available at 5 percent of gasoline stations for the first several years. (These very early stations might be supplied from the existing industrial hydrogen system, using excess hydrogen from refineries and other industrial or merchant sources.) This is followed by a brief period of building “medium-sized” 500 kg/d on-site steam methane reformers (SMRs) at 5 percent of gasoline stations. As demand grows, capacity is added at each of these stations to make them 1,500 kg/d stations. Beyond about 2022, new 1,500 kg/d stations are
added, and the fraction of gasoline stations offering hydrogen increases over time. To account for underutilization of hydrogen station equipment as demand grows, a relatively low system capacity factor of 70 percent is assumed.