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Introduction

THE TINKER FOUNDATION AND MARTHA MUSE

The Tinker Foundation was founded in 1959 by Dr. Edward Larocque Tinker in support of the Iberian tradition in the Old and New Worlds and continues to reflect this linguistic and geographical focus today. The Foundation’s grants are awarded to organizations and institutions concerned with the affairs of Latin America, Spain, and Portugal. Over time, the Foundation developed a specific interest in Antarctica. Its grants support the study of public policy and the search for innovative solutions to some of the environmental, economic, political, and social problems facing these areas today. The Foundation has long been committed to advancing education. The “Tinker Field Research Grant” supports centers and institutes of Latin American studies within U.S. universities to assist outstanding graduate students for brief periods of field research in Latin America, Spain, or Portugal.

Martha Twitchell Muse is the Chair of the Tinker Foundation. She was a founding director of the Foundation in 1959 and since then has served in various capacities, becoming executive director in 1965, president in 1968, and Chairman of the Board of Directors in 1975. Ms. Muse has provided outstanding leadership over her years of service, both to the Tinker Foundation and others. She was the first woman to be elected to the Board of Trustees of Columbia University and continues to serve the school as Trustee Emerita. She also serves as a director on the boards of several organizations, including the Americas Society, the Council of the Americas, and the Spanish Institute. Her past directorships have included the New York Stock Exchange; the Cuba Policy Foundation; and many corporate directorships, including the American Smelting and Refining Company, the Bank of New York, ACF Industries (formerly named the American Car and Foundry Company), Sterling Drug Inc., Associated Dry Goods Inc., May Department Stores, and Irving Bank and Trust Company. In addition to her directorships, Ms. Muse is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Inter-American Dialogue, and the U.S.–Spain Council. For her many contributions to the field of Latin American and Iberian relations, she has received various awards, including the Orden al Mérito por Servicios Distinguidos en el Grado de la Gran Cruz (Merit Order for Distinguished Services in the Rank of the Great Cross) from Peru, the Order of the Southern Cross from Brazil, the Order of Bernardo O’Higgins from Chile, and the Orden de Mayo al Mérito (May Order of Merit) from Argentina.

INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR 2007–2008

Environmental change and variability are part of the natural pattern on Earth, but environmental changes currently witnessed in the polar regions are in many cases more pronounced than changes observed in the middle latitudes or tropics. Arctic sea ice cover is



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1 Introduction THE TINKER FOUNDATION AND MARTHA MUSE The Tinker Foundation was founded in 1959 by Dr. Edward Larocque Tinker in support of the Iberian tradition in the Old and New Worlds and continues to reflect this linguistic and geographical focus today. The Foundation’s grants are awarded to organizations and institutions concerned with the affairs of Latin America, Spain, and Portugal. Over time, the Foundation developed a specific interest in Antarctica. Its grants support the study of public policy and the search for innovative solutions to some of the environmental, economic, political, and social problems facing these areas today. The Foundation has long been committed to advancing education. The “Tinker Field Research Grant” supports centers and institutes of Latin American studies within U.S. universities to assist outstanding graduate students for brief periods of field research in Latin America, Spain, or Portugal. Martha Twitchell Muse is the Chair of the Tinker Foundation. She was a founding director of the Foundation in 1959 and since then has served in various capacities, becoming executive director in 1965, president in 1968, and Chairman of the Board of Directors in 1975. Ms. Muse has provided outstanding leadership over her years of service, both to the Tinker Foundation and others. She was the first woman to be elected to the Board of Trustees of Columbia University and continues to serve the school as Trustee Emerita. She also serves as a director on the boards of several organizations, including the Americas Society, the Council of the Americas, and the Spanish Institute. Her past directorships have included the New York Stock Exchange; the Cuba Policy Foundation; and many corporate directorships, including the American Smelting and Refining Company, the Bank of New York, ACF Industries (formerly named the American Car and Foundry Company), Sterling Drug Inc., Associated Dry Goods Inc., May Department Stores, and Irving Bank and Trust Company. In addition to her directorships, Ms. Muse is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Inter-American Dialogue, and the U.S.–Spain Council. For her many contributions to the field of Latin American and Iberian relations, she has received various awards, including the Orden al Mérito por Servicios Distinguidos en el Grado de la Gran Cruz (Merit Order for Distinguished Services in the Rank of the Great Cross) from Peru, the Order of the Southern Cross from Brazil, the Order of Bernardo O’Higgins from Chile, and the Orden de Mayo al Mérito (May Order of Merit) from Argentina. INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR 2007–2008 Environmental change and variability are part of the natural pattern on Earth, but environmental changes currently witnessed in the polar regions are in many cases more pronounced than changes observed in the middle latitudes or tropics. Arctic sea ice cover is 2

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decreasing; some ice shelves in Antarctica are retreating and thinning; glaciers are shrinking; and ecosystems are changing, for instance, with plants flowering at earlier times. These changes are having human impacts: some Alaskan villages have been moved to higher ground in response to increased coastal erosion, and thawing of permafrost is undermining roads and buildings in northern communities around the world. Why should the vast majority of us who live in the warmer regions of the Earth care? The polar regions, while physically distant, are critical links in the global climate system. The polar oceans play a critical role in maintaining ocean currents that keep coastal Europe much warmer than it would be otherwise, and the sea ice cover modifies Earth’s surface temperature by reflecting solar energy. These are just a few of the many global connections. The polar regions also hold unique information of Earth’s past climate history, and they are growing in economic and geopolitical importance. They are a unique vantage point for studies that will help scientists understand environmental changes in the context of past changes, which in turn will help us make informed choices for our future. The exploration of new scientific frontiers in the polar regions also will lead to new discoveries, insights, and theories potentially important to all people. At its most fundamental level, International Polar Year (IPY) 2007–2008 is an intense, coordinated field campaign of polar observations, research, and analysis that is multidisciplinary in scope and international in participation. IPY 2007–2008 provides a framework and impetus to undertake projects that normally could not be achieved by any single nation. It allows us to think beyond traditional borders—whether national borders or disciplinary constraints—toward a new level of integrated, cooperative science. A coordinated international approach maximizes both impact and cost effectiveness, and the international collaborations started today will build relationships and understanding that will bring long-term benefits. IPY serves as a mechanism to attract and develop a new generation of scientists and engineers with the versatility to tackle complex global issues. In addition, IPY is an opportunity to organize an exciting range of education and outreach activities designed to excite and engage the public, with a presence in classrooms around the world and in the media. IPY 2007–2008 is fundamentally broader than past international years because it explicitly incorporates multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary studies, including biological, ecological, and social science elements. It spans from March 1, 2007 to March 1, 2009, allowing for two field seasons of research in both the Arctic and the Antarctic. (Source: National Research Council, 20041) The following six scientific themes provide the framework for IPY 2007–2008: 1. Status: to determine the present environmental status of the polar regions. 2. Change: to quantify and understand past and present natural environmental and social change in the polar regions and to improve projections of future change. 3. Global linkages: to advance understanding on all scales of the links and interactions between polar regions and the rest of the globe and of the processes controlling these. 4. New frontiers: to investigate the frontiers of science in the polar regions. 5. Vantage point: to use the unique vantage point of the polar regions to develop and enhance observatories from the interior of the Earth to the sun and the cosmos beyond. 1 National Research Council. 2004. A Vision for International Polar Year 2007–2008. From the “Report in Brief” available at: http://dels.nas.edu/dels/rpt_briefs/ipy_final.pdf. 3

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6. The human dimension: to investigate the cultural, historical, and social processes that shape the sustainability of circumpolar human societies and to identify their unique contributions to global cultural diversity and citizenship. (Source: World Meteorological Organization, 20072) PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT The Tinker Foundation approached the National Academy of Sciences’ (NAS) Polar Research Board (PRB) seeking advice on how best to organize and administer a monetary prize to honor its long-term Chair, Martha Twitchell Muse. The Tinker Foundation wished to design a prestigious, annual prize to support an exemplary researcher in any field of Antarctic science or policy. This prize would be targeted to assist in developing and growing the ranks of Antarctic researchers by providing support to a researcher with clear leadership potential at a critical early or middle stage in his or her career. The prize was envisioned as being truly international (i.e., not just Latin America) in scope and supportive of the mission of the Tinker Foundation. To this end, NAS established the Committee on the Design of the Martha Muse Award to Support the Advancement of Antarctic Researchers. This committee was asked to define the prize, establish selection criteria and application materials, and develop a strategy for announcing the inaugural competition during IPY 2007–2008. The committee examined other scientific awards and fellowships for insights on how to ensure that this prize supports important Antarctic research, that it becomes a recognized and highly valued prize, and that it is one of the long-term legacies of IPY. (The committee’s full statement of task is given in Appendix A.) This report is intended to be an “instruction manual” to assist the Tinker Foundation and the administrative organization to launch and manage the prize. (Since the Tinker Foundation is not equipped to establish and administer the Martha Muse IPY Prize for Science and Policy in Antarctica [hereafter abbreviated as the Martha Muse Prize], a separate, independent organization will be tasked by the Foundation to implement its vision. See Chapter 5 for more information regarding the administrative organization.) 2 World Meteorological Organization/International Council for Science. 2007. The Scope of Science for the International Polar Year 2007–2008. International Council for Science/World Meteorological Organization Joint Committee for IPY 2007–2008, Geneva. 4