FIGURE 6.7 DOE plan for introduction of light-duty hydrogen, vehicles into 27 “lighthouse” cities (thousand vehicles per year introduced between 2012 and 2025). The overall build-up rate corresponds to Case 1. The total number of vehicles in 2025 is 10 million, and 2.5 million vehicles are sold that year. SOURCE: Gronich (2007).

    available at 5 percent of gasoline stations for the first several years. (These very early stations might be supplied from the existing industrial hydrogen system, using excess hydrogen from refineries and other industrial or merchant sources.) This is followed by a brief period of building “medium-sized” 500 kg/d on-site steam methane reformers (SMRs) at 5 percent of gasoline stations. As demand grows, capacity is added at each of these stations to make them 1,500 kg/d stations. Beyond about 2022, new 1,500 kg/d stations are

    FIGURE 6.8 Fraction of gasoline stations offering hydrogen, 2000-2050.

    added, and the fraction of gasoline stations offering hydrogen increases over time. To account for underutilization of hydrogen station equipment as demand grows, a relatively low system capacity factor of 70 percent is assumed.

    The assumed capital costs of different hydrogen production systems are summarized in Table 6.4, based on H2A’s future (2015) technology assumptions (DOE, 2007). (See also Chapter 3.)

    FIGURE 6.9 Capacity of new hydrogen stations by year, 2000-2050.

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