Appendix B
Committee and Staff Biographies

COMMITTEE

David H. Bromwich (Chair) is a senior research scientist and director of the Polar Meteorology Group at the Byrd Polar Research Center of Ohio State University. He is also a professor with the Atmospheric Sciences Program in the Department of Geography. Dr. Bromwich earned his Ph.D. in meteorology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison in 1979. His research interests include the climatic impacts of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets; coupled mesoscale-global circulation model simulations; the atmospheric moisture budget of high southern latitudes, Greenland, and the Arctic basin using numerical analyses; and the influence of tropical ocean-atmosphere variability on the polar regions. Dr. Bromwich has served on the National Research Council’s Committee on Geophysical and Environmental Data and was previously a U.S. representative of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. He currently serves on the National Research Council’s Polar Research Board and chaired the Committee to Review the CCSP Draft SAP 1.3: Re-Analyses of Historical Climate Data and Implications for Attribution. He is a member of the American Meteorological Society, the American Geophysical Union, the Royal Meteorological Society, and the Association of American Geographers.


Judith L. Bronstein is a program director in the Division of Environmental Biology at the National Science Foundation as well as a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Arizona. She earned her Ph.D. in ecology and evolutionary biology from the University of Michigan. Dr. Bronstein’s lab focuses on the study of interspecific interactions, particularly on the poorly-understood, mutually beneficial ones (mutualisms). Specific conceptual areas of interest include (1) conflicts of interest between mutualists and their consequences for the maintenance of beneficial outcomes in these interactions and (2) context-dependent outcomes in both mutualisms and antagonisms. Using a combination of field observations and experiments, she is examining how population processes, abiotic conditions, and the community context determine net effects of the interactions for the fitness of each participant species. She is also collaborating on theoretical and empirical investigations of the fragility of mutualism in light of conservation threats and mechanisms of restoring disrupted interactions and the causes and consequences of “cheating” within mutualism. In 2007, Dr. Bronstein won the Distinguished Career Teaching Award.


Hugh Ducklow is a senior scientist and the director of the Ecosystems Center at the Marine Biological Laboratory. He earned his A.B. in 1972, his A.M. in 1974, and his Ph.D. in 1977 from Harvard University. Dr. Ducklow was originally trained as a microbial ecologist and now studies the roles of marine bacteria in the global carbon cycle. His current research focuses on the interactions between climate change and ecosystem function, especially on the Antarctic



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Appendix B Committee and Staff Biographies COMMITTEE David H. Bromwich (Chair) is a senior research scientist and director of the Polar Meteorology Group at the Byrd Polar Research Center of Ohio State University. He is also a professor with the Atmospheric Sciences Program in the Department of Geography. Dr. Bromwich earned his Ph.D. in meteorology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison in 1979. His research interests include the climatic impacts of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets; coupled mesoscale-global circulation model simulations; the atmospheric moisture budget of high southern latitudes, Greenland, and the Arctic basin using numerical analyses; and the influence of tropical ocean- atmosphere variability on the polar regions. Dr. Bromwich has served on the National Research Council’s Committee on Geophysical and Environmental Data and was previously a U.S. representative of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. He currently serves on the National Research Council’s Polar Research Board and chaired the Committee to Review the CCSP Draft SAP 1.3: Re-Analyses of Historical Climate Data and Implications for Attribution. He is a member of the American Meteorological Society, the American Geophysical Union, the Royal Meteorological Society, and the Association of American Geographers. Judith L. Bronstein is a program director in the Division of Environmental Biology at the National Science Foundation as well as a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Arizona. She earned her Ph.D. in ecology and evolutionary biology from the University of Michigan. Dr. Bronstein’s lab focuses on the study of interspecific interactions, particularly on the poorly-understood, mutually beneficial ones (mutualisms). Specific conceptual areas of interest include (1) conflicts of interest between mutualists and their consequences for the maintenance of beneficial outcomes in these interactions and (2) context- dependent outcomes in both mutualisms and antagonisms. Using a combination of field observations and experiments, she is examining how population processes, abiotic conditions, and the community context determine net effects of the interactions for the fitness of each participant species. She is also collaborating on theoretical and empirical investigations of the fragility of mutualism in light of conservation threats and mechanisms of restoring disrupted interactions and the causes and consequences of “cheating” within mutualism. In 2007, Dr. Bronstein won the Distinguished Career Teaching Award. Hugh Ducklow is a senior scientist and the director of the Ecosystems Center at the Marine Biological Laboratory. He earned his A.B. in 1972, his A.M. in 1974, and his Ph.D. in 1977 from Harvard University. Dr. Ducklow was originally trained as a microbial ecologist and now studies the roles of marine bacteria in the global carbon cycle. His current research focuses on the interactions between climate change and ecosystem function, especially on the Antarctic 19

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Peninsula, a region of especially rapid warming. He has conducted research in the North Atlantic, the central North Pacific, the Arabian Sea, the Red Sea, the Southern Ocean, the Great Barrier Reef, the Caribbean, the Black Sea, and the Chesapeake Bay. For several months of the year, Dr. Ducklow is at the Palmer Station directing the Palmer Antarctica Long-Term Ecological Research project. Karl Erb is director of the Office of Polar Programs at the National Science Foundation. In his role as head of the Office of Polar Programs, Dr. Erb oversees the operations of the Division of Arctic Sciences and has experience in the logistical issues that surround grant and award programs. He also heads the U.S. Antarctic Program, which manages all U.S. research on the southernmost continent. Dr. Erb is a physicist and previously served as a science adviser to the National Science Foundation director and in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. He has worked toward scientific cooperation between nations in his work with the International Polar Year and has made contributions to the informal diplomacy of international science. Dr. Erb has received many awards, including the New Zealand Antarctic Medal by Prime Minister Clark in 2007, and was named a Chevalier of the French National Order of Merit by the President of the Republic of France. Mahlon C. Kennicutt, II is the director of Sustainable Development and team leader for the Sustainable Coastal Margins Program in the Office of the Vice President for Research at Texas A&M University. Dr. Kennicutt earned his Ph.D. in oceanography in 1980 from Texas A&M University. His research interests include environmental monitoring, fate and effects of contaminants, environmental impacts of offshore energy exploration and exploitation, coordination of the social and physical sciences to address environmental issues, and all aspects of the sustainable development of coastal margins. He has worked as an oceanographer for 25 years and spent over 500 days at sea, including on various ships in Antarctica, and is familiar with the logistics operations at McMurdo Station as well as UNOLS ship operations. In addition, Dr. Kennicutt is a vice-president of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council for Science, which is an international committee that serves as the formal science adviser to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties. In this role, he is familiar with the Antarctic Treaty and especially its environmental protocols. As the U.S. Delegate to SCAR, he accompanies the U.S. Department of State delegation to treaty meetings. He served on the NAS’s Committee to Review the Oil Spill Recovery Institute and the Committee on Cumulative Environmental Effects of Oil and Gas Activities on Alaska’s North Slope. He serves as an ex-officio member of the Polar Research Board. Diane M. McKnight is a professor of civil, environmental, and architectural engineering at the University of Colorado. She earned her Ph.D. in environmental engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Her research focuses on interactions between hydrologic, chemical, and biological processes in controlling the dynamics in aquatic ecosystems. This research is carried out through field-scale experiments and modeling of diverse freshwater environments, including lakes and streams in the Rocky Mountains and in the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica. She also interacts with state and local groups involved in mine drainage and watershed issues in the Rocky Mountains. Dr. McKnight is a former member of the NAS’s Water Science and Technology Board and of the Polar Research Board. She is past president of the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, a Fellow of the 20

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American Geophysical Union, and is currently the Editor of the Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. Karen E. Nelson is an assistant investigator at the Institute for Genomic Research (formerly the J. Craig Venter Institute) where she has been involved in the whole genome sequencing and analysis of numerous microbial species including Thermotoga maritima, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salinibacter ruber. After migrating to the United States from Jamaica, she earned a Ph.D. in microbiology from Cornell University. Dr. Nelson has led a number of metagenomics projects to analyze the human oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and the rumen. Dr. Nelson has been involved in many outreach projects with minority institutions and is currently employed at Howard University. She is also editor in chief of Microbial Ecology. Dr. Nelson was one of the microbiologists featured in a TV series called Intimate Strangers: Unseen Life on Earth, which appeared on PBS in 1999. She served on the NAS’s Committee on the Design of an NSF Innovation Prize. Warren Zapol is the Jenney Professor of Anesthesia at Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Zapol earned his MD in 1966. His major interests are the promotion of safety in medical care especially, complex medical procedures through the use of medical simulation, team training in simulators, and the teaching of crisis management techniques and the regulations and rules governing the testing of novel drugs in humans. As an anesthesiologist and critical care physician, Dr. Zapol has great interest in the provision of safe critical care, especially respiratory care in national emergencies as well as after complex surgery and trauma. He studies Antarctic Seals with microprocessors diving beneath the Antarctic ice at the McMurdo Station. Dr. Zapol is a member of the Institute of Medicine. STAFF Jodi Bostrom (Study Director) is a research associate with the Ocean Studies Board. She earned an MS in environmental science from American University in 2006 and a BS in zoology from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1998. Since starting with the board in May 1999, Ms. Bostrom has worked on several studies pertaining to coastal restoration, fisheries, marine mammals, nutrient over-enrichment, ocean exploration, capacity building, and marine debris. Chris Elfring is Director of the Polar Research Board (PRB) and also the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (BASC) at the National Academies. Since she jointed the PRB in 1996 and BASC in 2002, she has been responsible for all aspects of strategic planning, project development and oversight, financial management, and personnel for both units. Ms. Elfring has been involved in studies such as A Vision for International Polar Year, Assessment of U.S. Polar Icebreaker Needs, Environmental Stewardship for the Exploration of Subglacial Lake Environments, and Toward an Integrated Arctic Observing Network. She has played a key, primarily “behind-the-scenes” role in planning International Polar Year 2007–2008. Before coming to the National Academies, Ms. Elfring was a policy analyst at Congress’ Office of Technology Assessment, where she focused on agriculture, water use, and natural resource management. She first came to Washington, DC in 1979 as a AAAS Congressional Fellow from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She has a long- standing interest in the policy dimensions of science and communicating science to non-scientists. 21

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Rachael Shiflett is a senior program assistant with the Polar Research Board and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate. She received her M.Sc. in environmental law from Vermont Law School in 2001 and her J.D. at Catholic University in May 2007. Ms. Shiflett has coordinated National Research Council studies that produced the reports International Polar Year 2007–2008 Report of the Implementation Workshop, Toward an Integrated Arctic Observing Network, and Environmental Stewardship for the Exploration of Subglacial Lake Environments. 22