Appendix B

Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants

Donald M. Berwick, M.D., M.P.P., is president and chief executive officer (CEO) of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Dr. Berwick is clinical professor of pediatrics and health care policy at the Harvard Medical School and professor of health policy and management at the Harvard School of Public Health. He is also a pediatrician, an associate in pediatrics at Boston’s Children’s Hospital, and a consultant in pediatrics at Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Berwick has published more than 130 scientific articles in numerous professional journals on subjects relating to healthcare policy, decision analysis, technology assessment, and healthcare quality management. Books he has coauthored include Curing Health Care; New Rules: Regulation, Markets and the Quality of American Health Care; and Cholesterol, Children, and Heart Disease: An Analysis of Alternatives. From 1987 through 1991 Dr. Berwick was cofounder and coprincipal investigator for the National Demonstration Project on Quality Improvement in Health Care. He is a past president of the International Society for Medical Decision Making. He is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and since 2002 has served on the IOM’s Governing Council and as the liaison to the IOM’s Global Health Board. Dr. Berwick was appointed by President Clinton to serve on the Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Healthcare Industry in 1997 and 1998. In 2005, in recognition of his exemplary work for the National Health Service in the United Kingdom, he was appointed honorary Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire—the highest award given to non-British citizens. A summa cum laude graduate of Harvard College, Dr.



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Appendix B Biographical Sketches of Workshop Participants Donald M. Berwick, M.D., M.P.P., is president and chief executive officer (CEO) of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Dr. Berwick is clini- cal professor of pediatrics and health care policy at the Harvard Medical School and professor of health policy and management at the Harvard School of Public Health. He is also a pediatrician, an associate in pediatrics at Boston’s Children’s Hospital, and a consultant in pediatrics at Mas- sachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Berwick has published more than 130 scientific articles in numerous professional journals on subjects relating to healthcare policy, decision analysis, technology assessment, and healthcare quality management. Books he has coauthored include Curing Health Care; New Rules: Regulation, Markets and the Quality of American Health Care; and Cholesterol, Children, and Heart Disease: An Analysis of Alternaties. From 1987 through 1991 Dr. Berwick was cofounder and coprincipal inves- tigator for the National Demonstration Project on Quality Improvement in Health Care. He is a past president of the International Society for Medical Decision Making. He is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and since 2002 has served on the IOM’s Governing Council and as the liaison to the IOM’s Global Health Board. Dr. Berwick was appointed by President Clinton to serve on the Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Healthcare Industry in 1997 and 1998. In 2005, in recognition of his exemplary work for the National Health Service in the United Kingdom, he was appointed honorary Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire—the highest award given to non-British citizens. A summa cum laude graduate of Harvard College, Dr. 291

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292 ENGINEERING A LEARNING HEALTHCARE SYSTEM Berwick holds a Master’s in Public Policy from the John F. Kennedy School of Government and an M.D. cum laude from Harvard Medical School. Michael D. Chase, M.D., is the associate medical director of quality for Kaiser Permanente of Colorado. In this role, he oversees programs in quality, prevention, chronic care, patient safety, risk management, and research. In addition, Dr. Chase is the executive medical group sponsor of HealthConnect, the Kaiser Permanente electronic medical record, which was implemented in fall 2004. Dr. Chase has been with the Permanente Medical group since 1986 and continues to be a practicing internist. His past areas of interest and experience have included guideline development, pharmacy issues, leading clinical medical education for staff, teaching of medical students and residents, and development and use of clinical regis- tries. He is a past department chief of internal medicine. In 1998 he was instrumental in the implementation of the first electronic medical record at Kaiser Permanente Colorado in 1998, for which he won the Nicholas E. Davies Award. David C. Classen, M.D., M.S., is the chief medical officer at First Consult- ing Group and leads First Consulting’s safety and quality of healthcare initiatives and consulting practice in this area. Dr. Classen is also an as- sociate professor of medicine at the University of Utah and a consultant in infectious diseases at the University of Utah School of Medicine in Salt Lake City. He was the chair of Intermountain Healthcare’s Clinical Quality Com- mittee for Drug Use and Evaluation and was the initial developer of patient safety research and patient safety programs at Intermountain Healthcare. In addition, he developed, implemented, and evaluated a computerized physician order entry program at the Latter-Day Saints Hospital that sig- nificantly improved the safety of medication use. He was a member of the IOM committee that created National Healthcare Quality. He also chaired the Federal Safety Taskforce: Quality Interagency Coordination Taskforce/ Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) Collaborative on Improving Safety in High Hazard Areas. He was co-chair of the IHI’s Collaborative on Perioperative Safety. Dr. Classen currently chairs the Surgical Safety Collab- orative at the IHI and is also a faculty member of the IHI/National Health Foundation Safer Patients Initiative in the United Kingdom. Dr. Classen is a developer of the “trigger tool methodology” at the IHI for the improved detection of adverse events. It is being used by more than 150 healthcare or- ganizations throughout the United States and Europe. He received his M.D. from the University of Virginia School of Medicine and a M.Sc. in medical informatics from the University of Utah School of Medicine. He served as chief medical resident at the University of Connecticut. He is board certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases.

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29 APPENDIX B W. Dale Compton, Ph.D., is the Lillian M. Gilbreth Distinguished Professor (Emeritus) of Industrial Engineering at Purdue University. His early research was in physics, focusing on condensed matter, and was carried out first at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory and later, for 9 years, at the University of Illinois, where he was a faculty member. The final 5 years at Illinois were spent as a professor of physics and director of the Coordinated Science Laboratory—an interdisciplinary engineering research laboratory. Upon moving to the Ford Motor Company Research Laboratories in 1970, his activities changed from doing research to managing research and develop- ment, and his last 13 years were spent as vice president of research. The research laboratories were involved in nearly all aspects of the technology that goes into the development and manufacture of a car or truck. After 2 years as the first Senior Fellow of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), Dr. Compton joined the School of Industrial Engineering at Purdue. His current research deals with the creation and use of metals and alloys having a nanocrystalline microstructure. He is a member of St. Vincent Hospital (Indianapolis) Quality Committee of the Board of Directors and a past member of the IHI National Advisory Committee on Pursuing Perfec- tion. Since 2000 he has served as home secretary for the NAE. Paul F. Conlon, Pharm.D., J.D., is currently senior vice president for clinical quality and patient safety at Trinity Health and a member of the Trinity Health Senior Leadership Council. Dr. Conlon is also a clinical assistant professor of pharmacy at the University of Michigan. He is responsible for improving, measuring, monitoring, and reporting on clinical quality and patient safety for Trinity Health. He interacts with many parties interested in clinical quality, including employer groups, providers, trade associa- tions, and insurers. Prior to joining the corporate office, he held a variety of positions within Mercy Health Services, which merged with the Holy Cross Health Care System in 2000 to become Trinity Health. He has been a clinical pharmacist in critical care and infectious disease, led an inpatient pharmacy department, has been the director of pharmacy for a large health maintenance organization (HMO), and was the director for clinical quality support for a large teaching hospital. He also has been a clinical pharmacist for the University of Michigan renal transplant team and continues as a College of Pharmacy faculty member. He serves on numerous community, state, and national clinical quality improvement groups and has been a healthcare consultant to the General Motors Corporation. Dr. Conlon has authored articles on a wide range of topics, from clinical pharmacokinetics to healthcare administration. He received his Pharm.D. from the University of Michigan and his J.D. from the University of Detroit. Dr. Conlon also completed a residency in hospital pharmacy at the University of Michigan.

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29 ENGINEERING A LEARNING HEALTHCARE SYSTEM He is licensed to practice pharmacy in Massachusetts and Michigan and to practice law in Michigan. Denis A. Cortese, M.D., is president and CEO of the Mayo Clinic and chair of its executive committee. He has been a member of the board of trustees since 1997, and he previously served on that board from 1990 to 1993. Fol- lowing service in the U.S. Naval Corps, he joined the staff of Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, in 1976 as a specialist in pulmonary medicine. He was a member of the board of governors in Rochester before moving to Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida, in 1993. From 1999 to 2002 he served as chair of the board of governors at Mayo Clinic and chair of the board of directors at St. Luke’s Hospital in Jacksonville, FL. He is a director and former president of the International Photodynamic Association and has been involved in the bronchoscopic detection, localization, and treatment of early-stage lung cancer. He is a member of the Healthcare Leadership Council and the Harvard/Kennedy School Healthcare Policy Group, and is a former member of the Center for Corporate Innovation. He served on the steering committee for the RAND Ix Project, “Using Information Technol- ogy to Create a New Future in Healthcare,” and the Principals Committee of the National Innovation Initiative. He also is a charter member of the Advisory Board of World Community Grid and a founding member of the American Medical Group Association Chairs/Presidents/CEOs Council. Dr. Cortese is a graduate of Temple Medical School, completed his residency at the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, and is a professor of medicine in the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine. Dr. Cortese is a member of the IOM, a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in England, and an honorary member of the Academia Nacional de Mexicana (Mexico). Donald E. Detmer, M.D., M.A., is president and CEO of the American Medical Informatics Association. He is also a professor of medical edu- cation in the Department of Public Health Sciences at the University of Virginia and visiting professor at the College of Healthcare Information Management Executives, University College of London. Dr. Detmer is a member of the IOM as well as a lifetime associate of the National Acad- emies, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) as well as the American Colleges of Medical Informatics, Sports Medicine, and Surgeons. In addition to co-chairing the Blue Ridge Aca- demic Health Group, he chairs the Board of MedBiquitous. He is treasurer of the Council of Medical Specialty Societies. Dr. Detmer is past chair of the Board on Health Care Services of the IOM, the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, and the Board of Regents of the National Library of Medicine. He was a commissioner on the President’s recent Com- mission on Systemic Interoperability. He chaired the 1991 IOM study, The

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29 APPENDIX B Computer-Based Patient Record, and coedited the 1997 version of the same report. He was a member of the committee that developed the IOM reports To Err Is Human and Crossing the Quality Chasm. From 1999 to 2003 he was the Dennis Gillings Professor of Health Management at Cambridge University and is a lifetime member of Clare Hall College, Cambridge. His education includes an M.D. from the University of Kansas, with subsequent training at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Duke University Medical Center, the IOM, and Harvard Business School. His M.A. is from the University of Cambridge. Amy L. Deutschendorf, M.S., R.N., A.P.R.N., is the senior director for clini- cal resource management at Johns Hopkins Hospital and Health System; the principal of Clinical Resource Consultants, LLC; and a faculty associ- ate of John Hopkins University School of Nursing. Ms. Deutschendorf has more than 30 years of management, staff education and development, and consulting experience, including advanced nursing practice, administration, clinical care delivery design, nurse leadership development, and corporate regulatory compliance. She began her career as a clinical nurse specialist in medicine and oncology and has been the senior director for nursing prac- tice, education, and research and care management at Johns Hopkins Bay- view Medical Center. She has provided clinical, management and strategic consultation services nationally to academic medical institutions and has developed and implemented innovative strategies for patient care models to improve patient satisfaction, quality, and safety. She has published and presented nationally on a variety of topics affecting patient outcomes, in- cluding risk reduction strategies, professional nursing advancement, patient care delivery, and current healthcare trends. She holds an M.S. in nursing from the University of Maryland and a B.S. in nursing from Case Western Reserve University. Earnest J. Edwards, M.B.A., is a retired senior vice president and con- troller of Alcoa, Inc. During his 34-year Alcoa career, he held a number of finance and accounting positions and served as general manager of Alcoa’s information technology function before becoming controller. With Alcoa’s reorganization and reorientation through quantum change in the early 1990s, he successfully led the finance organization through a major restructuring of the controllership and financial management functions to become more efficient, effective, and value adding. He is currently active in several community and educational organizations. He is vice chair of the board and chair of the finance committee of Martha Jefferson Health Service, Charlottesville, VA; vice rector of the board of visitors and chair- man of the finance committee at Virginia State University, Petersburg, VA; director of the Pittsburgh Theological Seminary Board, and director emeri-

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29 ENGINEERING A LEARNING HEALTHCARE SYSTEM tus of LaRoche College Board, Pittsburgh, PA. He received his B.S. in Accounting from Virginia State University and his M.B.A. from Duquesne University. He has been an active member of the Financial Executive Inter- national organization and chaired its Technical Committee on Corporate Reporting, which is an active participant in the Accounting Standards Set- ting and Reporting Process of the Financial Accounting Standards Board and Securities and Exchange Commission. He was named one of America’s 10 most influential corporate figures in the accounting field by Accounting Today magazine in 1990. Prior to Alcoa, he was a commissioned officer in the Air Force. Brent C. James, M.D., M.Stat., is executive director of the Institute for Health Care Delivery Research and vice president of medical research and continuing medical education at Intermountain Healthcare, Inc. Based in Salt Lake City, Utah, Intermountain Healthcare is an integrated sys- tem of 23 hospitals, almost 100 clinics, more than 450 physicians, and an HMO/PPO insurance plan jointly responsible for more than 450,000 covered lives. Dr. James is known internationally for his work in clinical quality improvement, patient safety, and the infrastructure that underlies successful improvement efforts, such as culture change, data systems, pay- ment methods, and management roles. Before coming to Intermountain, he was an assistant professor in the Department of Biostatistics at the Harvard School of Public Health, providing statistical support for the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, and staffed the American College of Surgeons’ Commission on Cancer. He holds faculty appointments at the University of Utah School of Medicine, Harvard School of Public Health, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, and the University of Sydney, Australia, School of Public Health. He is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences/IOM. Dr. James holds B.S. degrees in computer science (electrical engineering) and medical biology, an M.D. (completed residency training in general surgery and oncology), and an M.Stat. degree from the University of Utah. Kenneth W. Kizer, M.D., M.P.H., is chairman of Medsphere Systems Cor- poration, Inc., the leading provider of U.S. open-source healthcare informa- tion technology. Among other positions, he previously served as president and CEO of Medsphere; founding president and CEO of the National Quality Forum, a Washington, DC-based private, nonprofit healthcare quality improvement and consensus standards-setting organization; under secretary for health in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and CEO of the Veterans Healthcare System, for which he is widely credited with being the chief architect and engineer of the radical transformation undertaken in the latter 1990s; director of the California Department of Health Ser-

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29 APPENDIX B vices; and director of the California Emergency Medical Services Author- ity. Board certified in six medical specialties and subspecialties, Dr. Kizer practiced emergency medicine and medical toxicology in both academic and private practice settings. He graduated with honors from Stanford University and the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), holds two honorary doctorates, and is the recipient of numerous honors and awards, including the Earnest A. Codman Award from the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, the Gustav O. Leinhard Award from the IOM, the Justin Ford Kimball Innovator Award from the American Hospital Association, the Nathan Davis Award for Executive Excellence from the American Medical Association, and the Jean Spencer Felton Award for Excellence in Scientific Writing. Dr. Kizer is a member of Alpha Omega Alpha National Honor Medical Society, Delta Omega National Honorary Public Health Society, and the IOM, and he has been selected as 1 of the 100 Most Powerful People in Health Care by Modern Healthcare magazine. He has authored more than 400 publications in the medical and healthcare literature. Mary Jane Koren, M.D., M.P.H., assistant vice president of The Common- wealth Fund, joined the fund in 2002 and leads the Picker/Commonwealth Program on Quality of Care for Frail Elders. Dr. Koren, an internist and geriatrician, began her academic career at Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, where she helped establish one of the early geriatric fellowship programs in New York, practiced in both nursing home and homecare settings, and was the associate medical director of the Monte- fiore Home Health Care Agency. She later joined the faculty of Mount Sinai’s Department of Geriatrics and served as associate chief of staff for extended care at the Bronx Veterans Administration Medical Center. Leaving academic practice, she was appointed as director of the New York State Department of Health’s Bureau of Long Term Care Services, where she ran the nursing home survey and certification programs, led the state’s implementation of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 198 (the Nursing Home Reform Law), and participated in many of the state’s long-term care policy initiatives. Following that, she served as principal clinical coordinator for the New Jersey Peer Review Organization, which directed the Federal Health Care Quality Improvement Program. In 1993 she joined the Fan Fox and Leslie R. Samuels Foundation, first as an ad- visor and later as vice president of a grantmaking program in the field of health services and aging. Throughout her career she has been active as a health services researcher in the area of long-term care quality. Richard C. Larson, Ph.D., is founding director of the Center for Engineer- ing System Fundamentals at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

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298 ENGINEERING A LEARNING HEALTHCARE SYSTEM He received his Ph.D. from MIT, where he is Mitsui Professor in the De- partment of Civil and Environmental Engineering and in the Engineering Systems Division. The majority of his career has focused on operations research as applied to services industries. He is the author, coauthor, or editor of six books and the author of numerous scientific articles, primarily in the fields of urban service systems, queuing, logistics, disaster manage- ment, disease dynamics, dynamic pricing of critical infrastructures, and workforce planning. From 1993 to 1994 he served as president of the Op- erations Research Society of America, and in 2005 he served as president of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences, also known as INFORMS. For more than 15 years Dr. Larson was codirector of the MIT Operations Research Center. He is a member of the NAE and is an INFORMS Founding Fellow. He has been honored with the INFORMS President’s Award and the Kimball Medal. In recognition of his research on pandemic influenza and healthcare systems analysis, he has recently been requested to join the IOM Board on Health Sciences Policy. He is founding director of the Learning International Networks Consortium (LINC), an MIT-based international project that has held four international symposia and sponsored a number of initiatives in Africa, China, and the Middle East. On behalf of LINC, his recent foreign trips have been to China, Japan, Senegal, Iran, Indonesia, Algeria, Pakistan, Jordan, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates. From 1999 through 2004, Dr. Larson served as founding codirector of the forum “The Internet and the University.” Louise L. Liang, M.D., is senior vice president of quality and clinical sys- tems support at Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and Kaiser Foundation Hospitals, which she joined in 2002. Working with leaders throughout Kaiser Permanente, she oversees the national quality agenda to ensure that members receive excellent care and service. She was responsible for the de- velopment and implementation of the organization-wide electronic health record and administrative systems to support the continuity and quality of care as well as efficient business functions. Prior to her role at Kaiser Per- manente, Dr. Liang served as the chair on the IHI Board of Directors. From 1997 to 2001, Dr. Liang served as the chief operating officer and medical director of Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound and as the found- ing CEO and president of Group Health Permanente, its affiliated medical group. Previously she held various leadership positions in hospital, health plan, and public policy settings. Dr. Liang served on the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Panel of Judges during 1998 and 1999, on the Leadership Council of the American Association of Health Plans during 2000 and 2001, and on various other boards and committees.

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299 APPENDIX B Douglas W. Lowery-North, M.D., joined Emory University’s faculty in 1995 and worked as the medical director of the new Emory University Hos- pital Emergency Department. Dr. Lowery-North is currently vice chair of clinical operations/Emory Healthcare in Emory’s Department of Emergency Medicine. He is responsible for the strategic management of emergency care provided at the Emory University Hospital Emergency Department (ED) (annual census 28,000), Emory Crawford Long Hospital ED (annual census 55,000), and Emory Johns Creek Hospital ED (opened in February 2007). Clinically, his interests include cardiovascular and transplant-related emer- gencies, point-of-care ED ultrasound and echocardiography (he is rarely seen in the ED without his ultrasound machine in tow), quality management and performance improvement in the ED, and informatics and knowledge management in the healthcare setting. He is also a student at the Emory Rollins School of Public Health, where he is completing his M.S. in public health informatics. He loves teaching and has received several prestigious teaching awards, including the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) National Teaching Award as well as the Dean’s Teaching Award at Emory University and the Emory Emergency Medicine Residency Teacher of the Year Award. He teaches regularly at the ACEP Teaching Fellowship. He graduated from Vanderbilt Medical School in 1987 and was awarded the Dean’s Award for Excellence in Medical Education. He completed his residency training in emergency medicine at UCLA Medical Center and the Robert Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. J. Michael McGinnis, M.D., M.P.P., is a long-time contributor to national and international health policy leadership. Dr. McGinnis is now a senior scholar at the IOM and executive director of the IOM Roundtable on Value & Science-Driven Health Care. He is also an elected member of the IOM. He previously was senior vice president at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) and, unusual for political appointees, held continuous appointment through the Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton administrations, with responsibility for coordinating activities and policies in disease prevention and health promotion. Programs and policies created and launched at his initiative include the Healthy People process-setting national health objectives, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, Dietary Guidelines for Americans (with the U.S. Department of Agriculture), Ten Essential Serices of Public Health, the RWJF Health and Society Scholars Program, the RWJF Young Epidemiology Scholars Program, and the RWJF Active Living family of programs. Internationally, he chaired the World Bank/European Commission Task Force on postwar reconstruction of the health sector in Bosnia, and worked both as field epidemiologist and state coordinator for the World Health Organization’s successful smallpox eradi- cation program in India.

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00 ENGINEERING A LEARNING HEALTHCARE SYSTEM Ralph W. Muller, M.A., is chief executive officer of the University of Pennsylvania Health System (UPHS), a $2.7 billion enterprise that includes three fully owned and two joint venture hospitals, a faculty practice plan, a primary-care provider network, multispecialty satellite facilities, home care, hospice care, and long-term care. Prior to joining UPHS, he was the presi- dent and CEO of the University of Chicago Hospitals and Health System. From 2001 to 2002, he was a visiting fellow at the Kings Fund in London. From 1985 to 1986 Mr. Muller served as deputy dean of the Division of the Biological Sciences at the Pritzker School of Medicine at the University of Chicago. Before joining the university, Mr. Muller held senior positions with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, including service as deputy commissioner of the Massachusetts Department of Public Welfare, where he was responsible for the state’s major welfare programs, including Medicaid. He is a director of the National Committee for Quality Assurance and a commissioner of the Joint Commission. He has served as commissioner on the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission, chair of the Association of American Medical Colleges, chair of the Council of Teaching Hospitals and Health Systems, and vice chair of the University Healthsystems Consortium. He is a Fellow of the AAAS. He received his bachelor’s degree in econom- ics from Syracuse University and his master’s degree in government from Harvard University. John J. Nance, J.D., is a founding member of the National Patient Safety Foundation at the American Medical Association. He is also a decorated Air Force officer and pilot and is one of the pioneers of the safety revolu- tion in professional communication, teamwork, and leadership known in aviation as crew resource management. Mr. Nance’s current work focuses on improving health care from patient safety to practice satisfaction with hospitals and clinics nationwide. He focuses on leadership and the human propensity for mistakes, even among the most tenured professionals. Mr. Nance is also an author and a broadcast analyst on medical and patient safety and aviation safety with ABC World News and Good Morning America. Eugene C. Nelson, D.Sc., M.P.H., is professor of community and family medicine at Dartmouth Medical School and director of quality administra- tion for the Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center. He is a senior scientist at the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice. Dr. Nelson is a national leader in healthcare improvement and the develop- ment and application of measures of system performance, health outcomes, and patient and customer perceptions. In the early 1990s Dr. Nelson and his colleagues at Dartmouth began developing clinical microsystem think- ing. His work to develop the “clinical value compass” and “whole system

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01 APPENDIX B measures” to assess healthcare system performance have made him a well- recognized quality and value measurement expert. He is the recipient of the Joint Commission’s Ernest A. Codman Award for his work on outcomes measurement in health care. Dr. Nelson has been a pioneer in bringing modern quality improvement thinking into the mainstream of health care. He helped launch the IHI and served as a founding board member. He has authored more than 100 articles and monographs and is the first author of 2 recent books, Quality by Design: A Clinical Microsystems Approach and Practice-Based Learning and Improement: A Clinical Improement Action Guide: Second Edition. He received an M.P.H. from Yale University and a D.Sc. from Harvard University. Paul H. O’Neill, M.P.A., was the 72nd Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Treasury, serving from 2001 to 2002. Mr. O’Neill was chair and CEO of Alcoa from 1987 to 1999, and he retired as chair at the end of 2000. Prior to joining Alcoa, he was president of International Paper Company from 1985 to 1987 and had previously served as vice president from 1977 to 1985. He worked as a computer systems analyst with the U.S. Veterans Administration from 1961 to 1966 and served on the staff of the U.S. Of- fice of Management and Budget (OMB) from 1967 to 1977, with the last 3 years as OMB’s deputy director. He received a bachelor’s degree in econom- ics from Fresno State College in California and a master’s degree in public administration from Indiana University. David B. Pryor, M.D., is the chief medical officer of Ascension Health, the largest not-for-profit healthcare delivery system in the United States. Prior to joining Ascension Health, Dr. Pryor was senior vice president and chief information officer for Allina Health System in Minneapolis. Earlier, Dr. Pryor was president of the New England Medical Center Hospitals in Boston. He spent the first 15 years of his career at Duke University Medical Center, where he served as director of the cardiology consultation service, the section on clinical epidemiology and biostatistics, the Duke Database for Cardiovascular Disease, and clinical program development. Dr. Pryor has participated on numerous national and international committees. He has also served as an advisor to a number of developing companies. In ad- dition to his position at Ascension Health, Dr. Pryor’s academic appoint- ments include consulting associate professor of medicine at Duke University Medical Center and adjunct professor at Saint Louis University School of Public Health. Rita F. Redberg, M.D., M.Sc., is a cardiologist specializing in outcomes research and heart disease in women. Dr. Redberg has written, edited, and contributed to many books, including You Can Be a Woman Cardiologist,

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02 ENGINEERING A LEARNING HEALTHCARE SYSTEM Heart Healthy: The Step-by-Step Guide to Preenting and Healing Heart Disease, and Coronary Disease in Women: Eidence-Based Diagnosis and Treatment, and she has written more than 100 peer-reviewed journal ar- ticles. She serves on numerous technology assessment forums, such as the Center for Medical Technology Policy, California Technology Assessment Forum, and the Institute for Clinical and Economic Research Board, and she was a member of the Medicare Coverage Advisory committee. She earned her M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. She completed her residency in Internal Medicine at Columbia–Presbyterian Medical Center in New York, where she went on to complete a fellowship in cardiology. Then she completed a fellowship in noninvasive cardiology at Mount Sinai Medical Center, also in New York. In addition, Dr. Redberg has an M.Sc. in health policy and administration from the London School of Economics. She recently completed an RWJF Health Policy Fellowship. William B. Rouse, Ph.D., M.S., is the executive director of the Tennenbaum Institute at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He is also a professor in the College of Computing and School of Industrial and Systems Engineer- ing. Dr. Rouse has written hundreds of articles and book chapters, and has authored many books, including, most recently, People and Organizations: Explorations of Human-Centered Design, Essential Challenges of Strategic Management, and the award-winning Don’t Jump to Solutions. He is editor of Enterprise Transformation: Understanding and Enabling Fundamental Change, coeditor of Organizational Simulation: From Modeling & Simu- lation to Games & Entertainment, coeditor of the best-selling Handbook of Systems Engineering and Management, and editor of the eight-volume series Human/Technology Interaction in Complex Systems. Among many advisory roles, he has served as chair of the Committee on Human Factors of the National Research Council, as a member of the U.S. Air Force Scien- tific Advisory Board, and as a member of the Department of Defense Senior Advisory Group on Modeling and Simulation. Dr. Rouse is a member of the NAE as well as a fellow of four professional societies: the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the International Council on Systems Engineering, the Institute for Operations Research and Management Sci- ence, and the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Harold W. Sorenson, Ph.D., is a founding faculty member of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) and is currently a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at the Jacobs School of Engineering. From 1989 to 2001 Dr. Sorenson served as senior vice president and general manager for the MITRE Corporation, a nonprofit organization that applies systems engineering and advanced technologies to address challenges in system development and enterprise modernization for the defense and intelligence

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0 APPENDIX B communities as well as for the Federal Aviation Administration and the In- ternal Revenue Service. He returned to the UCSD campus in 2003 as faculty director of the graduate program in architecture-based enterprise systems engineering being developed by the Jacobs School of Engineering and the Rady School of Management. A long-time scientific and technology advisor to the U.S. defense and intelligence communities, he chaired the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board from 1990 to 1993 and was the chief scientist of the U.S. Air Force from 1985 to 1988. Dr. Sorenson is a fellow of the Insti- tute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and of the AAAS. He is a recipient of the IEEE Centennial Medal, two Exceptional Civilian Service awards and a Meritorious Civilian Award from the Air Force, the Director’s Award from the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Benjamin H. Gold Medal for Engineering from the Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association, and the Air Force Association’s Doolittle Award. Steven J. Spear, D.B.A., M.S., M.S., is a researcher, writer, public speaker, educator, and consultant who works with organizations to create competi- tive advantage through the strength of their internal operations, managing complex design, production, and administrative processes for exceptional performance. The primary theme is strongly coupling doing work with learning how to do that work ever better, thereby achieving unmatchable combinations of quality, safety, responsiveness, efficiency, and flexibility. His articles about Toyota have been award winners and best sellers; those about healthcare quality and medical education have appeared in Annals of Internal Medicine, Academic Medicine, and other medical journals, and he is the author of many case studies. A book based on his research, The High-Velocity Edge, was published by McGraw Hill in 2010. At MIT Spear teaches an introduction to lean manufacturing and six sigma for students in the Leaders for Manufacturing and Systems Design and Management programs. At the IHI, he has been involved in a number of projects to raise the quality of care by introducing systems management principles from non-healthcare exemplars. He also teaches at Harvard Medical School and School of Public Health programs. Previously, he was an assistant professor at Harvard Business School for 6 years. Dr. Spear played an integral role in developing the Alcoa business system and the Perfecting Patient Care program of the Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative. Alcoa’s annual reports detailed hundreds of millions of dollars in savings and other gains, and Pittsburgh hospitals have generated reductions of 50 to 90 percent in afflictions such as hospital-acquired infections, along with other gains in quality of care and quality of work. He also worked for the investment bank Prudential-Bache, the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assess- ment, and the University of Tokyo. Spear’s doctorate is from Harvard Busi-

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0 ENGINEERING A LEARNING HEALTHCARE SYSTEM ness School and his two master’s degrees—in management and mechanical engineering—are from MIT. William W. Stead, M.D., is associate vice chancellor for strategy/trans- formation and director of the Informatics Center at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. He serves as chief information officer of the medical center and chief information architect for the university. His interest in computer- based patient records and systems to support practice dates to 1968. At Vanderbilt his team has translated biomedical informatics research into novel approaches to information infrastructure to reduce implementation costs and barriers to adoption. The resulting enterprise-wide electronic patient chart and communication/decision support tools strengthen his current focus on system-supported, evidence-based practice and research leading toward personalized medicine. Dr. Stead is McKesson Foundation Professor of Biomedical Informatics and professor of medicine. He is a founding fellow of both the American College of Medical Informatics and the American Institute for Engineering in Biology and Medicine and an elected member of both the IOM and the American Clinical and Climato- logical Association. He was the first recipient of the Lindberg Award for Innovation in Informatics and is the 2007 recipient of the Collen Award for Excellence in Medical Informatics. He was the founding editor-in-chief of the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, served as chair of the Board of Regents of the National Library of Medicine and as a Presidential appointee to the Commission on Systemic Interoperability, and serves on the Computer Science and Telecommunication Board of the National Research Council and is chair of its Committee on Engaging the Computer Science Research Community in Health Care Informatics. He is a member of the Tennessee eHealth Advisory Council. Dr. Stead received his B.A. and M.D. from Duke University, where he also completed training in internal medicine and nephrology. Stephen J. Swensen, M.D., M.M.M., the Mayo Clinic director for quality. He is professor of radiology in the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine. He served as chair of the Department of Radiology from 1998 to 2006 and was education program director in the preceding 5 years. He is a member of the Mayo Clinic Management Oversight Group and Clinical Practice Committee. He is past president of the Society of Thoracic Radiology and the Fleischner Society. He has chaired the American College of Radiology’s Quality Metrics Committee and the Radiological Society of North Amer- ica’s Continuous Quality Improvement Initiative. Dr. Swensen has been principal investigator on three NIH grants. He has authored 2 books and more than 100 peer-reviewed articles. Dr. Swensen received his M.D. from

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0 APPENDIX B the University of Wisconsin. His residency training was at the Mayo Clinic and his Thoracic Radiology Fellowship was at Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women’s Hospital. In 2004 he received a master’s of medical management degree from Carnegie Mellon University’s Heinz School of Public Policy and Management. James M. Tien, Ph.D., is a distinguished professor and the dean of the Col- lege of Engineering at the University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida. He has held leadership positions at Bell Telephone Laboratories, at the RAND Corporation, and at Structured Decisions Corporation (which he cofounded in 1974). He joined the Department of Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering at Rensselaer in 1977, became acting chair of the department, joined a unique interdisciplinary Department of Decision Sciences and En- gineering Systems as its founding chair, and twice served as the acting dean of engineering. Dr. Tien’s areas of research interest include the development and application of computer and systems analysis techniques to informa- tion and decision systems. He has published extensively, been invited to present many plenary lectures, and been honored with both teaching and research awards, including being elected a fellow of the IEEE, the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences, and the AAAS and being a recipient of the IEEE Joseph G. Wohl Outstanding Career Award, the IEEE Major Educational Innovation Award, the IEEE Norbert Wiener Award, and the IBM Faculty Award. Dr. Tien is also an elected member of the NAE. He received a BEE from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and a S.M. and Ph.D. in electrical engineering from MIT.

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