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OCR for page 59
Review of Secondary Waste Disposal Planning for the Blue Grass and Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants Appendix C Physical Properties of Chemical Agents in Munitions Stored at Blue Grass Army Depot and Pueblo Chemical Depot Munitions containing the nerve agents GB and VX are stored at the Blue Grass Army Depot as are munitions containing mustard agent H. Munitions containing mustard agent HD or HT are stored at Pueblo Chemical Depot. Values for a number of physical properties of these agents are given in Tables C-1 and C-2. TABLE C-1 Physical Properties of Nerve Agents Agent Characteristic GB VX Chemical formula C4H10FO2P C11H26NO2PS Molecular weight 140.10 267.38 Boiling point (°C) 150 (extrapolated) 292 (extrapolated) Freezing point (°C) −56 ≤51 Vapor pressure at 25°C (mm Hg) 2.48 0.000878 Volatility at 25at 25°C (mg/m (mg/m3) 18,700 12.6 Surface tension at 20°C (dynes/cm)(dynes/cm) 26.5 32.0 Kinematic viscosity (cSt) 1.28 at 25°C 12.26 at 20°C Liquid density at 25°C (g/cm3) 1.0887 1.0083 Solubility (g/100 g of distilled water) 100; soluble in organic solvents 5 at 25°C; best solvents are dilute mineral acids Heat of vaporization (cal/g) 82.9 71.8 Heat of combustion (cal/g) 5,600 8,300 SOURCE: NRC, 2005; Abercrombie, 2003.
OCR for page 60
Review of Secondary Waste Disposal Planning for the Blue Grass and Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plants TABLE C-2 Physical Properties of Mustard Agentsa Agent Characteristic HD HTb Chemical name Bis (2-chloroethyl) sulfide or 2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulfide Same as HD with 20 to 40 wt% agent T, bis[2-(2-chlorethylthio) ethyl] ether Chemical formula C4H8Cl2S Not applicable Molecular weight 159.07 188.96 (based on 60/40 wt%) Vapor density (relative to air) 5.5 (calculated) 6.5 (calculated based on 60/40 wt%) Boiling point (°C) 218 (extrapolated) No constant boiling point Decomposition temperature (°C) 180 165 to 180 Freezing point (°C) 14.45 1.3 (measured as melting point) Vapor pressure at 25°C (mm Hg) 0.106 7.7 × 10–2 (calculated based on Raoult’s law equation) Volatility at 25°C (mg/m3) 9.06 × 102 (calculated from vapor pressure) 7.83 × 102 (calculated from vapor pressure) Diffusion coefficient for vapor in air (cm2/sec) 0.060 at 20°C (68°F) 0.05 at 25°C (77°F) Flash point (°C) 105 Flash point range 109 to 115 Surface tension (dynes/cm) 43.2 at 20°C (68°F) 44 at 25°C (77°F) Viscosity at 20°C (cSt) 3.52 6.05 Liquid density at 25°C (g/cm3) 1.2685 1.263 Solubility (g/100 g of distilled water) 0.092 at 22°C (72°F); soluble in acetone, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, tetrachloroethane, ethyl benzoate, ether Slightly soluble in water; soluble in most organic solvents Heat of vaporization Not available (Btu/lb) 190 (J/g) 82 Heat of combustion Not available (Btu/lb) 8,100 (J/g) 3,482 aMustard agents are labeled H, HD, and HT. The active ingredient in all these blister agents is bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, or (ClCH2CH2)2S. HD, called the distilled mustard, is nominally pure mustard agent. H, often called Levinstein mustard, was approximately 70% pure mustard agent and 30% impurities at the time of manufacture. However, the stored H mustard agent has deteriorated over time and its physical properties are highly variable. H is the only form of mustard agent stored at Blue Grass Army Depot. bOverall proportional composition of the mixture. HT is prepared by a chemical process that synthesizes the HT directly in such a way that it contains both the HD and T constituents without further formulation. SOURCES: Adapted from U.S. Army, 1988; Abercrombie, 2003; BPT, 2004. REFERENCES Abercrombie, P.L. 2003. Physical Property Data Review of Selected Chemical Agents and Related Compounds: Updated Field Manual 3-9 (FM 3-9), ECBC-TR-294, September. Edgewood, Md.: U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center. BPT (Bechtel Pueblo Team). 2004. Initial Design for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (PCAPP) Project, Rev. A—redacted for release to NRC, January 16. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: Program Manager, Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives. NRC. 2005. Interim Design Assessment for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. U.S. Army. 1988. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Chemical Materials Agency.