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produce the intended effect. The amendment does not apply to all food ingredients, since it excludes substances classified as Generally Recognized as Safe (NRC, 1984). The Color Additive Amendment, enacted in 1960, allowed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate the conditions of safe use for color additives in foods, drugs, and cosmetics, and to require manufacturers to perform tests to establish safety (U.S. Congress, 1960).

The Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and its various amendments are administered by the FDA. These regulations affect approximately 60% of the food produced in the United States. The remaining 40% is under state regulations, which in many cases are tailored after federal legislation (McCutcheon, 1975).

Coffee and Tea

Patterns of Intake

Coffee and tea are among the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Tea came into use in approximately 350 A.D. in  China, whereas the consumption of coffee as a hot beverage is more recent—approximately 1000 A.D. In the United States, coffee and tea consumption is monitored in several different surveys, including the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) (Pao et al., 1982; USDA, 1986, 1987a) and surveys conducted by the Market Research Corporation of America (Abrams, 1977), the International Coffee Organization (ICO, 1986), and the FDA (Gilbert, 1981). The ICO surveys indicate that in the United States on average, 1.74 cups of coffee were consumed per person per day in 1986. This is a 5% decrease from 1.83 cups/day in 1985 and a 44% decrease from 3.12 cups/day in 1962. Males consumed a slightly higher amount than females (1.8 compared to 1.68 cups/person per day). The percentage of the population drinking coffee decreased from 74.7% in 1962 to 52.4% in 1986. Consumption was highest (77.8%) among those over 60 years old, 67% among those between 30 and 59 years old, 38.4% among 20- to 29-year-olds, and 40.1% among 10- to 19-year-olds. Regular coffee continued to be most frequently selected by coffee drinkers, accounting for nearly 8 out of 10 cups consumed. Consumption of decaffeinated coffee increased from 0.10 cups/day per person in 1962 to 0.41 cups/day per person in 1986. In 1986, approximately 48% of all coffee was consumed at breakfast, slightly more than one-third between meals (0.6 cups/ person per day), and the remainder (@17%) at other meals. The home continued to be the location where most coffee was consumed (accounting for 71% of total consumption), consumption at work accounted for 18%, and eating places accounted for 8%. That year, coffee was the second most popular beverage in the United States (52% of the population drank it), outranked only by soft drinks (consumed by 58.4% of the population). Coffee was followed by milk (consumed by 48.3% of the population), juices (consumed by 45.3% of the population), and tea (consumed by 31% of the population). Overall U.S. coffee consumption was highest in the North Central and the Northeast regions (56.3%), followed by the West (51.9%) and the South (50.3%) (ICO, 1986). In the 1985 NFCS (USDA, 1986, 1987a), mean daily coffee intake was estimated to be 1 g for 1- to 5-year-old children born to low-income women, 300 g for low-income women 19 to 50 years old, and 327 g for men 19 to 50 years old. The mean daily intake of tea was 29 g for children, 144 g for women, and 194 g for men (USDA, 1986, 1987a).

Coffee and tea are the greatest contributors to daily intake of caffeine, the alkaloid 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, accounting for approximately 20% of the intake by adults. Other less important sources of caffeine in the U.S. diet are soft drinks, which contribute approximately 5% of total caffeine intake, and chocolate, which provides approximately 1.5%. Among teenagers, younger children, and infants, however, tea and soft drinks provide a substantially larger percentage of total caffeine intake. Among the heaviest consumers (90th-100th percentile), caffeine intake has been estimated to be approximately 7 mg/kg body weight, or nearly 500 mg/person per day from all sources (Abrams, 1977).

Caffeine intake has also been estimated in several surveys. The ICO estimated that caffeine intake by coffee drinkers averaged 217 mg/day. By comparison, the NFCS estimated that average daily caffeine intake by coffee drinkers ranged from 212 to 283 mg in the over-19 age group and that daily caffeine intake from tea ranged from 69 to 87 mg among tea drinkers over age 19 (Pao et al., 1982). The results of other surveys (Gilbert, 1981; Graham, 1978) support these general estimates of caffeine consumption for the average drinker.

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