriate statistical (e.g., Monte Carlo) procedures to aggregate cancer risks from exposure to multiple compounds.”

EPA 1997a Science Policy Council Memorandum: “This guidance directs each office to take into account cumulative risk issues in scoping and planning major risk assessments and to consider a broader scope that integrates multiple sources, effects, pathways, stressors and populations for cumulative risk analyses in all cases for which relevant data are available.”

EPA 2003a: Human Health Research Strategy at E-2: “ORD’s research program on aggregate and cumulative risk will address the fact that humans are exposed to mixtures of pollutants from multiple sources. Research will provide the scientific support for decisions concerning exposure to a pollutant by multiple routes of exposure or to multiple pollutants having a similar mode of action. ORD will also develop approaches to study how people and communities are affected following exposure to multiple pollutants that may interact with other environmental stressors.”



EPA1997b Cumulative Risk Assessment Guidance: “Agency managers need to place special emphasis on cumulative risk (that is, the potential risks presented by multiple stressors in aggregate). The specific elements of risk evaluated need to be determined as an explicit part of the Planning and Scoping (PS) stage of each risk assessment…. The Agency will support research to improve our understanding of cumulative risks and to develop methods to account for the multiple elements of risks that affect humans, animals, plants and their environment. In addition, the Science Policy Council will support workshops for risk assessors and managers to discuss implementation opportunities and problems, and solutions.”



Also: The research strategy identified the following research objectives related to cumulative risk: “(1) Determine the best and most cost effective ways to measure human exposures in all relevant media, including pathway-specific measures of multimedia human exposures to environmental contaminants across a variety of relevant microenvironments and exposure durations and conditions; (2) Develop exposure models and methods suitable for EPA and the public to assess aggregate and cumulative risk, including mathematical and statistical relationships among sources of environmental contaminants, their environmental fate, and pathway specific concentrations; models linking dose and exposure from biomarker data; and approaches to assess population-based cumulative risk, including those involving exposure to stressors other than



EPA 2000a Supplementary Guidance for Conducting Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures at xiv: This guidance updates the 1986 agencywide guidance on chemical mixtures and “describes more

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