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Steering Committee on Global Challenges and Directions for Agricultural Biotechnology: Mapping the Course Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Board on Life Sciences Division on Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This workshop was supported by the U.S. Department of State Award No. S- LMAQM-03-M-4207 and the National Academies. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or organi- zations does not constitute their endorsement by the sponsoring agency. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-12077-7 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-12077-2 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal govern- ment on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its mem- bers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advis- ing the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in pro- viding services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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STEERING COMMITTEE ON GLOBAL CHALLENGES AND DIRECTIONS FOR AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY: MAPPING THE COURSE CALESTOUS JUMA, Chair, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts DEVIN M. BARTLEY (through May 2004), United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization EDWARD GROTH III, Groth Consulting Services, Pelham, New York RICHARD R. HARWOOD, Michigan State University, East Lansing LUIS HERRERA-ESTRELLA, National Polytechnic Institute Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico RICHARD A. JEFFERSON (through August 2004), Center for the Application of Molecular Biology to International Agriculture PETER M. KAREIVA (through October 2004), The Nature Conservancy, Seattle, Washington BARBARA A. SCHAAL, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri BARBARA O. SCHNEEMAN (through July 2004), U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland JENNIFER THOMSON (through April 2005), University of Cape Town, South Africa GREG TRAXLER, Auburn University, Alabama JOSE A. ZAGLUL, Earth University, San José, Costa Rica Project Staff ROBIN SCHOEN, Study Director PEGGY TSAI, Associate Program Officer KAREN L. IMHOF, Administrative Assistant KIM WADDELL, Study Director (through May 2004) CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Study Director (May–October 2004) MICHAEL KISIELEWSKI, Research Associate (through May 2004) NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor 

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BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES W. REG GOMES, Chair, University of California (Emeritus), Oakland ROGER N. BEACHY, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, Missouri H.H. CHENG, University of Minnesota (Emeritus), St. Paul DANIEL M. DOOLEY, University of California, Oakland JOAN H. EISEMANN, North Carolina State University, Raleigh KIRK C. KLASING, University of California, Davis VICTOR L. LECHTENBERG, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana ROBERT PAARLBERG, Wellesley College, Watertown, Massachusetts KEITH PITTS, Curragh Oaks Consulting, Fair Oaks, California HAL SALWASSER, Oregon State University, Corvallis PEDRO A. SANCHEZ, The Earth Institute at Columbia University, Palisades, New York NORMAN R. SCOTT, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Staff ROBIN SCHOEN, Director KAREN L. IMHOF, Administrative Assistant EVONNE TANG, Senior Program Officer AUSTIN J. LEWIS, Program Officer CAMILLA YANDOC ABLES, Associate Program Officer PEGGY TSAI, Associate Program Officer JANET MULLIGAN, Research Associate RUTH S. ARIETI, Senior Program Assistant i

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Preface T he advent of agricultural biotechnology was marked by a wide array of debates inspired by concerns about safety. Those concerns were shaped by public perceptions that tended to emphasize the risks associated with agricultural biotechnology. Although the concerns were justified and had to be taken seriously, they tended to downplay the potential benefits of the technology. Moreover, much of the debate about agricultural biotechnology was shaped by advocacy efforts aimed at particular policy objectives. This committee was charged with framing the biotechnology debate in terms of problem solving. Its focus was to identify important current and emerging global problems and then explore the possible application of biotechnology as one of many approaches to ease the problems, recog- nizing that all new technologies carry scientific and socioeconomic risks. However, failing to use the technologies where they show potential benefit also may be a risky strategy. Thus, the committee felt that the sci- entific risks and socioeconomic issues associated with biotechnology need to be examined in the context of technology’s role in addressing long- term goals, such as preserving biodiversity, conserving natural resources, achieving food security, improving the health of populations, cleaning up polluted lands and bodies of water, and obtaining adequate sources of energy. That approach will continue to be relevant in light of uncertainties associated with global efforts to respond to challenges arising from global change. Agricultural biotechnology embodies a set of generic tools that ii

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iii PREFACE offer options for addressing persistent and emerging economic, social, and ecological problems. Failing to explore the potential value of such technologies suggests that doing nothing is safer than trying new tech- nologies, an assumption that may be as misleading as the exuberance with which the benefits of new applications are sometimes described. In the interest of open-mindedness and knowledge-based approaches to decision making, it is the hope of the committee that this workshop report reflects an effort to balance concerns about the risks that attend new technologies with the seriousness of the problems we face. The potential value of such technologies is great, and as technologies continue to advance, the issues raised at the workshop will remain in the forefront for some time to come. We hope that this workshop report will serve as a source of inspiration for more detailed explorations of technologies that can then serve to address global challenges. Calestous Juma, Chair Steering Committee on Global Challenges and Directions for Agricultural Biotechnology: Mapping the Course

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Acknowledgments This report is a product of the cooperation and contributions of many people. The committee would like to thank all the speakers and partici- pants who attended the workshop on October 25-26, 2004. Their presenta- tions helped to set the stage for the fruitful discussions in the sessions that followed. Harrison Wein prepared an initial summary of the workshop, which was useful to the committee in writing this report. This workshop report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of the independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following for their review of this report: Anthony J. Cavalieri, U.S. Agency for International Development Robert J. Frederick, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Jean Halloran, Consumers Union Tilahun D. Yilma, University of California, Davis Although the reviewers listed above have provided constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the workshop ix

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x ACKNOWLEDGMENTS report nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Dr. Charles J. Arntzen, Arizona State University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author committee and the institution.

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 5 Workshop Organization, 6 Organization of the Report, 8 2 OPPORTUNITIES FOR APPLYING BIOTECHNOLOGY 9 Improving Crop Productivity, 10 Improving the Nutritional Value of Crops, 14 Improving Food Security, 15 Protecting and Preserving Biodiversity, 17 Enhancing Natural Resource Conservation, 19 3 CHALLENGES AND FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS IN 21 REALIZING THE GLOBAL POTENTIAL OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Challenge 1: Developing Appropriate and Affordable Technologies, 22 Challenge 2: Determining Priorities for Biotechnology, 25 Challenge 3: Engaging the Citizenry, 27 Challenge 4: Building Scientific and Local Capacity, 31 Challenge 5: Developing Sustainable Partnerships, 33 Challenge 6: Engaging in Global Dialogue on Agreements and Protocols, 35 xi

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xii CONTENTS Challenge 7: Anticipating Future Needs and Directions, 43 Closing Thoughts, 45 REFERENCES 47 APPENDIXES A Steering Committee Biosketches 51 B Workshop Agenda 55 C List of Workshop Participants 59 BOXES 1-1 Statement of Task, 7 2-1 Selected Opportunities for Applying Biotechnology, 11 2-2 Some Tools of Biotechnology (Apart from Genetic Engineering), 12 3-1 The Most Promising African Farming Systems for Increasing Food Security, 23 3-2 International Agreements on Biodiversity and Biosafety, 36 3-3 The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), 40 3-4 Organizations that Promote Access to Research and Transfer Technology, 44