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blood pressure and, 415, 420, 442-443, 452

body weight and, 432, 436

cancer and, 10, 16, 334, 437-442, 444, 452, 660, 673

CHD and, 16, 444-446, 533, 660, 673, 695

cigarette smoking and, 10, 444, 660

cirrhosis and, 10, 33, 92; see also Alcoholic cirrhosis

clinical studies of, 436

coronary occlusion score and, 445

cultural aspects of, 433-435

data sources on, 47

diabetes mellitus and, 446

epidemiologic evidence on, 436, 437-439

ethnographic review of, 433-434

flushing of the skin and, 88, 93

gallbladder disease and. 127

glucose tolerance and, 446

historical perspective on, 433-435

hyperglycemia and, 446, 452

hyperlipidemia and, 443-444

hypertension and, 10, 16, 108, 415, 442-443, 660

hyperuricemia and, 447

hypoglycemia and, 446-447

insulin resistance and, 446

liver injury and, 10, 16, 33, 124-125, 447-449, 452, 673;

see also Alcoholic cirrhosis

for medicinal purposes, 434

metabolic disorders from, 446-449

neurological impairment and disorders and, 16, 431, 449-451, 452, 673

in nonliterate societies, 435

in non-Western literate societies, 435

nutritional disorders and, 10, 16, 434, 441-442, 448-449, 450-451, 634, 673

obesity and, 144, 436-437

osteoporosis and, 10, 619, 660

policy implications of, 451

during pregnancy, 10, 16, 452-453, 673, 681

recommended levels of, 16, 18, 451, 673, 675, 678-680, 682-683, 686-688

renal disease (chronic) and, 447, 452

reporting of, 25, 27, 60, 61, 81, 436, 442

safe levels of, 431, 432

sex differences in, 432-433, 452

stroke and, 105, 442-443, 452, 660

trace element intake from, 376

transcultural anthropological perspective on, 434

trends in, 60-61, 81, 431-433

vitamin deficiencies and, 335, 450-451, 452

in Western societies, 434-435

zinc and, 442, 450

see also Ethanol

Alcohol dehydrogenase, 88, 93, 440, 448

Alcoholic beverages

ale, 61

amount of ethanol in, 432

availability of, 47, 126

beer, 10, 16, 60, 61, 432-439, 441, 444, 445, 447, 451, 475, 660, 673

calories supplied by, 62, 140, 435-436

carbohydrate content of, 436

carcinogens in, 441, 452, 475, 480, 486

cognac, 436

80 proof, 432, 436, 438

86 proof, 443

gin, 434

monitoring status, 62, 81

rum, 434

sherry, 436, 441

vermouth, 441

vodka, 436

whiskey, 62, 393, 432, 434, 436, 437

wine, 16, 60, 61, 391, 392, 432-434, 436, 438, 439, 441, 444, 445, 673

see also Alcohol consumption: Ethanol: and specific alcoholic beverages

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy, 446

Alcoholic cirrhosis

age and, 125

animal studies of, 33

diagnosis of, 124

epidemiology of, 447-448

ethnic correlates of, 125

genetic and familial factors in, 92, 634

liver cancer and, 438-439

megaloblastic anemia and, 338

in migrants, 125

mortality rates, 125-126, 435, 447

nutritional factors in, 335, 336, 338, 448-449, 451, 634

population differences in frequency of, 125

prevalence of, 124, 447, 660

relation to alcoholism, 447-448, 660

sex differences in, 125, 447

socioeconomic status and, 125

time trends in morbidity and mortality, 125-126

see also Liver disease

Alcoholic dementia, 449

Alcoholic peripheral neuropathy, 449

Alcoholic polyneuritis, 334

Alcoholism and alcohol abuse

age and, 60-61, 432, 451-452

carcinogenic effects of dietary deficiencies associated with, 334, 441-442

defined, 431

electroencephalographic activity and, 93

family studies of, 92, 93

genetic and environmental factors in, 92-93, 433

liver damage from, 124-125, 334, 336, 338-340, 452, 660

male-limited susceptibility to, 93

markers of genetic susceptibility, 93

milieu-limited susceptibility to, 93

nutrient deficiencies from, 284, 334, 337-340, 357, 434, 450-452, 660

organ damage from, 92

prevalence of, 16, 433, 451, 673

racial and ethnic differences in, 443, 452

research needs on. 95, 453, 542, 556

symptoms of drunkenness, 431

twin studies of, 92, 93

Aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, 88, 93

Aldosterone, 418, 424

Alfalfa, 298, 490

Alginates, 74

Alkaline phosphatase, 302

Alkyl benzenes, 488

Allergic reactions, 478

Allyl isothiocyanate, 490

Aluminum

Alzheimer's disease and, 387-388, 395

animal studies of, 387, 388

cancer and, 387

clinical studies of, 387-388

dietary sources of, 387

epidemiologic studies of, 387-388

intake trends, 387

short-term tests of, 387

Alzheimer's disease

aluminum and, 387-388, 395

manganese and, 386

treatment of, 216

American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, 17, 674

American Academy of Pediatrics, 17, 226, 674, 684-685

American Cancer Society, 676

American Dental Association, 17, 674

American Diabetes Association, 667, 676, 681

American Health Foundation, 685, 686

American Heart Association

dietary recommendations, 226, 667, 676, 677, 685, 686

risk calculations for coronary disease events, 108-109

American Indians, see Native Americans, and specific tribes

American Medical Association, 676

Ames test, see Mutagenicity tests

Amino acids

classification of, 259

data sources on availability of, 47

deficiencies, 262

glucogenesis from, 446

metabolism of, 337

requirement changes, 259

substitutions in apolipoproteins, 168

sulfur-containing, 423

supplements, 17, 448-449, 674

see also Essential amino acids; and specific amino acids

Aminoazobenzene, 28, 478

4-Aminobiphenyl, 478

2-Aminofluorene, 264, 381, 384, 440

Aminoimidazoquinoline, 485

Aminomethylimidazoquinoline, 485

Aminopolysaccharides, 291

Ammonia, 86

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 387

Anagyrine, 490

Analytical methods

b-carotene, 313

dietary cholesterol, 199

fiber, 292-293

folacin in foods, 67

Anemia

copper deficiency and, 381, 517

hemolytic, 88, 320, 490

iron deficiency, 77, 88, 369-370, 395

megaloblastic, 338

microcytic, 373

monitoring children and pregnant women for, 44, 51

pernicious, 88

Aneurysms, 105, 333



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